Printer Friendly
The Free Library
22,725,466 articles and books

Profile of rubber plantations in Indonesia.

Current Issues

The prices of rubber remain high. Strong economic growth recorded by a number of major Asian countries notably China and India in the past several years has caused a jolt in the markets of several primary commodities especially crude oil. The past two years saw a leapfrogging Leapfrogging is a theory of development in which developing countries skip inferior, less efficient, more expensive or more polluting technologies and industries and move directly to more advanced ones.  increase in the prices of crude oil bringing on a surge in the prices of oil-based commodities like synthetic rubber synthetic rubber: see rubber. . The increase in the price of synthetic rubber has resulted in a proportional proportional

values expressed as a proportion of the total number of values in a series.

proportional dwarf
the patient is a miniature without disproportionate reductions or enlargements of body parts.
 rise in the prices of natural rubber.

Apart from the rise in the prices of substitute material, the increase in the prices of rubber was also attributable to strong growth of the Chinese and Indian economies. Demand for rubber in the two Asian giants was strong to feed their tire industry, which expands with the growing automotive industry The automotive industry is the industry involved in the design, development, manufacture, marketing, and sale of motor vehicles. In 2006, more than 69 million motor vehicles, including cars and commercial vehicles were produced worldwide. .

The prices of natural rubber fell hitting the rock bottom toward the end of the 1990s and early 2000s. The price was only 50 U.S. cents per kg in 2001. Now (in October, 2006) the price has shot up to around US$ 1.5 a kg.

The prices of natural rubber began to scale down in mid 2006 but producers in the country believe that the price will not fell to less than US$ 1 a kg. The price is forecast to stay close to the ITCR ITCR Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica  target of US$ 1.3 a kg. The market of natural rubber is predicted to remain firm for a long time to come as it is not easy to increase production through expansion of rubber plantations PLANTATIONS. Colonies, (q.v.) dependencies. (q.v.) 1 Bl. Com. 107. In England, this word, as it is used in St. 12, II. c. 18, is never applied to, any of the British dominions in Europe, but only to the colonies in the West Indies and America. 1 Marsh. Ins, B. 1, c. 3, Sec. 2, page 64. , which will take years to be ready for harvest.

Indonesia is no longer number one in natural rubber production in the world. That position has been taken over by Thailand. Indonesia failed to fully take advantage of the rise in the rubber prices as wide rubber plantations have not been well taken care of in the country.

Many rubber plantations have been neglected as a result of the price fall earlier. The productivity of Indonesian rubber plantations, therefore, is low and the quality is poor. As a result the prices of Indonesian rubber are below those of Thailand and Malaysia, whereas Indonesia is the largest in plantation Plantation, city (1990 pop. 66,692), Broward co., SE Fla., a residential suburb of Fort Lauderdale; inc. 1953. The city has grown rapidly along with the development of S Florida.  areas.

With large plantation areas, Indonesia is highly potential to increase its production and become number one in production. Large fund, however, will be needed to rejuvenate re·ju·ve·nate  
tr.v. re·ju·ve·nat·ed, re·ju·ve·nat·ing, re·ju·ve·nates
1. To restore to youthful vigor or appearance; make young again.

 the plantations, which are dominated by smallholdings. Smallholders have no easy access to sources of funds such as banks.

Industrial Structure

Plantations by status (smallholding smallholding

a piece of agricultural land smaller than a farm

smallholder n

Noun 1. smallholding - a piece of land under 50 acres that is sold or let to someone for cultivation
, BUMN BUMN Badan Usaha Milik Negara (Indonesian state owned enterprises) , Private)

Smallholdings make up most of rubber plantations in Indonesia. There was almost no expansion of rubber plantations in the country in 35 year period ending in 2003. There was only an expansion of 1.2% annually and it was mainly in the size of smallholders' plantations which expanded by about 1.5% a year. The expansion contribute little to production as smallholdings are poor in maintenance and low in productivity. Meanwhile, state plantations (BUMN) and those owned by private plantation companies tended to decline in size.

When the prices of natural rubber continued to decline in the world market in the 1990s, many plantations owned by private companies were cultivated cultivated,
n in herbal medicine, used to describe plants that are commercially farmed rather than collected from the wild.
 with other oil palm prompted by booming demand for palm oil. Astra Argo Lestari and the Bakrie group, for example, converted or sold their rubber plantations to concentrate more on oil palm plantations. Plantations companies began to show interest in rubber plantations only in the past two years when the price of that commodity surged in the world market.

With 3.3 million hectares in size in 2005, smallholdings made up 85% of natural rubber plantations in the country providing a livelihood for 15 million Indonesians. Around 91% of the smallholdings have been built purely (Swadaya) by small farmers and the rest or around 288,039 hectares have been built in cooperation with nucleus nucleus, in physics
nucleus, in physics, the extremely dense central core of an atom. The Nature of the Nucleus
 companies under PIR "Parent in room." See digispeak.  program, PRPTE, assisted UPP UPP United Progressive Party
UPP United People's Party (Liberia)
UPP Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway
UPP Urethral Pressure Profile
UPP Universal Procedure Pointer (operating systems)
UPP User Pays Principle
, Partial, and assisted Swadaya program.

Location of Rubber Platations

Sumatra has the largest rubber plantations in the country. The plantation sin Sumatra are located mainly in South Sumatra South Sumatra or Sumatera Selatan is a province of Indonesia. It is on the island of Sumatra, and borders the provinces of Lampung to the south, Bengkulu to the west, and Jambi to the north.  which alone has 638,000 hectares in 2005 and in North Sumatra North Sumatra (Indonesian: Sumatera Utara) is a province of Indonesia. Its capital is Medan. Geography and population
The province of North Sumatra stretches across the island of Sumatra between the Indian Ocean and the Strait Malacca.
, Riau and Jambi.

Other provinces having large rubber plantations are West Kalimantan West Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Barat often abbreviated to Kalbar) is a province of Indonesia. It is one of four Indonesian provinces in Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. Its capital city Pontianak is located right on the Equator line.  and Central Kalimantan Central Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Tengah often abbreviated to Kalteng) is a province of Indonesia, one of four in Kalimantan - the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. Its provincial capital is Palangkaraya.

The province has a population of 1.
, Central Java Central Java (Indonesian: Provinsi Jawa Tengah) is a province of Indonesia. The administrative capital is Semarang. It is one of the six provinces of the island of Java. Central Java is both a political entity and a cultural concept.  and West Java.

Different from Sumatra and Kalimantan, rubber plantations in Java are dominated by BUMN and private companies. Smallholdings are dominant in Sumatra and Kalimantan.


Condition of plants

Smallholders' plantations have low productivity of around 600 kg/hectare/year. Among the reasons are poor maintenance of seedlings and the fact that a large part or around 13% of smallholders' plantations have to old rubber trees and no longer productive.

Based on official data of the plantation directorate general, around 45,000 hectares of rubber plantations have been damaged.

Damaged plantations are believed to be much larger reaching around 400,000 hectares and around 2%-3% of productive plantations will need rejuvenation Rejuvenation

in extreme old age, restored to youth by Medea. [Rom. Myth.: LLEI, I: 322]

apples of perpetual youth

by tasting the golden apples kept by Idhunn, the gods preserved their youth. [Scand. Myth.
 every year.

State-owned rubber plantations

Plantations owned by state and private 4 companies are well managed and, therefore, are more productive than smallholdings.

State plantation company PT PN III in North Sumatra has 45,327 hectares of rubber plantations. PTPN PTPN Physical Therapy Provider Network
PTPN Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatase, Nonreceptor-Type
PTPN Preemptive Time Petri Net
 III also has 9,150.8 hectares of plasma rubber plantations run under the smallholder Noun 1. smallholder - a person owning or renting a smallholding
Britain, Great Britain, U.K., UK, United Kingdom, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland - a monarchy in northwestern Europe occupying most of the British Isles; divided into England and
 nucleus (PIR) scheme in cooperation with farmers. It also has oil palm and cacao plantations.

The largest rubber plantations including plasma is owned by state company PT PN VII in southern Sumatra--South Sumatra and Lampung. PTPN VII has 65,800 hectares of rubber plantations including 34,439 hectares of nucleus plantations and 31,467 hectares of plasma plantations.

Production Aspect

Production Development

When rubber prices fell in 1994-2003, the country's rubber production dropped. Production, began to rise when the prices rose in 2004. Production rose from 1.79 million tons in 2003 to 2.06 million tons 2004 and to 2.13 million tons in 2005.

The highest increase in output was recorded by smallholdings when the prices began to rise. The production of plantations owned by the state and private companies did not change much as they already reach the highest productivity. Their production will not change unless there is expansion in plantation areas.

Production by location and owners

Sumatra has the largest rubber plantations therefore, it had the largest production of 1.53 million tons in 2005 or 75% of the country's total production. By provinces, North Sumatra has the largest totaling 412,000 hectares, followed by South Sumatra, Riau and Jambi. See the following table.

Production by companies


The productivity of Indonesian rubber plantations is lower than that of Thailand and Malaysia. Rubber plantations in the country produce only 650kg per hectare hectare (hĕk`târ, –tär), abbr. ha, unit of area in the metric system, equal to 10,000 sq m, or about 2.47 acres.  a year on the average. The productivity of producing plantations with mature trees averages 843 kg per hectare a year.

The productivity of plantations using high yield seedlings could be as high as 1,500-2,000 kg a hectare.

Smallholders plantations have lower productivity compared to plantations owned by state and private companies. Smallholdings have a productivity of 623 kg a hectare a year on the average as against a productivity of 828 kg of state plantations and 769 kg of private companies.

Rubber smallholdings in Sulawesi are higher in average productivity as plantations owned by state and private companies are not yet all producing. Private companies began investment in rubber plantations in Sulawesi only lately.

RUBBER CULTIVATION cultivation, tilling or manipulation of the soil, done primarily to eliminate weeds that compete with crops for water and nutrients. Cultivation may be used in crusted soils to increase soil aeration and infiltration of water; it may also be used to move soil to or  

Rubber is a perennial perennial, any plant that under natural conditions lives for several to many growing seasons, as contrasted to an annual or a biennial. Botanically, the term perennial  crop growing well in tropical areas with sufficient rainfall. Rubber originated from Brazil before it was grown in other regions in the world. Now, the largest producers are southeast Asian countries--Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia.

Rubber trees need 5 to 6 years to be ready for sapping. Their peak productivity is when they are 10 to 15 years old.

Condition needed to grow well

Climate and soil condition determines growth of rubber trees.

a. Climate

Areas suitable for rubber tree cultivation are those between 150 south and 150 north latitude latitude, angular distance of any point on the surface of the earth north or south of the equator. The equator is latitude 0°, and the North Pole and South Pole are latitudes 90°N and 90°S, respectively. . Beyond those areas rubber tree will not grow well.


Rubber trees need rainfall of 2,500 mm to 4,000 mm/year, with rainy rain·y  
adj. rain·i·er, rain·i·est
Characterized by, full of, or bringing rain.

raini·ness n.

 days from 1000 to 150 days a year. Too much rain in the morning will not be good for rubber trees.

Altitude altitude, vertical distance of an object above some datum plane, such as mean sea level or a reference point on the earth's surface. It is usually measured by the reduction in atmospheric pressure with height, as shown on a barometer or altimeter.  

Rubber tree grow better in low land of 200 m above the sea level. An area at altitude of more than 600 meter above the sea level will not be suitable for rubber plantations. An optimum temperature is between 25 and 35 degrees C.


Too strong winds is not good for rubber trees.

b. Soil

Young and old volcanic lands even land with peat of less than 2 meters thick are good for rubber tree cultivation. Volcanic soil has suitable physical characteristics in structure, texture, depth of underground water, aeration aeration /aer·a·tion/ (ar-a´shun)
1. the exchange of carbon dioxide for oxygen by the blood in the lungs.

2. the charging of a liquid with air or gas.

, and drainage drainage, in agriculture
drainage, in agriculture, the removal of excess water from the soil, either by a system of surface ditches, or by underground conduits if required by soil conditions and land contour.
, but its chemical characteristics are not suitable as its mineral content is low.

Alluvial soil Noun 1. alluvial soil - a fine-grained fertile soil deposited by water flowing over flood plains or in river beds
alluvial deposit, alluvial sediment, alluvium, alluvion - clay or silt or gravel carried by rushing streams and deposited where the stream slows
 is sufficiently fertile fer·tile
1. Capable of conceiving and bearing young.

2. Fertilized. Used of an ovum.
 but its physical characteristics especially drainage and aeration is not sufficiently goods. The soil should be with pH between 3 and 8. Land with pH < 3 and > pH 8 is not good for rubber plantations.

Lands suitable for rubber plantations should have the following characteristics:

* Land up to 100 cm in depth should not have layers of sandstone sandstone, sedimentary rock formed by the cementing together of grains of sand. The usual cementing material in sandstone is calcium carbonate, iron oxides, or silica, and the hardness of sandstone varies according to the character of the cementing material; quartz  or rock formation.

* Sufficient aeration and drainage.

* Soil should be loose, porous porous /por·ous/ (por´us) penetrated by pores and open spaces.

1. Full of or having pores.

2. Admitting the passage of gas or liquid through pores.
 and could hold water.

* The soil consists of clay 35% and sand 30%.

* Peat should not be thicker than 20 cm.

* Mineral content in NPK NPK Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Potassium
NPK Non-Player Killer
 is sufficient and should not be short of micro mineral elements.

* Land reaction with pH 4.5--pH 6.5.

* Land declivity de·cliv·i·ty  
n. pl. de·cliv·i·ties
A downward slope, as of a hill.

[Latin dcl
 < 16% and.

* Underground water surface < 100 cm.

Rubber clones recommended

The prices of natural rubber have increased lately prompting immediate implementation of rejuvenation program by replacing not productive trees with high yield clones and by improving cultivation technology. Rubber breeding activities in the country has resulted in high yield clones producing both latex latex, emulsion of a polymer (e.g., rubber) in water (see colloid). Natural latexes are produced by a number of plants, are usually white in color, and often contain, in addition to rubber, various gums, oils, and waxes.  and trees. In a national workshops on rubber tree breeding Tree breeding is the application of genetic principles to the genetic improvement and management of forest trees.

A typical forest tree breeding program starts with selection of superior phenotypes (plus trees) in a natural or planted forest.
 in 2005, it was recommended the cultivation of new high yield clones of Generation-IV in the period of 2006--2010, namely the clones of IRR IRR

In currencies, this is the abbreviation for the Iranian Rial.

The currency market, also known as the Foreign Exchange market, is the largest financial market in the world, with a daily average volume of over US $1 trillion.
 5, IRR 32, IRR 39, IRR 42, IRR 104, IRR 112, and IRR 118. The release of clones of IRR 42 and IRR 112 are to be proposed. The other clones of IRR are already officially released.

Those clones prove to be highly productive and grow well in various areas, but they have variations in agronomic a·gron·o·my  
Application of the various soil and plant sciences to soil management and crop production; scientific agriculture.

 characteristics and other secondary characteristics. Therefore, users must carefully select clones that could grow well in their areas. Cultivation of old clones that area already released including GT 1, AVROS 2037, PR 255, PR 261, PR 300, PR 303, RRIM RRIM Reinforced Reaction Injection Molding  600, RRIM 712, BPM (Business Process Management) A structured approach that models an enterprise's human and machine tasks and the interactions between them as processes. BPM software provides users with a dashboard interface that offers a high-level view of the operation that typically  1, BPM 24, BPM 107, BPM 109, PB 260, RRIC RRIC Road Running Information Center (USA Track and Field)  100 are still possible but must be handled carefully both in the selection of location and system of cultivation. Clones of GT 1 and RRIM 600 are reported to be attacked by leaf disease namely Colletotrichum and Corynespora. Clones of BPM 1, PR 255, PR 261 have problem in the quality of latex that uses of their latex are limited to certain type of rubber products. Clone clone, group of organisms, all of which are descended from a single individual through asexual reproduction, as in a pure cell culture of bacteria. Except for changes in the hereditary material that come about by mutation, all members of a clone are genetically  of PB 260 is highly sensitive Adj. 1. highly sensitive - readily affected by various agents; "a highly sensitive explosive is easily exploded by a shock"; "a sensitive colloid is readily coagulated"  to dryness of sapping channel and wind and drought drought, abnormally long period of insufficient rainfall. Drought cannot be defined in terms of inches of rainfall or number of days without rain, since it is determined by such variable factors as the distribution in time and area of precipitation during and before .


Types of Natural Rubber

There are several types of traded sap of natural rubber in forms namely latex, crumbs CRUMBS is an improvisational theatre duo based in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

The duo consists of two actors, Stephen Sim, and Lee White. Other members include videographers, musicians, photographers, webmasters, illustrators, producers, agents, publicists, graphic
, sheets, and chips. The products are used as feedstock feed·stock  
Raw material required for an industrial process.

Noun 1. feedstock - the raw material that is required for some industrial process
raw material, staple - material suitable for manufacture or use or finishing
 in downstream From the provider to the customer. Downloading files and Web pages from the Internet is the downstream side. The upstream is from the customer to the provider (requesting a Web page, sending e-mail, etc.).  industry.

There are several types of natural rubber such as processed rubber goods. Processed rubber goods include semi and finished products. The types of natural rubber products widely known include.

a. Rubber processed materials

Rubber processed material is estate latex and plantation latex clumps clump  
1. A clustered mass; a lump: clumps of soil.

2. A thick grouping, as of trees or bushes.

3. A heavy dull sound; a thud.

 produced from rubber trees, hevea brasiliensis Noun 1. Hevea brasiliensis - deciduous tree of the Amazon and Orinoco Rivers having leathery leaves and fragrant yellow-white flowers; it yields a milky juice that is the chief source of commercial rubber
caoutchouc tree, Para rubber tree
. Some observers said rubber processed materials are not the product of large plantations but the product of rubber smallholdings. By processing methods, rubber materials consist of 4 types:

1. Estate latex is latex liquid produced through sapping rubber trees. Latex liquid does not yet coagulate either with or without anti coagulation.

2. Wind sheet is rubber material produced from filtered latex and coagulated with formic acid formic acid or methanoic acid (mĕth'ənō`ĭk), HCO2H, a colorless, corrosive liquid with a sharp odor; it boils at 100.7°C; and solidifies at 8.4°C;.  in the form of sheet rubber, which is already ground but not yet finished.

3. Thin slab is rubber material from latex already coagulated with formic acid.

4. Fresh lump is rubber material not produced from plantation latex lumps formed naturally in sapping bowl.

Conventional Natural Rubber

In rubber trade, rubber materials generally traded are known as conventional natural rubber consisting of sheet and crepe crepe (krāp), thin fabric of crinkled texture, woven originally in silk but now available in all major fibers. There are two kinds of crepe.  The types of natural rubber categorized cat·e·go·rize  
tr.v. cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing, cat·e·go·riz·es
To put into a category or categories; classify.

 as conventional are as follows:

1. Ribbed rib  
1. Anatomy
a. One of a series of long curved bones occurring in 12 pairs in humans and extending from the spine to or toward the sternum.

b. A similar bone in most vertebrates.

 smoked sheet (RSS (Really Simple Syndication) A syndication format that was developed by Netscape in 1999 and became very popular for aggregating updates to blogs and the news sites. RSS has also stood for "Rich Site Summary" and "RDF Site Summary. )--the type of sheet produced through the process of smoking,

2. White crepe and pale crepe are the type of crepe in white or light color, either thick or thin.

3. Estate brown crepe is crepe in brown color produced widely by large estates. This type is also produced from low quality material such as those used in the production of off crepe and latex remnant, lump or coagulum which originates from pre-coagulation, and estate latex already dry from sapping.

4. Compo crepe is the type of crepe produced from lump, tree scrap, cuts or remnants of RSS or wet slabs.

5. Thin brown crepe remilis is brown crepe, which is thin because of repeated grinding grinding, process by which surface material is removed from an object, usually metal, by the abrasive action of a rotating wheel or a moving belt that contains abrasive grains. .

6. Thick blanket crepes ambers is blanket crepe thick and in brown color, generally produced from wet slabs, sheet without the process of smoking and lump and scrap from estates or smallholdings with good quality.

7. Flat bark bark, sailing vessel
bark or barque (both: bärk), sailing vessel with three masts, of which the mainmast and the foremast are square-rigged while the mizzenmast is fore-and-aft-rigged.
 crepe is earth rubber, which is the type of crepe produced from natural rubber scrap not yet processed including black ground scrap.

8. Pure smoked blanket crepe is crepe which is produced from the grinding of special smoked rubber from RSS, including block sheet or from the remnants of RSS. Other types of rubber or nor rubber may not be used.

9. Off crepe is crepe not in the form of being frozen or standard, generally produced not through the process of freezing directly from fresh latex, but from remnants of dry rubber, RSS sheets in poor quality.

a. Thick Latex

Thick latex is a type of rubber in the form of thick liquid, not in the form of sheet or other solid materials. Thick latex is sold in the market includes one produced through the process of boiling or creamed latex and through the process of centrifuged latex. Generally thick latex is used in the production of thin and high quality rubber materials such as hand gloves for sanitation sanitation: see plumbing; sanitary science. .

b. Block Rubber

Block rubber is crumb rubber Crumb rubber is generally manufactured from automotive and truck scrap tires. During the manufacturing process steel and fluff is removed leaving tire rubber with a granular consistency.  already dried and milled into bales in certain size. There are block rubber in light color and each class has certain color code Noun 1. color code - system using colors to designate classifications
code - a coding system used for transmitting messages requiring brevity or secrecy

c. Technical specification rubber (Crumb Rubber)

Technical specification rubber also known as crumb rubber is natural rubber produced specially that its technical quality is guaranteed. Determination of quality is based on technical characteristics. Determination of quality and category of crumb rubber is not based on visual evaluation like in the case of sheet, crepe and thick latex.

d. Tyre Tyre (tīr), ancient city of Phoenicia, S of Sidon. It is the present-day Sur in Lebanon, a small town on a peninsula jutting into the Mediterranean from the mainland of Syria S of Beirut.  Rubber

Tyre rubber is another form of natural rubber produced as semi finished product that could be used directly by consumers either in the production of tires or other rubber goods.

Rubber woods

Rubber trees could be utilized as basic material in timber industry. However, old rubber trees have not been fully utilized in the country. Processing rubber trees into finished timber products is a potential business to increase the profitability of rubber plantations. Currently there is strong interest in business utilizing rubber trees. Timber products from rubber trees are high demand in the country and abroad as the color is brighter. In addition, producing timber products from rubber tree has no risk of facing ecolabeling problem as rubber trees are renewable. It could be used as furniture material, particle board particle board: see composition board. , parquet, MDF (1) (Main Distribution Frame) A wiring rack that connects outside lines with internal lines. It is used to connect public or private lines coming into the building to internal networks.  (Medium Density Fiber-board), etc. Rubber plantations, therefore, have additional product other than latex.

Problem faced in production/cultivation

Financial difficulty in rejuvenation program

Financial difficulty is the main problem hampering rejuvenation of rubber plantations. Funding is not much of a problem in other rubber producing countries like Thailand, Malaysia and India, The government in those countries provide fund for the expansion, promotion and rejuvenation of rubber plantations.

The fund is collected in CESS cess  
n. Irish

[Possibly short for success.]
 levy on rubber exports. In Indonesia, CESS levy for the expansion of rubber plantations has been stopped since 1970.

The quality of smallholders rubber products

The basic materials produced from smallholders rubber generally have poor quality. In some areas, the prices received by the farmers are low (60%-75% of FOB FOB 1) adj. short for Free on Board, meaning shipped to a specific place without cost. 2) Friend of Bill (Clinton). (See: Free on Board) ) because of inefficient marketing of smallholders rubber. Marketing is not efficient partly because of the distant location of plantations from the processing factory.

The locations of plantations of smallholders are widely separated generally with no easy access to facilitate transport. The production cost, therefore, is higher.

Production of crumb rubber

The types of rubber products exported by Indonesia are relatively few and are dominated by primary products (raw materials) and semi finished products. Thailand and Malaysia have more varying rubber products.

Most of Indonesian rubber production is processed into crumb rubber with codification The collection and systematic arrangement, usually by subject, of the laws of a state or country, or the statutory provisions, rules, and regulations that govern a specific area or subject of law or practice.  of "Standard Indonesian Rubber" (SIR) and other is processed into RSS and thick latex.

Number of companies producing crumb rubber

Currently, there are 20 units of latex processing plants with a total annual production capacity of 86,980 tons, and 131 units of crumb rubber processing plants with an annual capacity of 1,892,499 tons.

The capacity of crumb rubber processing plants is sufficient to process the basic material produced in the country, but in the next five years new investment will be needed to build new plants or to rehabilitate re·ha·bil·i·tate
1. To restore to good health or useful life, as through therapy and education.

2. To restore to good condition, operation, or capacity.
 the existing factories to meet growing demand for basic material processing facility.

NV Muara Kelingi is the largest crumb rubber processing plant located in South Sumatera. Many large crumb rubber processing plants in South and North Sumatera have been operated since 1970's and they play also as exporters and wholetraders.

Production of crumb rubber by types

Indonesia's rubber production is dominated by crumb rubber. In 2003, crumb rubber accounted for 1.61 million tons of the country's total rubber production of 1.79 million tons. The rest were conventional natural rubber such as RSS and latex.

The type of crumb rubber produced in the country is mainly SIR 20, which accounts for 90% of the country's production of crumb rubber.

Rubber trade

Indonesia exports most of its production of natural rubber. Only a small part is disposed dis·pose  
v. dis·posed, dis·pos·ing, dis·pos·es
1. To place or set in a particular order; arrange.

 of on the domestic market mainly for tire industry. In 2003, the country's production totaled 1.6 million tons and only 80,000 to 100,000 tons of which were disposed of on the domestic market. The rest were exported.


Exports have fluctuated and tended to decline in the 1994-2000 period--from 1.2 million tons in 1994 to 1.3 million tons in 2000 after peaking at 1.6 million tons in 1998. The decline until 2000 followed price fall in I international market. In 2002, exports totaled 1.5 million tons valued at US$ 1,049 million.

Since 2002, exports scaled up to reach 1.87 million tons valued at US$ 2.18 billion in 2004. Exports were estimated to rise in 2005 and the trend is expected to continue through 2006 to follow the soaring soaring: see flight; glider.
 or gliding

Sport of flying a glider or sailplane. The craft is towed behind a powered airplane to an altitude of about 2,000 ft (600 m) and then released.
 prices of crude oil.

Exports by types

Crumb rubber of the SIR 20 type dominates rubber exports from the country. SIR 20 accounted for 80% or 1.52 million tons valued at US$1.76 billion of the country's total exports of 1.87 million tons valued at US$ 2.18 billion in 2004.

Other exported types include smoked sheet (RSS) totaling 145,000 tons valued at US$ 170 million in 2004.

Demand aspect

Domestic requirement

Domestic requirement is relatively small compared to exports. In 2003, domestic consumption totaled only 83,600 tons and 70,000 tons of which were for tire industry. The rest for automotive component industry, household equipment industry and sports equipment industry.

World Demand

According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

 the International Rubber Study Group (IRSG IRSG - Internet Research Steering Group ) world demand for natural rubber and synthetic rubber has continued to increase in the past 10 years--from 15.7 million tons in 1996 to 20.6 million tons in 2005.

Demand remained strong in 2005 when the prices surged to follow the soaring prices of crude oil. The strong demand was attributable to high economic growth especially in Asia notably China and India. China led in economic expansion growing by 10%. Expansion of its automotive industry and tire industry necessitated larger supply of rubber.

Data from the association of rubber companies (Gapkindo) showed that world's demand for natural rubber totaled 8.84 million tons in the first 7 months of 2006. China accounted for 1.89 million tons of the total demand. The surge in demand for natural rubber in Asia was also attributable to relocation RELOCATION, Scotch law, contracts. To let again to renew a lease, is called a relocation.
     2. When a tenant holds over after the expiration of his lease, with the consent of his landlord, this will amount to a relocation.
 of rubber goods processing factories from western countries to natural rubber producing countries in Asia including Thailand and Malaysia.

Tree of rubber industry

Rubber trees are useful both in their latex and logs. Latex is used as feedstock in various rubber goods industries such as medical equipment, components of motor vehicles, sport equipment, household goods, etc..

The logs are used as the raw material for sawn wood to be used further for furniture or construction material. Rubber trees are also used widely as charcoal charcoal, substance obtained by partial burning or carbonization (destructive distillation) of organic material. It is largely pure carbon. The entry of air during the carbonization process is controlled so that the organic material does not turn to ash, as in a  and for pulp.


Rubber consuming industries

Rubber material in the form of latex could be processed into various finished latex goods and solid rubber (RSS, SIR) could be used as feedstock for various rubber products. There are various kinds of rubber based finished products and could be categorized based on their uses or market channels.

Classification is generally based on their end uses.

(1) Tires and related products and inner tubes and automotive components,

(2) Finished rubber products for industry,

(3) Sports equipment,

(4) Clothes, footwear Footwear consists of garments worn on the feet. It is worn for a variety of reasons, including protection against the environment, hygiene and adornment. Usually, socks and other hosiery are worn between the feet and the footwear, except for sandals and flip flops (thongs). , and components,

(5) Finished rubber products for general and household uses,

(6) Health and pharmaceutical.

Only less than 30% of rubber is used in non tire industry generally small and medium industries. Latex based industry has not grown well in the country because of various constraints CONSTRAINTS - A language for solving constraints using value inference.

["CONSTRAINTS: A Language for Expressing Almost-Hierarchical Descriptions", G.J. Sussman et al, Artif Intell 14(1):1-39 (Aug 1980)].
 mainly low competitiveness of Indonesian latex products facing products form other countries such as Malaysia.

Small and medium scale industries producing finished rubber goods still need guidance in their development. Industries producing finished rubber products must be developed among companies producing natural rubber/synthetic rubber basic materials, auxiliary auxiliary

In grammar, a verb that is subordinate to the main lexical verb in a clause. Auxiliaries can convey distinctions of tense, aspect, mood, person, and number.
 materials and molding and should be supported with research facility, regulation, trade, transport financial and other services.

Rubber based small industries that produce finished products establish cooperation with other businesses in securing feedstock supplies and marketing. They seek cooperation with component factories to guarantee supply of basic material. Small industries have no facility to produce rubber components.

In marketing, small industries producing finished products serve as vendors for large companies such as car makers or electronic factories. Small industries often rely on captive captive

said of naturally wild or feral animals kept in captivity for educational and scientific investigation with no attempt being made to domesticate them.
 market to dispose of To determine the fate of; to exercise the power of control over; to fix the condition, application, employment, etc. of; to direct or assign for a use.

See also: Dispose
 their products. Small industries producing finished rubber products generally operate as cottage industry cottage industry: see sweating system.  or home industry. They have no access to capital sources. Their products are mainly rubber spare parts Spare parts, also referred to as Service Parts is a term used to indicate extra parts available and in proximity to the mechanical item, such as a automobile, boat, engine, for which they might be used.

Spare parts are also called “spares.
, industrial and technical rubber products, which do not require difficult specifications and high technology.

Their products are generally those not produced by large companies, therefore, they have no problem in competition from large rivals. Lately, however, there are imported products from China and Korea that are feared to cause marketing problem for the small industries.

The small industries use simple technology mainly molding and vulcanizing using traditional stoves. Therefore, they use no compounding technology. Their products are sold to the consumers through partners and brokers as they have no access to the end users.

Their partners are generally spare part procurement The fancy word for "purchasing." The procurement department within an organization manages all the major purchases.  companies supplying the products to electronic and automotive factories. Cooperation with the partners is informal based on mutual trust without formal contract. The partners sold the products to electronic and automotive factories after being packed at a much higher prices.

Rubber trees

Rubber tree logs could be used as basic material for timber processing industry. The picture of the tree of rubber based industry shown that there are quite many types of products that could be produced from latex, and rubber tree logs have also been used by a number of industries but not as many as latex based industries. Rubber tree logs have provided additional value for rubber plantation companies.

Demand for rubber tree logs is growing both on the domestic market and in international markets especially as timber products from rubber tree have bright color with attractive patterns.

In addition producers of timber products from rubber tree have no problem with ecolabeling requirement as rubber are renewable commodity. Tree logs are used as raw material for furniture, particle board, parquet, MDF (Medium Density Fiber board), etc..

Marketing aspect

Prices remain high

In the past two years, rubber growers and companies enjoy good income with the increase in the prices of that commodity. In 2004, the price of natural rubber averaged Rp 7,200 a kilogram kilogram, abbr. kg, fundamental unit of mass in the metric system, defined as the mass of the International Prototype Kilogram, a platinum-iridium cylinder kept at Sèvres, France, near Paris. . In 2005, the prices in export market surged to Rp 13,500 a kg. In September, 2006, the price rose further to Rp 17,550. Rubber farmers received a price of Rp 14,500 a kg. for raw rubber. The price in export market peaked at Rp 18,750 in mid 2006.

The price scaled up after strong demand especially from China and India, two growing Asian giants. The mind boggling growth of Chinese economy has boosted development of its automotive industry that require large supply of rubber for car and motorcycle motorcycle, motor vehicle whose design is based on the bicycle. The German inventor Gottlieb Daimler is generally credited with building the first practical motorcycle in 1885. The motorcycle did not become dependable and popular, however, until after 1900.  tires. Meanwhile many rubber goods factories have been moved from Europe to rubber producing countries in Asia for efficiency.

The world's largest producers of natural rubbers are three Asean countries--Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia. The three countries supply 80% of the world's natural rubber requirement. In the first half of 2006, Indonesia contributed 2.28 million tons to the world's natural rubber exports.

Supply is determined by a number of factors including price. The prices have fluctuated in international market. In the past decade the price of natural rubber hit the rock bottom at 0.46 U.S. cent per kilogram in November 2001. The low price discourage production. As a result many rubber farmers in Malaysia and Indonesia changed their crops and grew oil palm.

The rubber price fall since mid 1997 brought the three large producers Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia together to discuss cooperation in production and marketing.

Cooperation between the three countries succeeded in shoring up Noun 1. shoring up - the act of propping up with shores
propping up, shoring

supporting, support - the act of bearing the weight of or strengthening; "he leaned against the wall for support"
 rubber prices in the world market. By the end of 2001 (before the signing of the Bali Declaration 2001) the prices of that commodity were around 46 cents and 52 cents a kg. After the implementation of the Agreed Export Tonnage TONNAGE, mar. law. The capacity of a ship or vessel.
     2. The act of congress of March 2, 1799, s. 64, 1 Story's L. U. S. 630, directs that to ascertain the tonnage of any ship or vessel, the surveyor, &c.
 Scheme (AETS AETS Adult Education and Training Survey (Canada)
AETS Association for the Education of Teachers in Science
AETS Airborne Electronic Threat Simulator
) and Supply Management Scheme (SMS (1) (Storage Management System) Software used to routinely back up and archive files. See HSM.

(2) (Systems Management Server) Systems management software from Microsoft that runs on Windows NT Server.
) the prices of that commodity began to scale up. In January, 2002, the price rose to 53.88 cents a kg and up again to in August 2003 to 83.06 cents.

With the signing of a MOU (Minutes Of Usage) A metric used to compute billing and/or statistics for telephone calls or other network use.  on August 8, 2002, the prices rose further to 8955 cents a kg in September that year. In March 2003, the price hit a new record at 96.50 cents after the 1997 crisis. The price fell slightly in April 2003 to 81 cents before rising again in May that year to 82 cents a kg.

Starting 2004, a leapfrogging increase was recorded in the prices of natural rubber as the price of synthetic rubber surged to follow the soaring prices of oil in the world market. The increase in the prices caused concern on the market. In September 2006, Malaysian Minister for Plantation and Primary Commodities Datuk Peter Chin Fah Kui as the International Rubber Consortium, (IRCo) to seek to stabilize stabilize

See peg.
 the prices of natural rubber. Indonesian rubber companies supported the call. They said too high prices of natural rubber will not be good for the country, the second largest producer in the world after Thailand. The ideal prices are US$ 1.5 to US$ 2 per kg.

The International Rubber Study Group predicted that the high prices will continue until 2010. With consumption growing 4.7% annually, demand will reach 10,998 million tons in 2010 as against supply of only around 10,677 million tons. Supply will come only from the present producers as it is not easy to grow rubber trees and produce natural rubber by other countries. It will take years before the trees are ready for sapping.

It is forecast that the prices of natural rubber in 2010-2020 will rise to US$ 2.5 per kg.

Distribution Systems

Smallholders or farmers contributed the largest part to the country's production of natural rubber. They are many but each of them is small producer. They sell their production to traders.

In Jambi, in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s, traders come by boats to the villages in the interior areas near the Batanghari river and its tributaries. The traders offer loan in the form of basic necessities, textiles, and money to the farmers to be repaid with rubber. That way the traders maintain business ties with the rubber growers.

In the beginning the traders served to represent rubber milling companies now crumb rubber mills. Later with the improvement transport facility especially with the availability of land transport facility, many rubber trades became independent and some grew to become big traders.

Now big traders dominate rubber trade dictating the market even rubber mills. They control stocks and distribution of raw rubber.

Almost all rubber producing villages in Sumatra have 1 to 5 small traders collecting rubber from farmers. The small traders sell the rubbers to middlemen or agents in district areas and then to whole sale traders in large cities such as Jambi, Palembang and Medan before the rubber is sold to rubber mills.

In all parts of the chain transport cost and unloading Unloading

Selling securities or commodities whose prices are dropping to minimize loss.
 cost are needed and the each trader has profit margin. It hardly ever happens that a small village trader deals directly with factory unless the trader represents cooperatives or groups of farmers.

The traditional ties between small village traders and rubber growers are not easily cut. For a long time farmers have relied on traders, who offer fund for various purposes, such as to finance the school of their children to be repaid with rubber.

It is often that repayment is not in full that the farmers remain bound by debt to the traders. The prices, quality and discount, therefore, are generally dictated dic·tate  
v. dic·tat·ed, dic·tat·ing, dic·tates
1. To say or read aloud to be recorded or written by another: dictate a letter.

 by the traders.

The village traders and whole sale traders play an important role in the distribution of rubber to rubber mills. Some whole sale traders have also operated rubber processing factories and served as exporters. Rubber auction places have been established in several areas organized by he Trade Ministry, but their role is not as determinant determinant, a polynomial expression that is inherent in the entries of a square matrix. The size n of the square matrix, as determined from the number of entries in any row or column, is called the order of the determinant.  as wholesale traders.

Large state plantation companies have their joint marketing office which helps the plantation companies in exports. Generally rubber produced by state plantation companies is sold through auction managed by the Joint Marketing Office. Private plantation companies handle their own marketing both on the domestic and international markets.

Rubber Exporters

Some large processing companies also serve as exporters. Large companies such as state-owned PT Perkebunan Nusantara and private companies like Bakrie Sumatra Plantations and SOCFIN, handle their own marketing including exports.

Generally the exporters and processing companies are old players in the business. See the following list of rubber processing companies and exporters in North Sumatra and South Sumatra.

Investment in rubber plantation low

Plans for New Investment and Expansion

In 2005 and 2006, investment in the rubber sector was more in crumb rubber, latex and RSS industries, as recorded by the Capital Investment Coordinating Board (BKPM BKPM Badan Pengawasan Pasar Modal (Indonesian investment coordinating board) ). There was no record of investment for new plantations or expansion of plantations.

The main bottleneck in investment in the rubber plantations is difficulty in securing capital such as from banks. Banks are reluctant to face risk of non performing loans especially as investment in rubber plantations is a long term investment.

Investment Scale and Cost in Rubber Plantations

It will take 5 to 6 years before a seedling of rubber tree is ready for tapping, therefore investment in rubber plantation is a long term venture. See the following table.

Financial feasibility study The analysis of a problem to determine if it can be solved effectively. The operational (will it work?), economical (costs and benefits) and technical (can it be built?) aspects are part of the study. Results of the study determine whether the solution should be implemented.  is needed to start investment in rubber plantation based on the following assumptions:

* Production averaging 1,576 kg dry rubber /ha/year,

* FOB price of SIR 20 : US $ 1.50/kg and

* Exchange rate : Rp10,000/US $ (in December 2005) and

* Purchasing price from farmers 80% FOB,

The financial feasibility of investment in rubber plantation is gauged with Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Net Present Value (NPV NPV

See: Net present value
) and B/C ratio. If IRR is larger than prevailing interest rate of 18% the rubber plantation project is financially feasible.

If NPV is above nil (positive), the investment is feasible on discount rate set namely 18% and 14%. To analyze financial feasibility IRR and NPV are calculated based cash flow in 30 years with constant cost assumption, but the selling price is set on three scenarios--first, the price rising 20%, second the present price (December, 2005) and third, the price falling 10% . The results will be as follows:

The table shows that rubber plantation project with interest rate of 18% is feasible, and when the selling price falls by 20%, the NPV is still positive and IRR is more than 18% If credit carries only an annual rate of 14%, the feasibility of the project will be higher.

Prospects of Investment in Rubber Plantations

The prospects of investment in rubber plantation are better with the growing call for healthier environment. A number of world leading tire factories already introduced what is called "green tires" with higher content of natural rubber.

Meanwhile, the number of polymer factories using natural rubber as feedstock is expected to increase. With the dwindling dwin·dle  
v. dwin·dled, dwin·dling, dwin·dles

To become gradually less until little remains.
To cause to dwindle. See Synonyms at decrease.
 oil and coal reserves (non-renewable natural resources) to provide feedstock for synthetic rubber, natural rubber will be more competitive.

Indonesian role growing again

Demand for natural rubber in the future will grow to follow the world's economic growth, and rising prices of synthetic rubber, and growing demand for healthier environment.

Meanwhile, Malaysian rubber production is expected to decline because of that country's government policy of concentrating more on development of the downstream sector and growing conversion of rubber plantations into oil palm plantations.

Thailand is also expected to face difficulty in expanding its rubber plantations because of limited availability When customers of the PSTN make telephone calls, they commonly make use of a telecommunications network called a switched-circuit network. In a switched-circuit network, devices known as switches are used to connect the caller to the callee.  of land and labor force. Indonesia, therefore, has greater opportunity to gain from growing market demand expected in the future. Indonesia has a number of comparative advantages in the abundant availability of cheap labor, and land suitable for rubber plantations.

The country, however, needs to set direction for development of rubber commodity. In long term until 2025, rubber agribusiness agribusiness

Agriculture operated by business; specifically, that part of a modern national economy devoted to the production, processing, and distribution of food and fibre products and byproducts.
 should be developed into latex and tree log-based agribusiness with high competitiveness, environmental concept and sustainable.

Competitive means that the business must be market oriented o·ri·ent  
1. Orient The countries of Asia, especially of eastern Asia.

a. The luster characteristic of a pearl of high quality.

b. A pearl having exceptional luster.

 relying on productivity and added value Added value in financial analysis of shares is to be distinguished from value added. Used as a measure of shareholder value, calculated using the formula:

Added Value = Sales - Purchases - Labour Costs - Capital Costs
. The investment must be driven by capital and skilled and innovative human resources The fancy word for "people." The human resources department within an organization, years ago known as the "personnel department," manages the administrative aspects of the employees. .

Projection of Rubber Production and Land for Rubber Plantations

The fact that rubber plantations are dominated by smallholdings in size, development of smallholdings must come first in the development priority. Development of smallholdings will depend much on the availability of fund aid from the government.

According to the government's plan, there are a number of targets to be achieved in the development of rubber agribusiness as follows:

* Accelerating rejuvenation rubber trees using recommended technology.

* Increasing productivity and production and improving the quality of products through rehabilitation rehabilitation: see physical therapy.  and intensification in·ten·si·fy  
v. in·ten·si·fied, in·ten·si·fy·ing, in·ten·si·fies
1. To make intense or more intense:
 of plantations.

* Expansion of natural rubber-based downstream industry.

* Increasing added value and income from plantations.

For that purpose, the government sets long term (2005-2025) targets for rubber agribusiness development as follows:

* Rubber production target is set at 3.5 million- 4 million tons and becoming the largest producer of natural rubber in the world. Around 25% of the production is to feed domestic tire industry and 75% is to be exported.

* Average productivity is to rise to 1,200-1,500 kg/ha, and rubber tree log production is at least 300 m3/ha/cycle.

* At least 85% of the seedlings to be grown are high yield clones producing both latex and tree logs.

* Rubber farmers are to earn US$ 2.000/ family depending on the price, which is 80% of FOB price. Farmers are to have share in rubber processing units and earn income from business diversification Diversification

A risk management technique that mixes a wide variety of investments within a portfolio. It is designed to minimize the impact of any one security on overall portfolio performance.

Diversification is possibly the greatest way to reduce the risk.
 and from the sales of tree logs.

* Expansion of natural rubber-based downstream industry and rubber tree log processing industry.

The government's short term (2005-2009) targets are as follows:

** Rubber production is to grow from 2 million tons at present to 2.3 million tons and 10% of the production is for domestic consumption and 90% to be exported.

** Average productivity is to increase to at least 800 kg per hectare from currently 600 kg-700 kg, and at least 55% of seedlings are clones of high yield variety producing latex and tree logs.

The following table shows the targets for the size of rubber plantations set by the agriculture ministry.

Expansion of plantation is expected to increase production and rejuvenation is expected to increase productivity . Until 2010, the country's rubber production is forecast to rise 4% annually.

The good prices in the past the past two years, is expected to encourage the farmer to increase their production.

Industrial Risks

** The increase in the prices of natural rubber has followed the rise in synthetic rubber prices which have surged with the soaring oil prices. Synthetic rubber is produced from oil as the basic material. The prices of natural rubber, therefore, is expected to proportionally pro·por·tion·al  
1. Forming a relationship with other parts or quantities; being in proportion.

2. Properly related in size, degree, or other measurable characteristics; corresponding:
 follow the trend in the oil market. The prices of natural rubber may decline if the oil price fall or new cheaper technology is invented in the production of synthetic rubber. In short term the prices of crude oil are not expected to be far away from the range of US$ 50 to US$ 60 a barrel. Therefore, the prices of synthetic rubber as well as natural rubber are expected to remain high.

** Rubber distribution networks are fairly long and are dominated by large traders. Small rubber growers or farmers may not enjoy the good prices of that commodity, therefore, they may not be encouraged to spend money for rejuvenation of the their rubber plants.

Conclusion and recommendations

** The prospects of business in rubber industry are good with the growing awareness of the people in general of healthy environment. A number of leading tire producers in the world already introduced what is called "green tyres" which have higher content of natural rubber.

** Meanwhile, the number of companies operating in polymer industry using natural rubber as feedstock is expected to increase from year to year. With dwindling non renewable oil and coal reserves in the world the market competition between natural rubber and synthetic rubber will be more in favor of upon the side of; favorable to; for the advantage of.

See also: favor
 natural rubber.

** With the crude oil prices remaining high above US$60 a barrel , demand for natural rubber will remain strong , therefore, long term investment in rubber plantation will be more feasible now than it was ten years ago when natural rubber was sidelined by synthetic rubber.

** Indonesia has the largest rubber plantations in the world although inferior INFERIOR. One who in relation to another has less power and is below him; one who is bound to obey another. He who makes the law is the superior; he who is bound to obey it, the inferior. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 8.  in productivity against Thailand and Malaysia as most of the Indonesian rubber plantations are owned and run by small and traditional farmers, who always are late in anticipating market. Smallholders rubber plantations are poorly managed and are not well taken care of well after the price fall earlier. Banks also remain reluctant to extend credit to finance rejuvenation.

** The high prices especially if the trend will last long will encourage farmers to improve their productivity and increase production. Rubber , therefore, is expected to regain its lost position as one of the country's major export earners. Rubber business will be more profitable, and banks are expected to be eager to provide credit. If everything goes as expected the country could easily become the world's largest producer of natural rubber relegating Thailand.

** Currently domestic consumption of rubber is relatively low. The country has not made much headway head·way  
1. Forward movement or the rate of forward movement, especially of a ship.

2. Progress toward a goal.

3. The clear vertical space beneath a ceiling or archway; clearance.

 in the development of rubber-based industry. The country needs to develop and expand rubber-based industries to help expand captive market for natural rubber and increase added value of business in rubber sector.
Size of rubber plantations in Indonesia

Year                     Width of area (Ha)

       Smallholding   State co.   Private co.     Total

1994      2,892,994    280,543      298,842     3,472,379
1995      2,952,684    248,393      294,824     3,495,901
1996      2,978,507    246,246      293,688     3,518,441
1997      2,957,538    226,839      290,025     3,474,402
1998      3,082,330    229,809      295,156     3,607,295
1999      3,086,543    218,344      290,173     3,595,060
2000      2,882,795    212,617      277,009     3,372,421
2001      2,838,421    221,876      284,470     3,344,767
2002      2,825,476    221,228      271,655     3,318,359
2003      2,772,490    241,625      275,997     3,290,112
2004      2,747,899    239,118      275,250     3,262,267
2005      2,767,021    237,612      274,758     3,279,391

Source: Plantation Directorate General

Width of rubber plantations in  Indonesia
by provinces and status, 2005

                           Smallholdings    State co.
No.     Provinces               (ha)          (ha)

1     Nanggroe Aceh D.         71,370        11,485
2     North Sumatra           296,434        72,125
3     West Sumatra             98,839         1,236
4     Riau                    370,431        14,253
5     Jambi                   414,936         3,509
6     South Sumatra           601,615        13,080
7     Bangka Belitung          29,516             0
8     Bengkulu                 57,815        10,863
9     Lampung                  49,980        16,476
      Sumatra               1,990,936       143,027
10    Jakarta                       0             0
11    West Java                 7,582        19,263
12    Banten                   16,414         1,295
13    Central Java                972        25,508
14    D.I. Yogyakarta               0             0
15    East Java                     0        13,753
      Java                     24,968        59,819
16    Bali                          0             0
      West Nusa
17    Tenggara                      0             0
      East Nusa
18    Tenggara                      0             0
      Nusa Tenggara                 0             0
19    West Kalimantan         357,441         3,487
20    Central Kalimantan      238,757         4,694
21    South Kalimantan        109,420        16,199
22    East Kalimantan          31,834         3,980
      Kalimantan              737,452        28,360
23    North Sulawesi                0             0
24    Gorontalo                     0             0
25    Central Sulawesi          2,243         5,097
26    South Sulawesi            6,140             0
27    Southeast Sulawesi            0             0
      Sulawesi                  8,383         5,097
28    Maluku                      741             0
29    North Maluku                  0         1,309
30    Papua                     4,539             0
      Maluku + Papua            5,280         1,309

                           Private co.   Total area
No.   Provinces               (ha)          (ha)

1     Nanggroe Aceh D.        16,095        98,950
2     North Sumatra           91,120       459,679
3     West Sumatra             1,684       101,759
4     Riau                    45,726       430,410
5     Jambi                    2,226       420,671
6     South Sumatra           23,356       638,051
7     Bangka Belitung              0        29,516
8     Bengkulu                 1,321        69,999
9     Lampung                    404        66,860
      Sumatra                181,932     2,315,895
10    Jakarta                      0             0
11    West Java               28,895        55,740
12    Banten                   4,136        21,845
13    Central Java             5,636        32,116
14    D.I. Yogyakarta              0             0
15    East Java                4,978        18,731
      Java                    43,645       128,432
16    Bali                       102           102
      West Nusa
17    Tenggara                     0             0
      East Nusa
18    Tenggara                     0             0
      Nusa Tenggara              102           102
19    West Kalimantan          9,483       370,411
20    Central Kalimantan       6,434       249,885
21    South Kalimantan        16,308       141,927
22    East Kalimantan          2,643        38,457
      Kalimantan              34,868       800,680
23    North Sulawesi               0             0
24    Gorontalo                    0             0
25    Central Sulawesi         4,343        11,683
26    South Sulawesi           6,268        12,408
27    Southeast Sulawesi           0             0
      Sulawesi                10,611        24,091
28    Maluku                       0           741
29    North Maluku                 0         1,309
30    Papua                        0         4,539
      Maluku + Papua               0         6,589

Source: Plantation Directorate General

Plantation areas and production by owners
and condition of plants


  Year/owners    Immature     Mature    Damaged     Total

* Smallholders    739,700   1,985,930   46,860    2,772,490
* State (BUMN)     41,849     187,060   12,716      241,625
* Private co.      84,269     171,017   20,711      275,997
* Total           865,818   2,344,007   80,287    3,290,112

* Smallholders    610,453   2,099,739   37,707    2,747,899
* State (BUMN)     40,014     189,226    9,878      239,118
* Private co.      82,161     173,251   19,838      275,250
* Total           732,628   2,462,216   67,423    3,262,267

* Smallholders    586,151   2,162,544   18,326    2,767,021
* State (BUMN)     39,993     189,332    8,287      237,612
* Private co.      82,292     173,318   19,148      274,758
* Total           708,436   2,525,194   45,761    3,279,391

Source: Plantation Directorate General

Areas and production capacity of state plantation companies

   Name of       Location          Plantation areas

PT Perkebunan   NAD (Aceh)      Nucleus     11,918 ha
Nusantara I                     Plasma      10,118 ha

PTPN II         North Sumatra   11,265 ha

PTPN III        North Sumatra   Nucleus     plantations
                                45,327 ha
                                Plasma      9,150 ha

PTPN V          North Sumatra   Nucleus     plantations
                                14,322 ha
                                Plasma      17,861 ha

PTPN VI         North Sumatra   Nucleus     plantations
                                6,384 ha
                                Plasma      35,878 ha

PTPN VII        Southern        Nucleus     plantations
                Sumatra         34,439 ha
                                Plasma      31,467 ha

PTPN VIII       West Java       Nucleus     plantations
                                27,245 ha
                                Plasma      2,446 ha

PTPN IX         Central Java    Nucleus     plantations
                                23,546 ha

PTPN XII        East Java       Nucleus     plantations
                                14,943 ha

PTPN XIII       Kalimantan      Nucleus     plantations
                                14,898 ha
                                Plasma      46,342 ha

PTPN XIV        Sulawesi        Nucleus     plantations
                                2,513 ha
                                Plasma      2,556 ha

   Name of        Production
   company         annually

PT Perkebunan   RSS: 1,906 tons
Nusantara I     SIR: 14,328 tons

PTPN II         RSS: 4,200 tons
                SIR 3 L: 600 tons
                SIR 10/20: 1,600 tons
                BSR: 200 tons
                C,L,: 2,100 tons
                Thick latex: 2,224 tons

PTPN III        RSS: 2,885 tons
                SIR 3 CV: 2,329 tons
                SIR 3 L: 1,250 tons
                SIR 3 WF: 155 tons
                SIR 10: 12,334 tons
                SIR 20: 1,370 tons
                Sediment: 1,496 tons

PTPN V          SIR-3L: 4,221 tons
                SIR-3 WF: 469 tons
                SIR 1 and 10: 11,041 tons
                RSS: 45 tons

PTPN VI         SIR-3L: 139 tons
                SIR-3 WF: 2,121 tons
                SIR 10: 6,269 tons
                SIR 20: 5,274 tons

PTPN VII        SIR: 38,393 tons
                RSS: 4,016 tons

PTPN VIII       RSS: 6,624 tons
                TPC: 1,620 tons
                Thick latex: 3,979 tons
                SIR: 8,098 tons

PTPN IX         Rubber: 12,529 tons
                Thick latex: 4,500 tons

PTPN XII        Rubber : 10,351 tons

PTPN XIII       RSS: 5,124 tons
                SIR: 24,956 tons
                Br. crepe : 1,212 tons

PTPN XIV        RSS: 1,299 tons
                SIR: 3,076 tons
                Br. crepe: 430 tons

Source: Plantation Directorate General

Production of rubber plantation in  Indonesia

Year               Production (Tons)

       PR          PBN       PBS       Total

1994   1,138,893   188,122   172,409   1,499,424
1995   1,191,143   199,943   182,217   1,573,303
1996   1,193,146   202,021   178,859   1,574,026
1997   1,174,473   187,770   190,342   1,552,585
1998   1,242,751   192,512   226,635   1,661,898
1999   1,206,410   181,522   216,427   1,604,359
2000   1,125,161   169,866   206,401   1,501,428
2001   1,209,284   182,578   215,599   1,607,461
2002   1,226,647   186,535   217,177   1,630,359
2003   1,396,244   191,699   204,405   1,792,348
2004   1,662,016   196,088   207,713   2,065,817
2005   1,723,318   196,673   208,432   2,128,423

Source: Plantation Directorate General

Rubber production by provinces and owners, 2005

                           Smallholders   State co.
No.   Province                (tons)       (tons)

1     Nanggroe Aceh D,           45,475       6,228
2     North Sumatra             252,718      54,891
3     West Sumatra               69,930       1,280
4     Riau                      231,329      17,090
5     Jambi                     212,100       4,121
6     South Sumatra             361,683      12,911
7     Bangka Belitung            19,217           0
8     Bengkulu                   33,296       9,535
9     Lampung                    27,783      16,842
      Sumatra                 1,253,531     122,898
10    DKI Jakarta                     0           0
11    West Java                   3,102      18,289
12    Banten                      8,741         883
13    Central Java                  265      20,432
14    Yogyakarta                      0           0
15    East Java                       0      11,657
      Java                       12,108      51,261
16    Bali                            0           0
      West Nusa
17    Tenggara                        0           0
18    East Nusa Tenggara              0           0
      Nusa Tenggara                   0           0
19    West Kalimantan           201,350       2,217
20    Central Kalimantan        169,715       4,523
21    South Kalimantan           59,440       8,991
22    East Kalimantan            19,604       3,246
      Kalimantan                450,109      18,977
23    North Sulawesi                  0           0
24    Gorontalo                       0           0
25    Central Sulawesi            2,478       2,171
26    South Sulawesi              5,026           0
27    Southeast Sulawesi              0           0
      Sulawesi                    7,504       2,171
28    Maluku                          0           0
29    North Maluku                    0       1,366
30    Papua                          65           0
      Maluku + Papua                 65       1,366
      TOTAL Indonesia         1,723,318     196,673

                           Private co.   production
No.   Province               (tons)        (tons)

1     Nanggroe Aceh D,           6,439       58,142
2     North Sumatra            104,646      412,255
3     West Sumatra               2,016       73,226
4     Riau                      21,359      269,778
5     Jambi                      1,996      218,217
6     South Sumatra             17,825      392,419
7     Bangka Belitung                0       19,217
8     Bengkulu                   1,391       44,222
9     Lampung                    4,923       49,548
      Sumatra                  160,595    1,537,024
10    DKI Jakarta                    0            0
11    West Java                 15,962       37,353
12    Banten                     2,986       12,610
13    Central Java               4,716       25,413
14    Yogyakarta                     0            0
15    East Java                  3,680       15,337
      Java                      27,344       90,713
16    Bali                          89           89
      West Nusa
17    Tenggara                       0            0
18    East Nusa Tenggara             0            0
      Nusa Tenggara                 89           89
19    West Kalimantan            4,167      207,734
20    Central Kalimantan         1,583      175,821
21    South Kalimantan           6,466       74,897
22    East Kalimantan            2,243       25,093
      Kalimantan                14,459      483,545
23    North Sulawesi                 0            0
24    Gorontalo                      0            0
25    Central Sulawesi               0        4,649
26    South Sulawesi             5,945       10,971
27    Southeast Sulawesi                          0
      Sulawesi                   5,945       15,620
28    Maluku                         0            0
29    North Maluku                   0        1,366
30    Papua                          0           65
      Maluku + Papua                 0        1,431
      TOTAL Indonesia          208,432    2,128,423

Source: Plantation Directorate General

Productivity of rubber plantations by owners


              Small        State       Plantations         on the
Regions      holdings   plantations   of private co.      average

Sumatra           630           859              883            664
Java              485           857              627            706
Kalimantan        610           669              415            604
Sulawesi          895           426              560            648
Indonesia         623           828              769            650

Source: Data Consult/ICN

Number production capacity of rubber processing plants
by provinces in 2003

Type of Rubber                  Production Capacity
products / Provincy   Number
                                Volume       Unit
   Crumb Rubber
D.I Aceh                   1       7,200   Ton/year
North Sumatra             33     470,697   Ton/year
Riau                      10     135,400   Ton/year
West Sumatra               7     134,800   Ton/year
Jambi                      9     151,600   Ton/year
South Sumatra             23     488,900   Ton/year
Lampung                    4      36,000   Ton/year
Bengkulu                   4      14,898   Ton/year
West Java                 13      47,100   Ton/year
West Kalimantan           14     285,499   Ton/year
South Kalimantan          10      99,400   Ton/year
Central Kalimantan         2      21,000   Ton/year
South Sulawesi             1       4.572   Ton/year
Total Indonesia          131   1,892,499   Ton/year
    Sheet (RSS)
D.I. Aceh                 11      22,560   Ton/year
North Sumatra             62     278,670   Ton/year
Riau                       2       2,475   Ton/year
South Sumatra              5       4,610   Ton/year
Lampung                    5       4,353   Ton/year
West Java                115      60,926   Ton/year
Central Java              91      81,635   Ton/year
West Kalimantan            5      34,365   Ton/year
South Kalimantan           6      17,750   Ton/year
East Kalimantan            3      27,000   Ton/year
Total Indonesia          305     534,344   Ton/year
North Sumatra             10      72,243   Ton/year
Lampung                    1         360   Ton/year
West Java                  8       9,877   Ton/year
Central Java               1       4,500   Ton/year
Total Indonesia           20      86,980   Ton/year

Source: Data Consult/ICN

The List  of major  crumb rubber processing plants 2003

Name of                                              capacity
Companies               Location          Total   (tons/year)

NV Muara Kelingi I,II   South Sumatra         2        72,000
PT Prasidha AN I,II     South Sumatra         2        54,000
PT Panca Samudra S      South Sumatra         1        45,000
PT.Rubber Hok Lie       North Sumatra         1        44,000
PT. Adei Crumb Rubber   North Sumatra         1        42,000
PT New Kalbar Process   West Kalimantan       1        40,000
PT Cemaru Lestari       West Kalimantan       1        37,400
PT PD Sunan Rubber      South Sumatra         1        36,000
PT.Good Year S.P        North Sumatra         1        35,000
PTPN IV                 North Sumatra         3        34,000
PT Bumi Indah Raya      West Kalimantan       1        30,000
PT Remco                South Sumatra         1        30,000
PT Jambi Waras I        Jambi                 1        30,000
PT Sumber Jantin I      West Kalimantan       1        28,548
PT Hok Tong             West Kalimantan       1        28,000
PT Sumber Alam          West Kalimantan       1        27,276

Source: Data Consult/ICN

Production of crumb rubber by quality,

  Year       1999        2000        2001        2002        2003

SIR 3CV      14,715      15,436      13,592      14,809      16,869
SIR 3L       26,981      21,537      23,489      20,516      20,812
SIR 3WF       1,155       1,976       2,568       2,518       2,849
SIR 5        28,426       6,308      21,923      20,534      19,305
SIR 10       37,365      55,966      44,776      33,962      32,316
SIR 20    1,125,616   1,159,264   1,290,144   1,399,126   1,516,015
Total     1,234,258   1,260,487   1,396,492   1,491,465   1,608,166

Source: Plantation Directorate General

Rubber exports, 1994-2005

        Volume       Value
Year    (Tons)     (000'US$)

1994   1,244,950   1,271,940
1995   1,324,295   1,963,636
1996   1,434,285   1,917,902
1997   1,404,010   1,493,416
1998   1,641,186   1,101,453
1999   1,494,543     849,200
2000   1,379,612     888,623
2001   1,453,382     786,197
2002   1,495,987   1,037,562
2003   1,662,210   1,494,811
2004   1,874,261   2,180,029
2005   2,053,544   2,611,603

Source: BPS, Data Consult/ICN

Rubber exports by types, 2004

No.   Commodity                                         Exports
                                                  Volume        Value
                                                  (Tons)    (000' US$)
1     Latex
      a. Latex containing LT.. 1/2%
         ammonia; cream concrete                    2,845        3,069
      b. Latex containing LT. 1/2%
         ammonia; centrifuge concentrate              449          478
      c. Latex 1/2% centrifugal (Latex
         containing LT. 1/2% ammonia; other           174          112
      d. Latex containing > 1/2% ammonia;
         cream concentrate                            359          405
      e. Centrifugal latex                          7,233        8,356
         (Latex containing >1/2% ammonia;
         centrifuge concentrate)
      f. Other latex (Latex containing 1/2%
         ammonia; other concentrate)                   37           44
      g. Other (other natural rubber latex)           658        1,042
2     Smoked sheet                                145,895      170,145
3     SIR-3 CV                                    116,145      137,392
4     SIR 10                                       32,248       38,877
5     SIR 20                                    1,524,435    1,760,477
6     Other SIR                                     7,360        9,358
7     Other TSRN                                   26,924       32,997
8     Other                                         9,499       17,275

Source: BPS, Data Consult/ICN

Production, sales and stocks of crumb rubber, 1999-2003

Year      stock     Production             Sales
                                   Domestic      Exports

1999     77,074     1,234,258        54,193     1,194,131
2000     63,008     1,260,487        70,365     1,185,149
2001     67,981     1,396,492        64,991     1,341,451
2002     58,031     1,491,465        90,836     1,395,897
2003     62,763     1,608,166        83,636     1,524,006

Year          Sales     stock

1999        1,248,324   63,008
2000        1,255,514   67,981
2001        1,406,442   58,031
2002        1,485,733   62,763
2003        1,607,642   63,287

Source: BPS, Data Consult/ICN

World Rubber Production and Consumption

                                                       ('000 tons)

                 Production                    Consumption

Year   Natural   Synthetic   Total    Natural   Synthetic   Total
       Rubber      Rubber    Rubber   Rubber      Rubber    Rubber

1996     6,440       9,760   16,200     6,110       9,590   15,700
1997     6,470      10,080   16,550     6,470      10,010   16,480
1998     6,850       9,880   16,730     6,570       9,870   16,440
1999     6,872      10,336   17,208     6,646      10,196   16,842
2000     6,739      10,819   17,558     7,315      10,764   18,079
2001     7,261      10,485   17,746     7,223      10,253   17,476
2002     7,345      10,882   18,227     7,546      10,723   18,269
2003     7,992      11,448   19,440     7,967      11,381   19,348
2004     8,645      11,978   20,623     8,319      11,860   20,179
2005     8,682      11,965   20,647     8,742      11,917   20,659

Source: International Rubber Study Group various issues and
International Rubber Study Group (IRSG) vol. 60 No. 6-7,
March/April 2006

Prices of natural rubber in the world market

Year           Types by quality
       RSS-I   RSS-II   RSS-III     SIR-20

1994   57.68    57.23     56.86      54.85
1995   78.81    78.66     77.76      73.02
1996   70.01    69.80     68.74      62.31
1997   52.32    51.98     48.66      48.58
1998   38.61    37.79     37.01      33.64
1999   34.68    34.33     33.70      30.71
2000   36.64    36.38     35.77      32.86
2001   33.18    32.82     32.33      27.16
2002   41.18    40.74     41.28      38.87
2003   55.55    55.03     55.52      50.27
2004   66.99    66.53     66.47      60.42
2005   65.55     65.2     65.42      60.44

Source: Weekly report of  Bank Indonesia

List of rubber exporters
in North Sumatra and South Sumatra

Name of exporters                 Regency/city

North Sumatra
PT                                Medan
HADI BARU PT                      Medan
PT.PERKEBUNAN                     Medan
MERTJU BUANA PT                   Medan
NUSIRA PT                         Deli Serdang
PANTJA SURYA PT                   Medan
PAROMBUNAN PT                     Medan
PTP NUSANTARA II                  Medan
SOCFIN INDONESIA PT               Medan
WIPOLIMEX RAYA PT                 Medan
South Sumatra
ANEKA BUMI PRATAMA PT             Palembang
BADJA BARU TRAD COY PT            Palembang
GAJAH RUKU, PT                    Palembang
KARINI UTAMA, PT                  Kota Prabumulih
LINGGA JAYA, PT                   Palembang
MUARA KELINCI, PT                 Palembang
PD HOKTONG, PT                    Palembang
PD SUNAN RUBBER PT                Palembang
PERKEBUNAN X PT                   Palembang
PP ALICIA INDONESIA, PT           Palembang
PRASIDHA ANEKA NIAGA, PT          Palembang
REMCO, PT                         Palembang
SUNAN RUBBER, PT                  Palembang

Source: Data Consult & various s ources

New Investment and Expansion in Rubber Sector, 2005-2006

Name of         Status      Location     Prod. Capacity
company                                  (Tons/year)

Felda Indo      PMA, new    Muara        Latex
Rubber, PT                  Enim,        concentrate  --
                            South        6.000 ton
                            Sumatra      Crumb rubber --
                                         40.000 ton

Djambi Waras,   PMDN,       Bungo,       SIR-20--19.000
PT              expansion   Jambi        tons

Bumi Beliti     PMDN,       Musi         SIR-20--66.000
Abadi, PT       new         Rawas,       tons

Pinago Utama,   PMDN,       Musi         Crumb rubber
PT              expansion   Banyuasin,   35.600 tons

Bumi Kita       PMDN,       Sintang,     RSS & blanket
Utama, PT       new         West         crepe--2.500
                            Kalimantan   tons

Name of         Investment       BKPM
company         (Rp million)     Approval

Felda Indo      US$ 5 million    June 2005
Rubber, PT

Djambi Waras,   Rp. 28 billion   May 2005

Bumi Beliti     Rp. 70 billion   August 2005
Abadi, PT

Pinago Utama,   Rp. 33,86        Feb 2006
PT              billion

Bumi Kita       Rp. 25,12        May 2006
Utama, PT       billion

Source: BKPM, Data Consult/ICN

Costs of investment and taking care of young and
not yet productive trees and
productive trees per hectare

Description                                             (Rp/ha)

1. Land certificate                                             400,000
2. Land clearing and planting (with intercrops)               7,449,888
3. Maintenance of TBM (1-5 years)                            12,664,125
TOTAL INVESTMENT VCOST (TBM)                                 20,514,013
4. Cost of taking care of TM: per year
   6-15 years in age,                               4,347,500
   16-25 years in age,                              3,774,500
   26-28 years in age and                           3,349,000
   29-30 years in age                               2,305,750

Source: Chairil Anwar, Rubber Research Center, 2006

Note: TBM = Immature crops
TM = Mature crops

Analysis of feasibility of investment in rubber plantations (1 ha)

Description                       NPV        IRR (%)   B/C ratio
                              (million Rp)
Scenario 1 (interest = 18%)
Rubber selling price up 20%           26.6      34.5        1.30
Present selling price                 19.2      31.5        1.17
(December 2005)
Selling price down 10%                11.7      27.4        1.05
Scenario 2 (interest = 14%)
Selling price up 20%                  47.6      34.5        1.33
Present selling price                 35.8      31.5        1.20
(December 2005)
Selling price down 10%                24.0      27.4        1.07

Source: Chairil Anwar,  Rubber Research Center, 2006

Projection for  the size of rubber plantations

  Province            2006        2007        2008

Nanggroe Aceh
Darusalam            99,868     100,837     101,811
North Sumatra       460,597     461,566     462,540
West Sumatra        102,065     102,388     102,713
Riau                431,328     432,297     433,271
Jambi               421,789     422,958     424,132
South Sumatra       638,969     639,938     640,912
Bangka Belitung      29,822      30,145      30,470
Bengkulu             70,917      71,886      72,860
Lampung              71,378      72,347      73,321
West Java            56,046      56,369      56,694
Banten               22,151      22,474      22,799
Central Java         32,422      32,745      33,070
D.I. Yogyakarta           0           0           0
East Java            19,037      19,360      19,685
Bali                     89          93          99
West Nusa
Tenggara                  0           0           0
East Nusa
Tenggara                  0           0           0
Kalimantan          371,648     372,936     374,229
Kalimantan          250,803     251,772     252,746
Kalimantan          142,845     143,814     144,788
East Kalimantan      39,375      40,344      41,318
North Sulawesi            0           0           0
Gorontalo                 0           0           0
Sulawesi             12,601      13,570      14,544
South Sulawesi       13,326      14,295      15,269
Sulawesi                  0           0           0
Maluku                  847         970       1,095
North Maluku          1,615       1,938       2,263
Papua                 4,657       4,826       5,000
INDONESIA         3,294,195   3,309,868   3,325,629

  Province            2009        2010

Nanggroe Aceh
Darusalam           102,790     103,774
North Sumatra       463,519     464,503
West Sumatra        103,039     103,367
Riau                434,250     435,234
Jambi               425,311     426,495
South Sumatra       641,891     642,875
Bangka Belitung      30,796      31,124
Bengkulu             73,839      74,823
Lampung              74,300      75,284
West Java            57,020      57,348
Banten               23,125      23,453
Central Java         33,396      33,724
D.I. Yogyakarta           0           0
East Java            20,011      20,339
Bali                    106         115
West Nusa
Tenggara                  0           0
East Nusa
Tenggara                  0           0
Kalimantan          375,527     376,830
Kalimantan          253,725     254,709
Kalimantan          145,767     146,751
East Kalimantan      42,297      43,281
North Sulawesi            0           0
Gorontalo                 0           0
Sulawesi             15,523      16,507
South Sulawesi       16,248      17,232
Sulawesi                  0           0
Maluku                1,221       1,349
North Maluku          2,589       2,917
Papua                 5,179       5,363
INDONESIA         3,341,469   3,357,397

Source: Agriculture Ministry

Projection of Production, 2006-2010

       Province               2006        2007        2008

Nanggroe Aceh Darusalam      58,713      65,002      71,605
North Sumatra               412,826     419,114     425,717
West Sumatra                 73,440      75,798      78,274
Riau                        270,349     276,637     283,240
Jambi                       219,788     227,076     234,679
South Sumatra               392,990     399,278     405,881
Bangka Belitung              19,431      21,789      24,265
Bengkulu                     44,793      51,081      57,684
Lampung                      50,119      56,407      63,010
Jakarta                           0           0           0
West Java                    36,567      37,925      39,401
Banten                       11,824      13,182      14,658
Central Java                 24,627      25,985      27,461
Yogyakarta                        0           0           0
East Java                    15,551      16,909      18,385
Bali                            153         211         237
West Nusa Tenggara                0           0           0
East Nusa Tenggara                0           0           0
West Kalimantan             209,305     216,593     224,196
Central Kalimantan          177,392     184,680     192,283
South Kalimantan             75,468      81,756      88,359
East Kalimantan              26,664      33,952      41,555
North Sulawesi                    0           0           0
Gorontalo                         0           0           0
Central Sulawesi              5,220       5,508       6,111
South Sulawesi               11,542      12,330      13,433
Southeast Sulawesi                0           0           0
Maluku                            0           0           0
North Maluku                  1,580       1,938       2,414
Papua                           636       1,425       2,528
INDONESIA                 2,138,978   2,224,576   2,315,376

       Province               2009        2010

Nanggroe Aceh Darusalam      78,538      85,818
North Sumatra               432,651     439,930
West Sumatra                 80,874      83,604
Riau                        290,174     297,453
Jambi                       242,613     250,892
South Sumatra               412,815     420,094
Bangka Belitung              26,865      29,595
Bengkulu                     64,618      71,897
Lampung                      69,944      77,223
Jakarta                           0           0
West Java                    41,001      42,731
Banten                       16,258      17,988
Central Java                 29,061      30,791
Yogyakarta                        0           0
East Java                    19,985      21,715
Bali                            287         317
West Nusa Tenggara                0           0
East Nusa Tenggara                0           0
West Kalimantan             232,130     240,409
Central Kalimantan          200,217     208,496
South Kalimantan             95,293     102,572
East Kalimantan              49,489      57,768
North Sulawesi                    0           0
Gorontalo                         0           0
Central Sulawesi              7,045       8,324
South Sulawesi               14,867      16,646
Southeast Sulawesi                0           0
Maluku                            0           0
North Maluku                  3,014       3,744
Papua                         2,961       3,241
INDONESIA                 2,410,700   2,511,248

Source: Data Consult
COPYRIGHT 2006 P.T. Data Consult, Inc.
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2006 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

 Reader Opinion




Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Comment:Profile of rubber plantations in Indonesia.(INDUSTRY PROFILE)
Publication:Indonesian Commercial Newsletter
Geographic Code:9CHIN
Date:Sep 1, 2006
Previous Article:Strong growth provide a momentum for expansion of primary commodity sector.
Next Article:Profiles of state-owned rubber plantation companies.

Terms of use | Copyright © 2014 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters