Profile of PT. PLN (Persero).
The history of PLN dates back to 1945 when the government established Jawatan Listrik dan Gas under the Public Works and Energy Ministry with a power generating capacity of 157.5MW. In 1961, the name of the agency was changed with Badan Pimpinan Umum Perusahaan Listrik Negara (BPU PLN) to operate in the electricity and coke sector . In 1965, BPU PLN was dissolved and two new companies were formed--Perusahaan Listrik Negara (PLN) to operate in power generating industry with a capacity of 300 MW and Perusahaan Gas Negara (PGN) operating in gas distribution.
In 1972, the government gave the status of PLN as a public company Perusahaan Umum Listrik Negara (PLN) and under a regulation of the government No 17 in 1990, PLN was given the status as the authority in the electricity sector.
In 1992, the government allowed the private sector to operate in power generating business. In line with the policy, in 1994, the status of PLN was changed with a limited company PT Perusahaan Listrik Negara (PT PLN).
PLN is responsible for supplying the whole country of 13,000 islands with electricity . PLN divides the country into 16 working areas including Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, North Sumatra, West Sumatra, South Sumatra, Riau, Bangka Belitung, Lampung, West Kalimantan, South Kalimanatan, Central Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, North Sulawesi, Central Sulawesi, Gorontalo, South Sulawesi, Southeast Sulawesi, West Sulawesi, Maluku, North Maluku, Papua, West Nusa Tenggara and East Nusa Tenggara.
PT. PLN, therefore, has to build power generating plants, transmission networks and distribution systems and other supporting facilities. Currently PT PLN (Persero) has a number of subsidiaries--PT. Pembangkitan Jawa Bali, PT. Indonesia Power, and PT. Indonesia Comnets Plus, PT Prima Layanan Nasional Enjiniring (PT PLN Enjiniring), Pelayanan Listrik Nasional Tarakan (PT PLN Tarakan), Pelayanan Listrik Nasional Tarakan (PT PLN Tarakan), PT. PLN Batubara, PT. PLN Geothermal, Majapahit Holding BV and PT. Geo Dipa Energi.
Power generating plants
PT Indonesia Power (PT. IP)
PT IP was originally known with the name of PT. Pembangkit Jawa Bali I, established in 1995. Its business is to operate power plants and in other related areas. In 2000, its name was changed with PT Indonesia Power.
Currently PT. IP is the largest operator of power plants in Indonesia, having 127 units of power generating units with a total installed capacity of 8,888 MW. IP has 8 power generating business units (UBP) located in various areas in Java and Bali and one Maintenance Service Business Unit. The UBPs include UBP Suralaya, UBP Priok, UBP Saguling, UBP Kamojang, UBP Mrica, UBP Semarang, UBP Perak Grati and UBP Bali.
IP has continued to seek expansion of its power generating capacity in Java as well as outside Java such as in West Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, South Sumatra, Jambi, and East Nusa Tenggara.
UBP Suralaya operates coal-fired power generating plants with an installed capacity of .400 MW.
Apart from 2 units of gas-fired power plant (PLTG), UBP Priok operates 6 units of diesel power plants (PLTD) in Senayan operating in 1961 to supply electricity to the People's Congress (MPR) building, the Gelora Bung Karno Sport Complex and the state television station, TVRI.
In 1992, PLN in cooperation with an international consortium of ABB and Marubeni built power underground cable of 150 KV to channel electricity to the electrical relay stations of GI Plumpang and GI Ancol. Power was also channeled through high voltage air cables (SUTT) of 150 KV to Kemayoran I/II, Plumpang I/II. After the fill operation of the combined cycle power plant of PLTGU Priok synchronization was made to the Java-Bali systems.
UBP Saguling operates mainly hydro electric plants (PLTA). Development of PLTA units is in line with the government policy of diversifying sources of energy and to economize on the expensive oil. uBp Saguling has 29 power generating machines in West Java with a total installed capacity of 797.36 MW.
UBP Saguling has 8 Units of power generating plants--PLTA Saguling, PLTA Plengan, PLTA Lamajan, PLTA Cikalong, PLTA Bengkok and Dago, PLTA Ubrug, PLTA Kracak and PLTA Parakankondang.
UBP Saguling has a Load Frequency Control (LFC) device to regulate frequency system.
UBP Kamojang is an operator of geothermal power plants (PLTP). UBP Kamojang has three Business Units in power generating facility with a total installed capacity of 375 MW. They are PLTP Kamojang, PLTP Darajat, and PLTP Gunung Salak.
UBP Kamojang started operation in 1983 with the commissioning of Unit I, which was followed with Unit II and Unit III in 1987. Development of PLTP Darajat was completed in 1993, and started operation in 1994.
Development of PLTP at Gunung Salak followed with one Unit I starting operation in 1994 and Unit II also in 1994 and Unit III in 1997.
UBP Mrica is an operators of hydroelectric plants (PLTA) utilizing water energy from dams, Tando Pool and Rivers.
The UBP Mrica has 25 power generating machines located in various areas in Central Java with a total installed capacity of 306.44 MW.
One of the PLTAs, PB Sudirman uses the water energy from a dam fed by the Serayu river in the regencies of Banjarnegara and Wonosobo.
UBP Semarang has three power generating plants with a total installed capacity of 1,469.16 MW, Combined cycle power plant (PLTGU), Gas fired power plant (PLTG) and coal-fired power plant (PLTU).
UBP Perak Grati
UBP Perak Grati is based in the village of Wates, Kec Lekok Grati in the regency of Pasuruan. It consists of Units of PLTU Perak in Surabaya and PLTGU Grati in Pasuruan located 90 kilometers apart with total installed capacity of 864.08 MW.
PLTU Perak is built over a 6-hectare plot of land in the business and industrial area of the Tanjung Perak port of Surabaya. The facility supplies electricity for Surabaya and other areas in East Java . It consists of PLTU Unit 1 and Unit 2 coming on line in 1964 and PLTU Unit 3 and Unit 4 operational in 1978. In 1995 PLTU 1 & 2 was no longer in operation. Unit 3 and Unit 4 which use MFO fuel, still contribute income and profit to PT IP.
PLTGU Grati consists of one unit of combined cycle (block 1) and 3 units of open cycle gas turbine (block 2) as PLTG Grati, located over a 70-hectare plot of land. The gas turbines are designed to use two primary fuels--gas and HSD. Starting October, 2009, PLTGU Grati receives gas supply from Santos PTE LTD as much as 60 Bbtud. This unit still uses HSD supplied to the PLTGU tank from an offshore facility with tanker located around 4 kilometers away from the plant.
UBP Bali provides electricity especially for the island of Bali with total installed capacity of 427.59 MW. In 1973, UBP Bali was named Sektor Pesanggaran under PLN's operating area of XI. In 1987 the name was changed with Sektor Bali under PLN Pembangkitan dan Penyaluran Jawa Bagian Timur dan Bali. In 1995, it became part of PT. Indonesia Power and was named PT. Indonesia Power Unit Bisnis Pembangkitan Bali.
UBP Bali has 11 units of PLTD and 4 units of PLTG all located in Pesanggaran, Denpasar. In 1997, construction of PLTG Gilimanuk was completed. All of the powers generating units use HSD fuel. UBP Bali also operates the PLTG Pemaron located in the northern part of that island.
Electricity generated by nine of the 11 units of PLTD is channeled to a 20KV transmission system and power from the other two units is channeled to a 150 KV transmission systems.
Maintenance Service Business Units (UBJ Pemeliharaan)
Maintenance Service Business Units provide maintenance services for PLTA, PLTD, PLTG, PLTGU, PLTU and PLTP in the forms of spare parts and testing & commissioning.
PT. Pembangkitan Jawa Bali (PT. PJB)
PT PJB was originally known with the name of PT Pembangkitan Tenaga Listrik Jawa-Bali II established in 1995. This company operates power plants producing high quality electricity with high technology. In 2000, the name of PJB II was changed with PT. Pembangkitan Jawa Bali (PT. PJB).
Currently, PJB operates a number of power plants with an installed capacity of 6,526 MW and total assets of around Rp 41.5 trillion.
PT. PJB has a subsidiary PT. Rekadaya Elektrika operates in the business of Engineering, Procurement & Construction (EPC) service in the electricity sector. In the beginning PJB had a 37.6% stake in the subsidiary before it became a majority shareholder. Another subsidiary of PJB is PJB Service which offers consultancy service for power plant construction.
PT. Indonesia Comnet Plus (ICON+)
ICON+ was established in 2000 to operate as a network, service and telecommunication content provider specially to support information system and technology of PLN and the public. Its service products include clear channel, multi Protocol Label Switching (MLS), and broadband internet access, Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), metronet, IP VSAT and banking applications. ICON+ operates 27,300 kilometers of optic fiber networks covering Java, Bali and Sumatra.
Until now ICON+ serves around 296 companies including telecommunications operators, banks and manufacturers.
In 2008, ICON+ expanded its telecommunication networks to Sumatra and isolated areas in Indonesia, and maximized the empowerment of electrical networks of PLN all over Indonesia.
In 2010 ICON+ cooperated with Nokia Siemens to operate and in maintenance telecommunication networks in Sumatra. In addition, ICON+ cooperates with cellular phone operators like Telkomsel and XL Axiata.
PT. PLN Batam
PT. PLN Batam holds the license to operate in electric power business and generate power for the public in Batam, Rempang and Galang. Earlier, power requirement in those areas was supplied by Pertamina since 1971, operating PLTD units with a capacity of 2 x 188 KvA.
In 1993, the task of producing electricity in those areas was handed over PT PLN (Persero) of Batam Special Area. In 2000, the status of PT PLN (Persero) of the Batam special area was changed with the name of PT Pelayanan Listrik Nasional Batam (PT PLN Batam) as a subsidiary of PT PLN (Persero). In June 2008, PT PLN Batam became b'right PLN Batam.
Until end of 2010, b'right PLN Batam had an installed capacity of 372 MW and supplying capacity of 306 MW with a peak load of 250 MW. In 2004, b'right PLN Batam adopted fuel mix strategy, and until 2010, the composition of primary energy used by PLN Batam was gas making up 96.53% and oil fuel 3.47%.
PT. PLN Tarakan
In the beginning it was known as PLN of Tarakan brand in East Kalimantan, coming on line in 2001. The capacity of the facility was expanded later to keep pace with the growing demand for electricity in that island which grows fast in economy.
In August 2003, the organization of Tarakan branches of PT. PLN (Persero) at PT. PLN (Persero) of South and East Kalimantan areas were dissolved and in December that year PT. Pelayanan Listrik Nasional Tarakan (PT. PLN Tarakan) was established to serve the public in Tarakan.
PT Prima Layanan Nasional Enjiniring
PT. PLN Enjiniring was established in 2002, to operate in engineering design consultancy and construction supervision.
PT. Geo Dipa Energi (PT. GDE)
PT. GDE was established in 2002 as a joint venture between PLN and state oil and gas company Pertamina. GDE operate geothermal power plants. It develops geothermal energy to produce electricity from Dieng and Patuha each having a geothermal reserve of 400 MW.
The main business of GDE is explorations and exploitations to build power plants and energy distribution facilities. Currently GDE supplies power to the Jamali (Java-Madura-Bali) transmission line .
PLTP Dieng is a geothermal power plant in Dieng operated by GDE. The Dieng geothermal field is estimated to have a potential reserve of 300 MWe.
PLTP Dieng Unit 1 is already operational with a capacity of 1x60 MWe. The power plant has been connected with the Java-Madura-Bali interconnection. The capacity of the Dieng Unit 2 and Uni8ts 3 is being expanded to 60 MWe.
Patuha is located at Gunung Patuha in West Java not far from the city of Bandung. The project is developed together with Dieng Unit 1, but Patuha project has not fully been operated by GDE.
The Patuha field has an estimated reserve of 400 MWe. It is estimated to have he capacity to produce 60MWe of geothermal steam.
GDE will develop the Patuha reserve in three units--Patuha Unit 1, 2 and 3 each with a capacity of 55 MWe.
In 2009, GDE secured a loan of US$ 103 million from Bank BNI. The 11-year loan was used t to finance development of PLTP Patuha with a capacity of 55 MWe. He PLTP is expected to be operational in 2012.
PLN's financial performance in 2010 improved compared with the previous year. Its income from the sales of electric power rose 14.2 % that year from Rp 90.2 trillion in 2009 to Rp 102.9 trillion in 2010. The improvement of the financial performance was attributable mainly to an increase in the number of its subscribers by 2.3 million and increase in sales from 134.582 Giga Watt hours (GWh) to 147.297 GWh.
In 2010, PLN was able to meet all demand for new connections with no subscriber in the waiting list.
The profitability of the company improved as shown by the increase in operating profit from Rp 9.9 trillion in 2009 to Rp 13.3 trillion in 2010. Increase in operating profit was attributable partly to an increase in sales of electric power and rise in subsidy margin from 5% to 8%.
Growing number of subscribers require an increase in production of electric power. In 2010, PLN launched a program to end the inconvenience of blackouts in some areas in the regions. Fuel consumption, therefore, increased as shown by the rise in fuel cost from Rp 76.2 trillion in 2009 to Rp 84.2 trillion in 2010 . Operating cost rose 10.2 % to Rp 149 trillion.
Energy mix in 2010 improved from 2009 with oil fuel contribution declining from 23% to 20% while gas contribution rose from 22% to 24%. Heavier rains in 2010 resulted in greater contribution of hydropower plants to energy mix up from 7% in 2009 to 10% in 2010. The improvement in the energy mix helped offset deficiency in power supply from coal fired power plants with the delay in the completion of PLTU Indramayu, PLTU Rembang and PLTU Suralaya until April 2011. Progress has also been made in improving efficiency by reducing depreciation of networks from 9.93 % in 2009 to 9.74 % in 2010.
By Dec 31, 2010, PLN's assets were valued at Rp 369.5 trillion, up Rp 35.8 trillion or 11 % from Rp 333.7 trillion a year earlier. Fixed assets accounted for 87% of the increase especially in coal-fired power plants built under the first crash program to build coal-fired power plants with a total capacity of 10,000 MW. The assets included non current assets valued at Rp 324.4 trillion and current assets valued at Rp 45.1 trillion. Its liabilities include non current liability valued at Rp 164.6 trillion and current liabilities totaling Rp 55.3 trillion. With equity totaling Rp 149.5 trillion, its equity and liabilities of PLN totaled Rp 369.5 trillion by the end of in 2010.
Table--1 Machines of UBP Suralaya Name of machines Installed capacity PLTU Suralaya #1 400 MW PLTU Suralaya #2 400 MW PLTU Suralaya #3 400 MW PLTU Suralaya #4 400 MW PLTU Suralaya #5 600 MW PLTU Suralaya #6 600 MW PLTU Suralaya #7 600 MW Source: PLN Table--2 Machines of UBP Priok Number of Installed Name of machines machines capacity Total PLTD Senayan 4 2.52 MW 10.08 MW PLTD Senayan 2 3.00 MW 6.00 MW PLTG Priok 2 26.00 MW 52.00 MW PLTGU Priok 6 130.00 MW 780.00 MW PLTGU Priok 2 200.00 MW 400.00 MW Sources: PLN Table--3 Machines of UBP Saguling Name of machines Number of Installed Total machines capacity PLTA Saguling 4 175.18 MW 700.72 MW PLTA Bengkok 3 1.05 MW 3.15 MW PLTA Bengkok 1 0.70 MW 0.70 MW PLTA Plengan 3 1.08 MW 3.24 MW PLTA Plengan 1 2.02 MW 2.02 MW PLTA Plengan 1 1.61 MW 1.61 MW PLTA Lamajan 3 6.52 MW 19.56 MW PLTA Cikalong 3 6.40 MW 19.20 MW PLTA Ubrug 2 5.94 MW 11.88 MW PLTA Ubrug 1 6.48 MW 6.48 MW PLTA Kracak 3 6.30 MW 18.90 MW PLTA Parakan Kondang 2 2.46 MW 4.92 MW PLTA Parakan Kondang 2 2.49 MW 4.98 MW Sources : PLN Table--4 Machines of UBP Kamojang Name of machines Number of Installed Total machines capacity PLTP Kamojang 2 55.00 MW 110.00 MW PLTP Kamojang 1 30.00 MW 30.00 MW PLTP Gunung Salak 3 60.00 MW 180.00 MW PLTP Darajat 1 55.00 MW 55.00 MW Sources: PLN Table--5 Machines of UBP Mrica Number of Installed Name of machines machines capacity Total PLTA PB Sudirman 3 60.30 MW 180.90 MW PLTA Jelok 4 5.12 MW 20.48 MW PLTA Timo 3 4.00 MW 12.0 MW PLTA Wonogiri 2 6.20 MW 12.4 MW PLTA Garung 2 13.20 MW 26.4 MW PLTA Sempor 1 1.00 MW 1.00 MW PLTA Ketenger 2 3.52 MW 7.04 MW PLTA Ketenger 1 1.00 MW 1.00 MW PLTA Wadaslintang 2 9.00 MW 18.00 MW PLTA Kedungombo 1 22.50 MW 22.50 MW PLTA Klambu 1 1.17 MW 1.17 MW PLTA Pejengkolan 1 1.40 MW 1.40 MW PLTA Sidorejo 1 1.40 MW 1.40 MW PLTA Tapen 1 0.75 MW 0.75 MW Sources: PLN Table--6 Machines of UBP Semarang Number of Installed Name of machines machines capacity Total PLTGU Tambak Lorok 6 109.65 MW 657.90 MW PLTGU Tambak Lorok 2 188.00 MW 376.00 MW PLTU Tambak Lorok 2 50.00 MW 100.00 MW PLTU Tambak Lorok 1 200.00 MW 200.00 MW PLTG Cilacap 1 26.00 MW 26.00 MW PLTG Cilacap 1 29.00 MW 29.00 MW PLTG Sunyaragi 2 20.03 MW 40.06 MW PLTA Sunyaragi 2 20.10 MW 40.20 MW Sources : PLN Table--7 Machines of UBP Perak Grati Number of Installed Name of machines machines capacity Total PLTGU Grati 3 100.75 MW 302.25 MW PLTGU Grati 1 159.58 MW 159.58 MW PLTG Grati 3 100.75 MW 302.25 MW PLTU Perak 2 50.00 MW 100.00 MW Sources : PLN Table--8 Machines of UBP Bali Number of Installed Name of machines machines capacity Total PLTD Pesanggaran 3 5.08 MW 15.28 MW PLTD Pesanggaran 1 4.14 MW 4.14 MW PLTD Pesanggaran 2 6.77 MW 13.54 MW PLTD Pesanggaran 2 6.52 MW 13.04 MW PLTD Pesanggaran 2 12.39 MW 24.78 MW PLTG Pesanggaran 1 21.35 MW 21.35 MW PLTG Pesanggaran 1 20.10 MW 20.10 MW PLTG Pesanggaran 2 42.00 MW 84.00 MW PLTG Gilimanuk 1 133.80 MW 133.80 MW PLTG Pemaron 2 48.80 MW 97.60 MW Sources: PLN Table--9 Power generating plants of PT. PJB Name of power plants (UP) Types Capacity (MW) UP Muara Karang PLTU 1,208.58 UP Muara Tawar PLTGU 920 UP Cirata PLTA 1,008 UP Indramayu PLTU 990 UP Rembang PLTU 630 UP Gresik PLTGU 2,259.18 UP Pacitan PLTU 250 UP Brantas PLTA 281.38 UP Paiton PLTU 800 UP Paiton Baru PLTU 660 Total 6,526 Sources : PLN Table--10 Summary of consolidated financial report of PLN, 2009-2010 (Rp billion) Description 2009 2010 Asset Current assets 36,999 45,143 Non current assets 296,714 324,417 Other assets -- -- Total Assets 333,713 369,560 Liabilities Current liabilities 47,734 55,319 Non current liabilities 144,783 164,655 Other liabilities -- -- Equity 141,196 149,585 Total liabilities and equity 333,713 369,560 Profit/loss Total income 145,222 162,375 Net profit 10,356 10,086 Sources: Financial report of PLN, 2010