Problems in agriculture.
Total geographical area of Pakistan (Sq.kms) is 796,096 (Punjab-205,344; Sindh-140,914; NWFP-74,521; Balochistan-347,190, FATA-27,220 and Islamabad Federal Area-906), corresponding to 80.0 mha, and (20.60 mha; 14.10 mha; 10.20 mha; 34.67 mha of the four provinces of Pakistan, respectively). Most of the areas in the Punjab and Sindh provinces are plain land, formed by the River Indus. Pakistan is known for its excellent network of canals and rich agricultural lands, with three major reservoirs-Tarbela, Mangla and Chashma, 23 barrages, 12 huge interlink INTERLINK - A commercial product comprising hardware and software for file transfer between IBM and VAX computers. canals, 62,800 kilometers canals length, 106 kilometers water courses and 107,000 nos. of channels. The Northern Regions of Pakistan is famous for its high mountain ranges, the Himalayas and Karakorams. The highest peak in the area is Godwin Austin (K-2), which is 8610.60 meters above the sea level. This is the second highest peak in the world. The south western part of the country is a plateau with an average height of about 609.6 meters above the sea level. The Province of NWFP NWFP North-West Frontier Province (northwest Pakistan)
NWFP Northwest Forest Plan
NWFP Non-Wood Forest Product comprises of both hilly areas and fertile valleys. Balochistan, the biggest province of Pakistan is mainly an arid region with promise of mineral wealth. The hot summer months extended from April to June and the winter months are effective from December to February of the year. The climate in some areas of the country varies from -0[degrees]C to over 50[degrees]C.
Pakistan is basically an agricultural country. It contributes almost one third of the gross domestic product (GDP GDP (guanosine diphosphate): see guanine. ), provides employment to 75 per cent of the rural population and accounts for more than 35 per cent of the export earning. Despite land reforms, socioeconomic situation in the rural sector is predominantly feudalistic feu·dal·ism
1. A political and economic system of Europe from the 9th to about the 15th century, based on the holding of all land in fief or fee and the resulting relation of lord to vassal and characterized by homage, legal and military . Access of small farmers to civil administration or local bank management is very little, whereas, rural elites enjoy a privileged position in the local decision making. Agriculture growth has suffered a severe set back during 2000-2001 due to the unprecedented drought situation and shortage of irrigation irrigation, in agriculture, artificial watering of the land. Although used chiefly in regions with annual rainfall of less than 20 in. (51 cm), it is also used in wetter areas to grow certain crops, e.g., rice. water to the extent of 40 per cent eventually causing a decline of 2.5 per cent as against an impressive growth of 5.1 per cent growth of 6.1 per cent last year. Among the major crop wheat production is estimated at 19,535 thousand tons in 2000-2001, as against 21,079 thousand tons last year, showing a decline of 12.1 per cent. Cotton, the most important cash crop, its production decreased from 11,240 thousand in 1999-2000 to 10,732 thousand bales in 2000-2001-a decline of 4.5 per cent. Rice production is also estimated to have declined to 4,803 thousand tons in 2000-2001, as against 5,156 thousand tons last year, showing a decline of 6.8 per cent. Sugarcane production has decline by about 5.9 per cent in 2000-2001 or to 43,608 thousand tons in 2000-2001 from 46,333 thousand tons last year. as regards the minor crops, chillies production is higher by 42 per cent followed by mung pulse (10.2 per cent) and marsh pulse (8 per cent). However, onion production is less by 9.2 per cent, followed by potato (7.6 percent), and masoor pulse (5.9 per cent) during 2000-2001.
Of the total geographical areas 79.61 mha of Pakistan, the total cropped areas of Pakistan is 19.82 mha, of which the total cropped areas of Punjab is 11.04 mha; Sindh 5.45 mha; NWFP 1.93 mha and Balochistan 1.40 mha. Of this cropped area, only 25 per cent is under cultivation, 4.5 per cent under forest, about 57 per cent is range land. The irrigated land is 75 per cent (15.2 mha. of the total cropped area), 19 percent (or nearly 4.25 mha) is rainfed, while the other 4 per cent is irrigated by tubewells and other sources. The main agricultural resources inputs are: fertilizers, water regimes, pesticides, weedicides, high yielding varieties, labourers, etc. Pakistan's economy depends on agriculture. The country is fortunate in that the soils, topography and climate are generally suitable for year round agriculture. Due to the existence of the country in arid and semi-arid climatic regions, artificial irrigation has been practiced for a long time. Rainfall in the country is sporadic and the annual rainfall distribution based on per cent of geographical area, which may be classified as, about 68 per cert of the geographical area lies under annual rainfall of 251-500 mm. This leaves only 8 per cent of geographical area where the annual rainfall exceeds 500 mm. Climatic stress due to high temperatures and droughts are characterized as crop growth index and aridity index An aridity index (AI) is a numerical indicator of the degree of dryness of the climate at a given location. A number of aridity indices have been proposed (see below); these indicators serve to identify, locate or delimit regions that suffer from a deficit of available water, a , respectively.
Pakistan is a land of promise and tremendous development possibilities by virtue of its unique geographical location, fast acquisitional talents of its people, and richness of natural and cultural resources. Most of the land area of Pakistan is classified as arid to semiarid because rainfall is not sufficient to grow agricultural crops, forest and fruit plants and pastures. The culture able area of Pakistan is 35.4 mha, forest land 3.5 mha, culturable waste 8.6 mha, cultivated area 23.3 mha, waterlogged and salt affected area in the Indus Basin is 6.8 mha, salt affected area out side Indus Basin is 5.6 mha. The hot deserts extend over some western areas and Thar n. 1. (Zool.) A goatlike animal (Capra Jemlaica) native of the Himalayas. It has small, flattened horns, curved directly backward. The hair of the neck, shoulders, and chest of the male is very long, reaching to the knees. , Cholistan and Thal. Thar and Cholistan are part of the great Indian desert Great Indian Desert, S Asia: see Thar Desert. and cover the area east of the southern half of the Indus plains. The Thal area is between the Jhelum and Indus Rivers.
Water is a unique natural resource. In Pakistan, conservation and management of water supplies is crucial as the demand for water continues to rise because of burgeoning population. Pakistan agriculture is predominantly irrigated. Water is one of the most limiting constraint for agricultural production in Pakistan. Pakistan is blessed by nature with fertile lands, network of rivers, sunshine, versatile climate, and vast potential of agricultural production. The country's major agricultural areas lie within the smooth plains formed naturally by mighty Indus River Indus River
Trans-Himalayan river of southern Asia. It is one of the world's longest rivers, with a length of 1,800 mi (2,900 km). Its annual average flow of 272 billion cu yd (207 billion cu m) is twice that of the Nile. since time immemorial time immemorial
n. pl. times immemorial
1. Time long past, beyond memory or record. Also called time out of mind.
2. Law Time antedating legal records.
Noun 1. and its several tributaries such as Kabul, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi and Sutlej, which flow in southwardly south·ward
adv. & adj.
Toward, to, or in the south.
A southward direction, point, or region.
south directions, finally enter into a single stream and flowing into Arabian Sea Arabian Sea, ancient Mare Erythraeum, northwest part of the Indian Ocean, lying between Arabia and India. The Gulf of Aden, extended by the Red Sea, and the Gulf of Oman, extended by the Persian Gulf, are its principal arms. near Karachi. However, due to mismanagement mis·man·age
tr.v. mis·man·aged, mis·man·ag·ing, mis·man·ag·es
To manage badly or carelessly.
mis·manage·ment n. of water resources, inadequate drainage systems, poor performance of existing irrigation and drainage systems, the agricultural production is far below its potential. High yielding resistant varieties of seeds, farm mechanization mechanization
Use of machines, either wholly or in part, to replace human or animal labour. Unlike automation, which may not depend at all on a human operator, mechanization requires human participation to provide information or instruction. , expansion of irrigation, good quality of certified seeds; land preparation, planting time, management inputs, weed control Weed control is the botanical component of pest control, stopping weeds from reaching a mature stage of growth when they could be harmful to domesticated plants and livestock by physical and chemical methods. , use of weedicides; skill and knowledge of production technology, plant protection techniques, brining new land under cultivation; proper ratio and use of balanced of chemical fertilizers agricultural extension Agricultural extension was once known as the application of scientific research and new knowledge to agricultural practices through farmer education. The field of extension now encompasses a wider range of communication and learning activities organised for rural people by services; multiple cropping systems, control of post harvest losses.
Agriculture still remains the largest sector of Pakistan's economy in terms of agricultural productions, population growth, employment and income generations. The main and macro cereal crops of the country are wheat, rice, cotton, sugarcane, maize, etc., which play pivotal and vantage role in the economy of the country. These crops cover a very large areas in term of cultivation. So, their productions are also very large and phenomenal. Cotton and rice are the main exportable cash crops. In addition, fruits and vegetables are also produced in sufficient quantities, which are also exported to foreign markets.
The science-based agriculture has generally meanthigher and more stable production and a better way of life for billions of people. The most important development had been our ability to produce continually larger harvests, ensuring food stability and security for a constantly growing population. The green revolution in agriculture during 1960 conducted research to enable new procedures to be adapted to local conditions to increase and diversity crop yield in Pakistan. Although, human numbers have doubled since 1960, reaching 6 billion in 1999, food production has out placed population chiefly as a result of the development and use of improved plant varieties, a seven-fold increase in the nitrogenous nitrogenous /ni·trog·e·nous/ (ni-troj´e-nus) containing nitrogen.
Relating to or containing nitrogen.
containing nitrogen. fertilizers, a doubling of irrigated area, more effective control of insects and diseases, improved strains of livestock and poultry and wider use of nutritionally balanced feeds. In Pakistan, the green revolution has resulted in tremendous yield increases in case of wheat production has gone up from 3.9 million metric tons to 21 million metric tons. Rice has progressed from 1.3 million metric tons to 5.1 million metric tons. Maize production also short up from 0.7 million metric tons to 1.35 metric tons and sugarcane production from 22 million metric tons to 46.3 million metric tons. In Pakistan, the total area under cultivation has not decreased but at least for the last 10 years, it is almost the same i.e. 21 million hectare. And with the population explosion, it has also posed a serious threat to our economy, as this cultivated area is very difficult to increase because of water limitations.
The farmers of our country are still unaware of the proper fertilizer usage. We are still far off from the potential of our agricultural produce. We have achieved 2.2 tons in wheat, 2.8 tons in rice, 1.3 tons in maize and 50 tons in sugarcane per hectare against the potential of 6.4 tons in what, 6.8 tons in rice, 6.9 tons in maize and 166 tons in sugarcane per hectare, respectively. Now the compete with the water shortage, increasing population, threat for decreasing land for cultivation and above all to see a prosperous. We should follow the best management practices in all the sphere f farming system. It includes good land leveling soil and water analysis, timely sowing of crops, adequate and balanced fertilizers, good irrigation management good rotation and better storage of the produce. All these practices are indispensable for better produce but chemical fertilizers and their usage is much more important as they act as the instant energizers and ultimate growth enhancer for the plants.
In Pakistan, production of fertilizers is not meeting the demand and in the near future the situation seems to remain the same. So, we should utilize the presently available fertilizer quantity in an adequate and balanced manure to keep the soil in a good condition. It has been estimated that more than two million tons of nutrients are removed from our agricultural soils each year in farm product alone. A balanced combination of fertilizers is needed for good crop harvest. In Pakistan, the current use of straight fertilizers which ultimately provide N, P and K tc the soil is 110 kg/ha as compared to 300-600 kg/ha in Western Europe Western Europe
The countries of western Europe, especially those that are allied with the United States and Canada in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (established 1949 and usually known as NATO). and 300-350 kg/ha in China and Egypt. In our country where the organic matte is already less than 1 per cent in the soils, the use of N and P is between 1:3.35-4.03 as compared to recommended quantity of 1:2-2.5. It means if a farmer is using 1 kg of P, he should use 2or 2.5 kg of N for a balanced from the canal head to the crop root zone is as low as 35-40 per cent i.e. out of 93 MAF MAF
macrophage activating factor. water, which comes from the rivers into the surface irrigation system only 35-40 MAF reaches the crop root zone. The remaining 56 MAF is lost to water course losses, canal seepage and breaches, etc. We have to develop new reservoirs for storage of surplus water for timely supply to crops during growing seasons.
Lining of the water courses can also overcome the current enormous losses. To avoid a huge expense on lining at farmer's field, geo-membrane-PVC sheet can be used to reduce water losses. Public and private tubewells should be encouraged to increase the water availability. The fertilizer would keep soils fertile by replacing the already replenished nutrients by the produce and would definitely flourish the idea of adequate and balanced fertilization. This fertilizer would also improves the water use efficiency. A well-fed crop produces a healthier and more extensive root system, i.e. capable of extracting water and nutrients more efficiently than a nutrient deficient crop. It is stated that, this adequate and balanced fertilization practice, if properly understood and adopted, will definitely prolong the period of green revolution, food production can keep face if not outpace out·pace
tr.v. out·paced, out·pac·ing, out·pac·es
To surpass or outdo (another), as in speed, growth, or performance.
[-pacing, with the existing population growth in the next half century. This adequate and balanced fertilization has the ability to completely overcome the Pakistani soil fertility problem and cope with the irrigation problem in agricultural areas pretty well fertilizer status in the soil. The prevailing irrigation water inadequacy can check the area under cultivation, proper crop growth and ultimately the production. Approximately 90 per cent of the agricultural production come from irrigated land supplies.
Soil salinity is a major problem in arid and semiarid regions, where rainfall is insufficient to leach salts and excess sodium ions down and out of the root zone. These areas often have high evaporation rates, which can encourage an increase in salt concentration at the soil surface through capillary rise. The presence of a cemented hardpan hardpan, condition of the soil or subsoil in which the soil grains become cemented together by such bonding agents as iron oxide and calcium carbonate, forming a hard, impervious mass. at varying depths and insufficient precipitation for leaching often adds to the problem. Newly established irrigation projects, with improper planning and management practices may also add salts to soils. Historically, soil salinity contributed to the decline of several ancient civilization. Despite the advanced technologies available today, salinization of millions of hectares of land continues to reduce crop productivity severely worldwide. The climate of Pakistan is arid to semiarid. Annual rainfall over much of the Indus Plain is erratic and uneven and not more than 150 mm while evaporation is high (1,250 mm to 2,800 mm).
The Indus Basin has a flat topography, poor natural drainage and a semi-arid climate A Semi-arid climate or steppe climate generally describes climatic regions that receive low annual rainfall (250-500 mm or 10-20 in). A more precise definition is given by the Köppen climate classification that treats steppe climates (BS) as intermediates between the desert with high evaporation. Such an environment, irrigation with inadequate drainage has inevitably resulted in the twin-problem of water logging and salinity. Increase in diversion in river flows and seepage from canals, watercourses and irrigated areas have led to gradual rise in groundwater levels. Within 100 years, water table has risen from 40 to 300 meters on about 42 per cent area of the Indus Basin. The situation is worst in Sindh province, where water table is within 3 meter on 57 % of irrigated area. The high water table creates problems of oxygen deficiency, salt-built up in the soil profile and poor workability with soil. Salinity has become a menace to the agriculture in Pakistan. The problem is quite common throughout Pakistan but it is especially acute in the Punjab and Sindh, where extensive areas have gone out of cultivation and every year few thousand acres are added to this figure.
Major bottlenecks causing decline in crop production are: poor methods of seed bed preparation; poor methods of planting seed at optimum time; shortage of water for irrigation; non-availability of seed of improved varieties and distribution system; late sowing; delay in cultural operation; water logging and salinity problems; increasing land degradation The causes of land degradation are mainly anthropogenic and agriculture related. The major causes include:
We can increase the agricultural productivity Agricultural productivity is measured as the ratio of agricultural inputs to agricultural outputs. While individual products are usually measured by weight, their varying densities make measuring overall agricultural output difficult. by bringing new lands under cultivation; ploughing of land in a befitting be·fit·ting
Appropriate; suitable; proper.
Adj. 1. manner; land leveling for efficient use of water; balanced fertilizer application, types and their methods of use in right proportion and at right time; introduction of high yielding and resistant varieties; good quality certified seed; use of improved seed; timely sowing; use of weedicides to weed control; use of pesticides and right plant protection techniques; cropping systems and multiple cropping; water regimes, expansion of irrigation, adequate quantity of water; agricultural extension services; post-harvest techniques; skill and knowledge of production technology; management of inputs, larger labour inputs resulting in better tillage operation; education and extension training services; strictly following the crop calendar; optimum plant protection, etc.
--Dr. S. M. Alam, Dr. A.H. Shaikh & M/A/Khan