Principals' and teachers' perceptions of learning disabilities: a study from Nara prefecture, Japan.Astract. In this study, perceptions of learning disabilities were obtained from 128 principals and 123 teachers in the Nara Prefecture, Japan. A factor analysis indicated that five factors underlie perceptions of learning disabilities: changes in the family and social situation, insufficient knowledge of and support for learning disabilities, teachers' abilities and professional development, teachers' situation and governmental issues. Teachers' situation was perceived to be the main factor, whereas the least important factor was governmental issues. Teachers mainly indicated agreement on the factor of insufficient knowledge of and support for students with learning disabilities. Principals were more aware of governmental issues than teachers.
The field of learning disabilities has developed dramatically in Japan in the last decade. The first definition of learning disabilities was developed in 1999 (Committee on Guidance/Education Planning for Children with Learning Disabilities, 1999). In 2000 and 2001, the Enrichment enrichment Food industry The addition of vitamins or minerals to a food–eg, wheat, which may have been lost during processing. See White flour; Cf Whole grains. Project for the Support System for Students with Learning Disabilities was implemented. Since this project began, progress has been made in developing a screening system, frameworks for providing followup followup - On Usenet, a posting generated in response to another posting (as opposed to a reply, which goes by e-mail rather than being broadcast). Followups include the ID of the parent message in their headers; smart news-readers can use this information to present Usenet news in support for students with learning disabilities and improved networking between schools and specialists (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports Science Sports science is a discipline that studies the application of scientific principles and techniques with the aim of improving sporting performance. Human movement is a related scientific discipline that studies human movement in all contexts including that of sport. and Technology, 2002, 2003a).
Today a support system for students with learning disabilities is being developed (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports Science and Technology, 2003b; Ueno Ueno (上野 upper-field) can refer to a number of places in Japan:
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder characterized by distractibility, hyperactivity, impulsive behaviors, and the inability to remain focused on tasks or ) and those with high-functioning autism High-functioning autism (HFA) is an informal term applied to individuals with autism, an IQ of 85 or above, and the ability to speak, read, and write. HFA may simply refer to autistic people who have normal overall intelligence; that is, are not cognitively challenged. such as Asperger syndrome Asperger syndrome
Children who have autistic behavior but no problems with language.
Mentioned in: Autism , to the group of students who are entitled en·ti·tle
tr.v. en·ti·tled, en·ti·tling, en·ti·tles
1. To give a name or title to.
2. To furnish with a right or claim to something: to specialized spe·cial·ize
v. spe·cial·ized, spe·cial·iz·ing, spe·cial·iz·es
1. To pursue a special activity, occupation, or field of study.
2. assistance (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports Science and Technology, 2003b).
Brief History of Support for Students with Learning Disabilities in Japan
"Special education" in Japan used to refer to students with significant low-incidence disabilities, who typically attended special schools or special classes, and who comprised approximately 1.3% of the total school population (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports Science and Technology, 2003b). Now "special support education" also refers to students who are found in the general education classroom, and there is an emphasis on supporting the needs of these students. These students comprise about 6% of the total school population (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports Science and Technology, 2003b). Consequently, special support education covers 7-8% of all students (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports Science and Technology, 2003b).
In the past, there were as many students with significant disabilities in general education classes without special support as students in special schools or classes (Abe, 1998; Tsuge, 2001). There were several reasons for this situation: (a) the lack of differential identification Differential identification is a criminological theory which states that crime and/or deviance develops when the individual identifies more with the deviant group than with conforming members of society. For example, older criminals would serve as role models for younger criminals. between mild mental retardation mental retardation, below average level of intellectual functioning, usually defined by an IQ of below 70 to 75, combined with limitations in the skills necessary for daily living. and learning disabilities; (b) it was thought that general education was the appropriate placement for these students; and (c) parents' requests (Miyamoto Miyamoto (宮本 "base of the shrine") is a Japanese surname.
People named Miyamoto include:
An offspring born alone.
singleton Medtalk One baby. Cf Triplet, Twin. , 1989).
Learning disabilities were discussed in the medical and psychological literature for decades but not in education until the late 1980s. In 1990, the Liaison Conference of the National Association of Parents of Children with Learning Disabilities (later renamed National Parents' Association of Learning Disabilities) was established. The Advisory Committee on Tsukyu Class (resource rooms) and Related Issues (1992) raised the topic of learning disabilities for the first time in an education policy document. The majority (84%) of the resource rooms are for students with speech disorders Speech Disorders Definition
According to the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA), a language disorder is an impairment in comprehension use of the spoken, written, or other symbol system. , 9.5% are for students with emotional disturbance Noun 1. emotional disturbance - any mental disorder not caused by detectable organic abnormalities of the brain and in which a major disturbance of emotions is predominant
affective disorder, emotional disorder, major affective disorder and 5.8% are for students with hearing impairment hearing impairment
A reduction or defect in the ability to perceive sound. . Although students with mental retardation or learning disabilities were not supposed to attend resource rooms, some students with learning disabilities have received support in resource rooms for students with speech disorders. However, there are relatively few resource rooms in schools throughout Japan, so 66% of students who are eligible for services in resource rooms have to change schools to receive such services (Yamaguchi, 2000).
In addition to developing this support system, in recent years, the Years, The
the seven decades of Eleanor Pargiter’s life. [Br. Lit.: Benét, 1109]
See : Time Ministry of Education and the Prefectural pre·fec·ture
1. The district administered or governed by a prefect.
2. The office or authority of a prefect.
3. The residence or housing of a prefect. Boards of Education have provided professional development for principals and teachers (Ministry of Education, 1996, 1997). Generally, most educators have become familiar with the words "Gakushu shogai (learning disabilities)," "Gakushu konnan Charles Ashenoff (sometimes seen Hispanicized as Carlos Ashenoff), (born June 6, 1964 in Santiago de Cuba) better known by his ring name, Konnan, is a semi-retired American professional wrestler and rapper of Cuban and Puerto Rican descent. (learning difficulties)" and the Roman letters "LD," and with the characteristics of students with these challenges. However, teachers were confused about the concept of learning disabilities, which was not the same as difficulties in learning (Takayama Takayama (täkä`yämə), city (1990 pop. 65,243), Gifu prefecture, W central Honshu, Japan, on the Jinzu River. A former castle town from the Edo era, it is now an agricultural market and handicrafts center. , 1998). In 1999, the definition of learning disabilities was addressed in the final report written by the Committee on Guidance/ Education Planning for Children with Learning Disabilities (1999):
Learning disabilities refers to varied conditions, fundamentally without mental retardation, manifested by significant difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, calculating or reasoning. Learning disabilities are presumed to be caused by central nervous system dysfunction rather than visual impairments, hearing impairments, intellectual handicap, emotional disturbance, or environmental influences being the direct cause. (Kataoka, 2001, p. 3)
Further, the nature of the support system was spelled out in guidelines guidelines,
n.pl a set of standards, criteria, or specifications to be used or followed in the performance of certain tasks. in the final report, as reported by Ueno et al. (2001) (see Figure 1). First, teachers identify students with learning disabilities in their classrooms. Second, teachers discuss each student's situation in a staff meeting. Third, if the student needs further specialist assessment, a school committee arranges this with the parents' agreement. Fourth, the specialist team assesses the student and, if appropriate, recommends to the school committee that specialized support is needed. A specialist team is established in each prefecture, consisting of staff from the board of education in the municipality MUNICIPALITY. The body of officers, taken collectively, belonging to a city, who are appointed to manage its affairs and defend its interests. , special education teachers, psychologists This list includes notable psychologists and contributors to psychology, some of whom may not have thought of themselves primarily as psychologists but are included here because of their important contributions to the discipline. and medical practitioners. This team not only assesses the students to identify learning disabilities, it also gives advice on educational support to a school committee.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
In January January: see month. 2004, the document "Guideline guideline Medtalk A series of recommendations by a body of experts in a particular discipline. See Cancer screening guidelines, Cardiac profile guidelines, Gatekeeper guidelines, Harvard guidelines, Transfusion guidelines. of Support System" was released (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports Science and Technology, 2004). This practical document covered the identification system mentioned above and clarified the areas of accountability.
Issues about Identification of Students with Learning Disabilities in General Education Classrooms
Since teachers have the task of identifying students' difficulties, their knowledge of learning disabilities and understanding of their students influence the provision of support. In one report, administrators from at least five cities stated that education and professional development for teachers was necessary because many teachers were unsure if their students had learning disabilities (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports Science and Technology, 2002). It was argued that more knowledge and a deeper understanding of students' difficulties would help teachers provide more effective support in classrooms.
Noutomi (1998) discussed some of the reasons why students have difficulties at school. The first reason is the assessment system. Currently, absolute (criteria-based) assessment is used at the elementary school elementary school: see school. level. Noutomi pointed out that some parents are not aware of their children's delay in academic skills. When students go to secondary school, parents are told their children's rank in class and when it is perceived to be low, they become worried about their children's academic skills. Such a situation might be caused by parents' lack of understanding of academic assessment and report cards or teachers not telling the parents about their child's academic difficulties in the early grades. Either way, the lack of awareness of children's problems means that assistance is delayed.
The second reason involves teachers' perceptions. When teachers encounter students who achieve poorly, they often feel that their lack of teaching skills is the reason why children are not doing well. In Japan, such teachers do not tell anyone about their difficulties with teaching but try to solve the children's achievement difficulties with their limited knowledge (Noutomi, 1998).
Using the same set of criteria, Haynes Haynes refers to: Persons named Haynes
Other Research about Perceptions
In terms of research into teachers' perceptions of learning disabilities, Christensen Christensen may refer to:
1. aural or otic; pertaining to the ear.
2. pertaining to hearing.
adj. or visual discrimination problems, information processing information processing: see data processing.
Acquisition, recording, organization, retrieval, display, and dissemination of information. Today the term usually refers to computer-based operations. difficulties); (b) behavioral behavioral
pertaining to behavior.
see psychomotor seizure. difficulties (e.g., behavior problems or antisocial antisocial /an·ti·so·cial/ (-so´sh'l)
1. denoting behavior that violates the rights of others, societal mores, or the law.
2. denoting the specific personality traits seen in antisocial personality disorder. behavior, poor attention or concentration in class); and (c) cultural and/or and/or
Used to indicate that either or both of the items connected by it are involved.
Usage Note: And/or is widely used in legal and business writing. language background. Similarly, Westwood Westwood.
1 Residential town (1990 pop. 12,557), Norfolk co., E Mass., in the greater Boston area; settled 1640, inc. 1897. It has several early 18th-century buildings.
2 Residential borough (1990 pop. 10,446), Bergen co., NE N.J. (1995) asked 311 teachers in the state of South Australia South Australia, state (1991 pop. 1,236,623), 380,070 sq mi (984,381 sq km), S central Australia. It is bounded on the S by the Indian Ocean. Kangaroo Island and many smaller islands off the south coast are included in the state. about the causes of students' difficulties in school learning. He found that factors within the student were mentioned by 62% of the sample, family background or culture by 14%, and factors within the curriculum by 8% of the sample.
The Project Team on Educational Support for Children Who Experience Learning Difficulties (hereafter In the future.
The term hereafter is always used to indicate a future time—to the exclusion of both the past and present—in legal documents, statutes, and other similar papers. Project Team) (2000) surveyed 28 principals and 97 teachers about their perceptions of teaching students with learning disabilities in the Kagawa Kagawa (kägä`wä), prefecture (1990 pop. 1,023,434), N Shikoku, Japan. Takamatsu is the capital. It is an agricultural region (rice, barley, wheat, mandarin oranges) with a mountainous and forested interior. Prefecture, Japan. According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. the principals, the three most important needs were (a) parents' understanding and cooperation; (b) classroom management; and (c) teaching skills, teachers' professional development and team teaching. By comparison, the perceived needs as reported by the teachers were (a) parents' understanding and cooperation; and (b) a cooperative system in schools, teaching skills, classroom management and team teaching.
A comparison of the results from the Australian Australian
pertaining to or originating in Australia.
Australian bat lyssavirus disease
see Australian bat lyssavirus disease.
Australian cattle dog
a medium-sized, compact working dog used for control of cattle. and Japanese studies reveals an interesting difference. Australian teachers believed that the causes of learning disabilities were related to students' characteristics. However, Japanese teachers thought parents' understanding and teachers' skills were more influential.
Furthermore, differences were found between the principals and teachers in Japan. While both groups acknowledged the lack of parents' understanding and lack of teaching skills, the principals thought that classroom management was more important, whereas teachers believed learning problems were caused by a lack of a cooperative support system among teachers in schools.
The aim of the present study was to add to the single Japanese study of perceptions by comparing principals' and teachers' perceptions of learning disabilities in the Nara Prefecture, Japan. This prefecture was selected because no prevalence survey of learning disabilities had been undertaken, nor had the support system been established. However, the Nara Parents' Association of Children/Individuals with LD was active in advocating for the introduction of a support system, and some teachers tried to offer support to students in their classrooms who they thought had learning disabilities. Thus, there was some activity at a grassroots Adj. 1. grassroots - fundamental; "the grassroots factor in making the decision"
basic - pertaining to or constituting a base or basis; "a basic fact"; "the basic ingredients"; "basic changes in public opinion occur because of changes in priorities"
To describe the situation better, a model of the perceptions of causes of students' difficulties in learning was developed (Figure 2). This focused on educational and environmental causes that might bring associated difficulties. Although Japanese definitions of learning disabilities referred to factors within the individual, as mentioned before, research revealed that Japanese teachers often also considered social skills and teaching skills. As a reslt, this research also examined the model of perceptions of learning disabilities.
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
One hundred and twenty-eight principals of public and private elementary schools and 123 teachers, the majority from elementary schools in the Nara Prefecture, participated. The samples represented 51% of principals and approximately 2% of elementary school teachers in the Nara Prefecture.
Principals' and teachers' views of the causes of learning disabilities were assessed using 55/56 items, respectively, of a larger survey on the perceptions and support of students with learning disabilities in Japanese elementary schools (the full survey may be obtained from the first author). Judgments on each of the items related to the causes of learning disabilities were made on 4-point Likert-type rating scales (see Appendix).
All items were the same for the principals and the teachers except for one item added to the teacher survey: teachers feel restricted in teaching because school management does not understand (Item 18). The items were placed into the following six hypothesized causal causal /cau·sal/ (kaw´z'l) pertaining to, involving, or indicating a cause.
relating to or emanating from cause. topics: curriculum and academic issues (Items 1 to 6: T1); teachers' abilities and school support (Items 7 to 20/21: T2); family and lifestyle issues (Items 21/22 to 33/34: T3); government control of the education system (Items 34/35 to 41/42: T4); social issues (Items 42/43 to 48/49: T5); and students' concerns including their life styles (Items 49/50 to 55/56: T6). These hypothesized topics, derived from conversations with teachers and the research literature (Cave, 2001; Christensen & Elkins, 1995; Ogi, 2000; Project Team on Educational Support for Children Who Experience Learning Difficulties, 2000), reflect the six dimensions of the model (see Figure 2).
Data were collected from the principals in December December: see month. 2001 and from the teachers in February February: see month. and August 2002. A letter of invitation and a survey questionnaire were sent by mail to the principals of every elementary school (N = 251) in the Nara Prefecture. Principals who elected to participate in the study returned the questionnaire by mail using a self-addressed stamped envelope A self-addressed stamped envelope (SASE), or just stamped addressed envelope (SAE) in the UK, is often just that: an envelope with the sender's name and address on it, with affixed paid postage and mailed to a company or private individual. . Before the return date (two weeks after receipt of the letter), reminder postcards Postcards may mean:
For the teachers' survey, the method of data collection was planned to be the same. The first author approached a representative from the Prefectural Board of Education and also from the Principals' Association to obtain their permission to send the survey to all 251 elementary schools by mail. However, both groups were worried about increasing teachers' workload The term workload can refer to a number of different yet related entities. An amount of labor
While a precise definition of a workload is elusive, a commonly accepted definition is the hypothetical relationship between a group or individual human operator and task demands. and therefore did not want to encourage teachers to cooperate in the study. Thus, other ways of data collection from teachers were substituted, such as using the personal connections of the first author.
Completed surveys were obtained from 123 teachers, who comprised 13 teachers from a single elementary school, 9 teachers contacted by a teacher friend of the first author and 101 teachers who attended a one-week certificate course in low-incidence disabilities and special education conducted by the Nara University Nara University is a private university of approximately 3,700 students, in Misasagi-cho, Nara, Japan.
It is approximately a 20-minute walk from the Kintetsu train line's Takanohara station. of Education in August 2002. The 101 teachers indicated they taught in kindergarten kindergarten [Ger.,=garden of children], system of preschool education. Friedrich Froebel designed (1837) the kindergarten to provide an educational situation less formal than that of the elementary school but one in which children's creative play instincts would be (n = 1), elementary (n = 69) (including resource room teachers, special classroom teachers and school nurses), junior secondary (n = 34), secondary (n = 5) and special schools (n = 13). One teacher did not provide information about her teaching location.
The groups of 13 and 9 teachers were given the letter of invitation and survey in February 2002. A month later, the first author went to the elementary school in Nara city to the collect the 13 surveys. These teachers were also interviewed as part of a case study in a larger study by the first author. The teacher friend returned the completed questionnaires from her colleagues to the first author after one month. The remaining 101 teachers were given the letter of invitation and survey after beginning the certificate course, and the survey was collected at the end of the course by the first author in August 2002. It was unclear how representative a sample of teachers was obtained, other than by examining the demographic information provided by respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. .
The aim of this study was to identify teachers' perceptions of learning disabilities, no matter what support they received. From the results of questionnaires, it was evident that grade taught, years of teaching experience and class size varied. Female teachers made up 74% of all participants, a percentage that approximates official data (64% female).
The certificate course was a good opportunity to get a large number of surveys from a wide area in the Nara Prefecture. The course focused on low-incidence disabilities and covered education, psychology, medicine and teaching methods in special settings; thus, the area of learning disabilities was not covered not covered Health care adjective Referring to a procedure, test or other health service to which a policy holder or insurance beneficiary is not entitled under the terms of the policy or payment system–eg, Medicare. Cf Covered. . This was also evident from the responses to the question about experience in special education. Thus, the sample of teachers was judged to be roughly representative of the teacher workforce in the Nara Prefecture. It should be noted that the Nara Prefecture, which is located in the middle of the main island in Japan, has average population density and SES. Specifically, the proportions of low- and high-income high-in·come
Of or relating to individuals or groups, such as families, that are supported by or earn income considered high in comparison with that of the larger population: high-income taxpayers. families are below average. The main occupations are balanced between agricultural and industrial, with a substantial proportion of workers commuting to major cities like Osaka Osaka (ō`säkä), city (1990 pop. 2,623,801), capital of Osaka prefecture, S Honshu, Japan, on Osaka Bay, at the mouth of the Yodo River. for jobs. Thus, the sample of educators was considered reasonably representative of those in the Nara Prefecture and Japan as a whole.
In order to identify the underlying constructs, responses from the participants were analyzed an·a·lyze
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.
2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.
3. using a principal-axis factor analysis, with squared multiple correlations Noun 1. multiple correlation - a statistical technique that predicts values of one variable on the basis of two or more other variables
multiple regression as the diagonal elements, Kaiser normalization In relational database management, a process that breaks down data into record groups for efficient processing. There are six stages. By the third stage (third normal form), data are identified only by the key field in their record. and oblimin rotation. Mean substitution Substitution
put her own son in place of Orestes; her son was killed and Orestes was saved. [Gk. Myth.: Zimmerman, 32]
robber freed in Christ’s stead. [N.T.: Matthew 27:15–18; Swed. Lit. was used to deal with missing values In statistics, missing values are a common occurrence. Several statistical methods have been developed to deal with this problem. Missing values mean that no data value is stored for the variable in the current observation. . The scree plot of the eigenvalues eigenvalues
statistical term meaning latent root. was examined to determine the number of factors that could be retained for rotation.
The scree plot indicated that a five-factor solution was reasonable. The dimensions that emerged from the factor analysis were the groupings of the responses supplied by the principals. The dimensions are potentially meaningful representations of their views about the causes of learning disabilities. Five items (47, 40, 2, 1 and 5) had communalities less than .26 and did not fit in any factor. The correlations among the factors were relatively low (see Table 1).
As shown in Table 2, Factor 1 (Changes in the family and social situation) contained 25 items related to family situations, social issues, children's and parents' lifestyles and the attitudes of students themselves. Factor 2 (Insufficient knowledge of and support for LD) consisted of 8 items about the lack of awareness of issues related to learning disabilities by administrators and insufficient support. Factor 3 (Teachers' abilities and professional development) consisted of 9 items that indicated the limitations in teachers' teaching skills and the management skills of both principals and teachers, the lack of awareness of issues related to learning disabilities and the lack of appropriate training for teachers. Factor 4 (Teachers' situation) contained four items that reflected the participants' busy lifestyles and their stress. Factor 5 (Governmental issues) consisted of five items that concerned the education system, including curriculum guidelines and provision for screening and individual testing. The mean of Factor 5 was calculated by omitting Item 18 because this item was only asked in the teacher survey. The reliability and t-test t-test,
n an inferential statistic used to test for differences between two means (groups) only. This statistic is used for small samples (e.g.,
N < 30). Also called
t-ratio, stu-dent's t. on Factor 5 were also computed using four items.
The five factors were reviewed for their internal consistency In statistics and research, internal consistency is a measure based on the correlations between different items on the same test (or the same subscale on a larger test). It measures whether several items that propose to measure the same general construct produce similar scores. using Cronbach's alpha Cronbach's (alpha) has an important use as a measure of the reliability of a psychometric instrument. It was first named as alpha by Cronbach (1951), as he had intended to continue with further instruments. . The alphas were .93 for Factor 1, .84 for Factor 2, .83 for Factor 3, .81 for Factor 4 and .52 for Factor 5. These alphas may be interpreted as falling in the moderate to excellent range.
While the five-factor solution is interpretable, a maximum-likelihood confirmatory factor analysis In statistics, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is a special form of factor analysis. It is used to assess the the number of factors and the loadings of variables. was used to determine if six factors corresponding to the hypothesized six topics were supported. However, [chi square chi square (kī),
n a nonparametric statistic used with discrete data in the form of frequency count (nominal data) or percentages or proportions that can be reduced to frequencies. ] values were all significant, indicating that the data were not as well represented by the original six topics as by the five-factor solution.
The means for the principals and teachers combined on the five subscale scores indicated strongest agreement for items related to the teachers' situation (F4) and least agreement for items suggesting that governmental issues were important (F5) (see Table 2).
The item means are shown in Table 2. The highest three items (i.e., strongest causes) were Item 8 (M = 1.65, SD = .70), Item 9 (M = 1.70, SD = .76) and Item 20 (M = 1.75, SD = .78), all in Factor 4 (Teachers' situation). The lowest three items were Item 41 (M = 3.02, SD = .68) in Factor 2 (Insufficient knowledge of and support for LD), Item 14 (M = 2.96, SD = .78) in Factor 3 (Teachers' abilities and professional development) and Item 3 (M = 2.94, SD = .65) in Factor 5 (Governmental issues). Although these items reflected the least important aspects of learning disabilities, the means are nonetheless close to 3 (i.e., agree just a little) and therefore do not indicate that respondents thought them to be unimportant un·im·por·tant
Not important; petty.
unim·portance n. . The means of the five items that did not fit in any factor were in the range of the highest three items or the lowest three items. Item 40 (M = 3.15, SD = .64) and Item 1 (M = 3.04, SD = .71) were the highest two items, while Item 2 (M = 1.68, SD = .74) was the second lowest of all items. The other items were Item 47 (M = 2.59, SD = .78) and Item 5 (M = 2.35, SD = .87). It is unclear if these items failed to load on any factor, other than having slightly lower item standard deviation In statistics, the average amount a number varies from the average number in a series of numbers.
(statistics) standard deviation - (SD) A measure of the range of values in a set of numbers. .
T-tests for independent samples indicated that principals and teachers differed on Factors 1, 2 and 3. Principals placed greater importance on the insufficient knowledge and lack of support for learning disabilities (Factor 2), whereas teachers viewed changes in the family and social situation (Factor 1) and teachers' abilities and professional development (Factor 3) as more important (see Table 3). The results of Cohen's d' indicated a medium effect size for Factors 1 and 2, and a small effect size for Factors 3, 4 and 5 (see Table 3).
This study investigated principals' and teachers' perceptions of learning disabilities and related matters in the Nara Prefecture, Japan. Analyses of the responses to principals' and teachers' surveys revealed a five-factor solution not unlike the six hypothesized topics. Comparison of the topics (T) and factors (F) indicated that most items of the topic Government control of the education system (T4) matched Insufficient knowledge of and support for LD (F2), Family and lifestyle issues (T3). Social issues (T5) and Students' concerns (T6) were most aligned with Changes in the family and social situation (F1). Abilities and educational support (T2) split into Teachers' abilities and professional development (F3) and Teachers' situation (F4). Curriculum and academic issues (T1) and T5 were aligned with Governmental issues (F5). Overall, there was no significant conceptual difference between the hypothesized causal topics and the resulting factors.
The factor for which there was most support as a cause of learning disabilities was F4 (Teachers' situation). This suggests that teachers' situation such as being busy, being under pressure, and shortages in the number of teachers (i.e., leading to larger class size) was perceived to negatively influence student learning. Conversely con·verse 1
intr.v. con·versed, con·vers·ing, con·vers·es
1. To engage in a spoken exchange of thoughts, ideas, or feelings; talk. See Synonyms at speak.
2. , it could be said that if teachers had ample time for each student, students would not have learning disabilities or students with learning disabilities would not need special support. This finding was different from the results of Westwood (1995), who found that Australian teachers mentioned causes within students, but partly supported the research by Project Team (2000) showing that poor parent understanding was also important.
The factor for which there was least support was F5 (Governmental issues). Thus, the government's curriculum guidelines, development of psychological tests Psychological Tests Definition
Psychological tests are written, visual, or verbal evaluations administered to assess the cognitive and emotional functioning of children and adults. and improved early detection were thought to have little to do with the cause of learning disabilities. Japanese teachers have traditionally tended not to focus on IQ tests or academic achievements. However, Japanese criteria for identification of learning disabilities used a criterion of two years below grade level. This gap between teachers' views and the official criteria would make it difficult for teachers to identify students with learning disabilities. Further, Japanese teachers think that they should be able to educate any student with sufficient effort.
The three items of F4 with the highest support were Item 8 (Teachers hardly make any time for individual students), Item 9 (Teachers are too busy) and Item 20 (There is a shortage in the number of teachers). Generally, classroom teachers in Japan work in their classrooms from 8:30 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. and often have meetings after school. In addition, the majority of teachers prepare lesson plans after these meetings and therefore seldom leave school before 6:00 p.m. Moreover, Japanese teachers have duties during recess and supervise lunch in the classrooms with their students. Okano and Tsuchiya (1999) reported the average teaching time was 26.5 hours per week (excluding nonacademic activities). Thus, teachers find it difficult to find time to meet the needs of individual students, and their teaching lives are very busy. While it is true that Japanese teachers are busy, interestingly, they assessed their own working attitude more negatively than American American, river, 30 mi (48 km) long, rising in N central Calif. in the Sierra Nevada and flowing SW into the Sacramento River at Sacramento. The discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill (see Sutter, John Augustus) along the river in 1848 led to the California gold rush of teachers because the Japanese public have high expectations of teachers' work effort (Satoh, 1988). Furthermore, Japanese teachers tend to pay more attention to below-average students than American teachers, as reported by Okano and Tsuchiya (1999).
The least support was found for Item 41 (The Ministry of Education strictly controls each school) in F2, Item 14 (Teachers must teach all subjects. A classroom teacher takes all the responsibility in his/her classroom) in F3 and Item 3 (The government curriculum guidelines are too difficult) in F5. The results suggest that principals and teachers believe that government control of education did not contribute much to the presence of students with learning disabilities.
Item 2 (Special educational methods for LD have not been established yet) did not fit in any factor, but the mean of this item indicated that the item received the highest support. Teachers and principals appeared to be unaware of teaching methods appropriate for students with learning disabilities. Findings from other Japanese studies have suggested that once teachers have identified students with learning disabilities in their classrooms, they are at a loss about what to do. The methods teachers typically use to support these students include individual instruction, peer tutoring A peer tutor is anyone who is of a similar status as the person being tutored. In an undergraduate institution this would usually be other undergraduates, as distinct from the graduate students who may be teaching the writing classes. and extra homework (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports Science and Technology, 2002; School Board of Gifu Gifu (gē`f), city (1990 pop. 410,324), capital of Gifu prefecture, central Honshu, Japan. City, 2001). These methods are not based on current theories of learning and teaching or teachers' knowledge about learning disabilities, but on the teachers' experiences.
Item 1 (Evaluation standards [academic records] are unclear) did not fit in any factor. Noutomi (1998) suggested that one of the problems in identifying students with learning disabilities was the assessment system. She pointed out that the lack of assessment made it easy for parents to overlook their children's delays in academic skills and teachers tended not to tell parents how poorly their children were performing. In addition, cultural views that effort was more important than ability caused teachers' lack of interest in IQ and in discrepancy DISCREPANCY. A difference between one thing and another, between one writing and another; a variance. (q.v.)
2. Discrepancies are material and immaterial. between achievement and potential.
However, more recently, evaluation has become an important issue. Thus, there have been discussions about changing the assessment system, with the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports Science and Technology suggesting changing "evaluation in accordance Accordance is Bible Study Software for Macintosh developed by OakTree Software, Inc.
As well as a standalone program, it is the base software packaged by Zondervan in their Bible Study suites for Macintosh. with academic aims [absolute evaluation]" (Educational Curriculum Council, 2000).
The greatest difference between principals and teachers was found on F2 (Insufficient knowledge of and support for LD). Teachers indicated stronger agreement than principals that this was a cause of learning disabilities. In their rankings, principals focused more than the teachers on social issues, teachers' abilities and professional development. In contrast, teachers were concerned with the practicalities of how to teach students and how to support them. It makes sense that principals focused on broader issues, including the connection between school and community and encouragement of professional development for teachers. Teachers, however, focused on practical matters in the classroom, and especially wanted to know about efficient and effective teaching for students with learning disabilities.
Factor 1 (Changes in the family and social situation) did not seem to be associated with the principals' and teachers' perceptions of learning disabilities. This finding may be linked to the definition of learning disabilities used in Japan, which excludes environmental factors (e.g., familial familial /fa·mil·i·al/ (fah-mil´e-il) occurring in more members of a family than would be expected by chance.
adj. or social aspects) as possible causes of students' difficulties (Committee on Guidance/Education Planning for Children with Learning Disabilities, 1999).
According to previous studies (Christensen & Elkins, 1995; Project Team, 2000), parents' understanding of learning disabilities and social indices are key factors in children's difficulties. It is interesting that Item 22 (Students do not receive adequate family support) was strongly supported in F1, and Item 24 (Parents pay too much attention to children or spoil spoil
v. spoiled or spoilt , spoil·ing, spoils
a. To impair the value or quality of.
b. To damage irreparably; ruin.
2. them) also had strong support. These two items seem to contradict con·tra·dict
v. con·tra·dict·ed, con·tra·dict·ing, con·tra·dicts
1. To assert or express the opposite of (a statement).
2. To deny the statement of. See Synonyms at deny. each other, but as Ogi (2000) mentioned, parents need to know when and how to support their children.
The principals and teachers may have perceived that parents of students with learning disabilities support their children in inappropriate ways. For example, the Life-Long Education Council (2000) has recommended that educational support at home should be improved and suggested that community-based support systems that provide information for parents and workshops on raising children should be provided. If these ideas are realized, parents' understanding of learning disabilities may be enhanced.
Links between schools, universities, specialists and others are also developing (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports Science and Technology, 2002). For example, the Prefectural Boards of Education and some specialists teams have created manuals and guidebooks for teachers and parents to support students with learning disabilities. Also, school committees are being set up in many schools to discuss these students, visited and supported by itinerant ITINERANT. Travelling or taking a journey. In England there were formerly judges called Justices itinerant, who were sent with commissions into certain counties to try causes. specialists. The Guideline of Support System (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports Science and Technology, 2004) is very practical and tells schools who, what and how to help students with learning disabilities.
Teachers' results were collected from the whole Nara Prefecture, and represented various teaching grades and years of experience, as reflected in the answers in the questionnaire. However, as mentioned, the sampling plan was changed to avoid adding to teachers' workload. This led to a different procedure being used to collect data from that used for the principals. Consequently, the sample size for teachers was smaller than for principals.
The results of this study suggest that both principals and teachers need further information about learning disabilities. Principals were slightly more concerned about professional development than teachers. Seminars about learning disabilities are being offered by Prefectural Boards of Education and organizations such as the YMCA YMCA
in full Young Men's Christian Association
Nonsectarian, nonpolitical Christian lay movement that aims to develop high standards of Christian character among its members. . However, they are often held on weekends, and teachers are not required to attend. Thus, principals might need not only to encourage teachers to undertake further learning but also support them by arranging for seminars during school time or immediately after school. The introduction of "pupil-free days" as in Australia, where 1-2 days are set aside each term for professional development within a school, may be a useful way of improving professional knowledge and skills. The creation of materials for teachers that include information about the nature of learning disabilities and effective teaching methods might also be beneficial.
Yamaguchi (2000) suggested that "open classrooms" should be provided for all students during recesses and after school. Such classrooms would be staffed by full-and/or part-time part-time
For or during less than the customary or standard time: a part-time job.
part teachers or retired teachers knowledgeable about learning disabilities. Open classrooms would support students with and without learning disabilities in understanding their lessons better. This would mean that classroom teachers would not have to take extra time to assist students with learning disabilities.
The results also showed that Japanese teachers perceived that some causes of learning disabilities were within themselves. As mentioned, Japanese teachers traditionally implement a "whole person" philosophy of education. This means that they assume heavy responsibilities for all aspects of students' development as well as academic improvement for students with learning disabilities. However, as mentioned earlier, principals and teachers agree that teachers are already too busy, and that a heavier workload through helping students with learning disabilities might lead to burnout Burnout
Depletion of a tax shelter's benefits. In the context of mortgage backed securities it refers to the percentage of the pool that has prepaid their mortgage. .
The creation of the position of coordinator has been suggested as a solution. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports Science and Technology proposed a "SNE SNe Supernovae (astronomy)
SNE Sony Corporation (stock symbol)
SNE Syndicat National de l'edition (French Publisher's Association)
SNE Society for Nutrition Education Coordinator (tentative tentative,
adj not final or definite, such as an experimental or clinical finding that has not been validated. name)" in the final report in 2003, and it was also included in the Guideline of Support System in 2004. However, the Ministry did not provide a budget for employing SNE coordinators. Such coordinators are already used in the United Kingdom, and Australia similarly employs support teachers. SNE coordinators will assist classroom teachers in identifying students with learning disabilities and how to help them. They will also collaborate with specialists out of school and work with families. It is a new venture for Japanese teachers to share responsibility for students in their classroom with others, but it is worth trying.
The factor analysis conducted in this study indicated that both principals and teachers perceived that teachers' situations were a cause of learning disabilities. That is, teachers' busy lives and the pressures associated with teaching meant that students had greater difficulty with learning. Thus, limitations in the effectiveness of classroom teaching were seen as important causes of learning disabilities. This idea, while not unknown in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. (see, for example, Cohen cohen
(Hebrew: “priest”) Jewish priest descended from Zadok (a descendant of Aaron), priest at the First Temple of Jerusalem. The biblical priesthood was hereditary and male. , 1971, who put forward dyspedagogia as an explanation as worthy of consideration as dyslexia dyslexia (dĭslĕk`sēə), in psychology, a developmental disability in reading or spelling, generally becoming evident in early schooling. To a dyslexic, letters and words may appear reversed, e.g. ), stands in contrast to the field's This article is about the shopping centre in Denmark. For the Canadian chain of department stores, see Fields (department store).
Field's is the biggest shopping centre in Denmark and the second-largest in Scandinavia, surpassed only by Nordstan in general explanation of learning disabilities as originating within the student. The principals perceived that family and social issues caused to students' learning disabilities. These issues included parents' tolerance of children's behavior and their inclination inclination, in astronomy, the angle of intersection between two planes, one of which is an orbital plane. The inclination of the plane of the moon's orbit is 5°9' with respect to the plane of the ecliptic (the plane of the earth's orbit around the sun). to spoil them.
The teachers in this study indicated that some students with learning disabilities did not receive appropriate support in school. The creation of more resource rooms or special classes for students with learning disabilities/ADHD have been suggested by Yamaguchi (2000) as possible means of providing support for these students. Further study of services for students with learning disabilities in Japan is required. The existing services will be explored as part of larger study by the first author, but whether these provisions are sufficient and consistent with best practice remains to be determined.
APPENDIX: ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF PRINCIPALS' SURVEY SECTION C-Q6 AND TEACHERS' SURVEY SECTION C-Q4 What do you think are the causes of learning difficulties and behaviour problems? Please circle each one according to your own feeling. Strongly Agree Agree 1. Evaluation standards (academic records) are unclear. 1 2 2. Special educational methods for LD have not been established yet. 1 2 3. The government curriculum guidelines are too difficult. 1 2 4. The government curriculum guidelines do not regard basic academic skills as important. 1 2 5. Academic skills are overemphasised. 1 2 6. The government curriculum guidelines for kindergarten were revised and started the free education curriculum. 1 2 7. Teachers are getting older and their desire to do new things is less strong. 1 2 8. Teachers hardly make any time for individual students. 1 2 9. Teachers are too busy. 1 2 10. Teachers are under too much pressure. 1 2 11. Teachers' creativity in education has worsened. 1 2 12. Teachers do not have an awareness of such issues as LD. 1 2 13. Teachers do not have appropriate training for such students. 1 2 14. Teachers must teach all subjects. A classroom teacher takes all responsibility in his/her classroom. 1 2 15. The number of students in a class is large. 1 2 16. Classroom teachers' leadership skills have worsened. 1 2 17. Principals' leadership skills have worsened. 1 2 18. Teachers feel restricted in teaching because school management does not understand. * 1 2 19. A system of cooperation in a school has not been established. 1 2 20. There is a shortage in the number of teachers. 1 2 21. Teachers' teaching skills have worsened. 1 2 22. Students do not receive adequate family support. 1 2 23. The number of nuclear families has increased. 1 2 24. Parents pay too much attention to children or spoil them. 1 2 25. Parents leave their children to do as they like. 1 2 26. Parents do not have an awareness of such issues as LD. 1 2 27. Parents rely on specialists for child rearing guidance. 1 2 28. Parents focus on their own lives. 1 2 29. Parents do not trust teachers. 1 2 30. Family situations have become more complex (e.g., divorce/remarriage). 1 2 31. Regional support has worsened. 32. Living habits have become irregular (e.g., sleeping hours). 1 2 33. Dietary habits have changed (e.g., menu or eating hours). 1 2 34. People have become materialistic (e.g., give money or things easily to their children). 1 2 35. There are no special classes for LD/ADHD. 1 2 36. There are insufficient resource rooms. 1 2 37. There are insufficient numbers of specialists. 1 2 38. The national government does not have an awareness of issues such as LD. 1 2 39. The municipality does not have an awareness of issues such as LD. 1 2 40. The school district system causes LD. 1 2 41. The Ministry of Education strictly controls each school. 1 2 42. Schools do not have authority. 1 2 43. The early detection and follow-up intervention system has not been fully developed. 1 2 44. Medical techniques and early detection have improved and can detect more disabilities. 1 2 45. Psychological tests have been developed and are used on many occasions. 1 2 46. Educational background influences employment. 1 2 47. Environmental hormones and environmental pollution cause LD. 1 2 48. The mass media clamour about LD/ADHD alarms people. 1 2 49. People have a weak connection with their local area. 1 2 50. Students lack motivation. 1 2 51. Students do not know how to study. 1 2 52. Students do not study enough. 1 2 53. Children have a lot of stress. 1 2 54. Children's play has changed to TV games. 1 2 55. Children play less and communicate less with children across ages. 1 2 56. Children are attending JUKU or having extra lessons (piano, soccer, etc.) after school. 1 2 Just a Little Agree Disagree 1. Evaluation standards (academic records) are unclear. 3 4 2. Special educational methods for LD have not been established yet. 3 4 3. The government curriculum guidelines are too difficult. 3 4 4. The government curriculum guidelines do not regard basic academic skills as important. 3 4 5. Academic skills are overemphasised. 3 4 6. The government curriculum guidelines for kindergarten were revised and started the free education curriculum. 3 4 7. Teachers are getting older and their desire to do new things is less strong. 3 4 8. Teachers hardly make any time for individual students. 3 4 9. Teachers are too busy. 3 4 10. Teachers are under too much pressure. 3 4 11. Teachers' creativity in education has worsened. 3 4 12. Teachers do not have an awareness of such issues as LD. 3 4 13. Teachers do not have appropriate training for such students. 3 4 14. Teachers must teach all subjects. A classroom teacher takes all responsibility in his/her classroom. 3 4 15. The number of students in a class is large. 3 4 16. Classroom teachers' leadership skills have worsened. 3 4 17. Principals' leadership skills have worsened. 3 4 18. Teachers feel restricted in teaching because school management does not understand. * 3 4 19. A system of cooperation in a school has not been established. 3 4 20. There is a shortage in the number of teachers. 3 4 21. Teachers' teaching skills have worsened. 3 4 22. Students do not receive adequate family support. 3 4 23. The number of nuclear families has increased. 3 4 24. Parents pay too much attention to children or spoil them. 3 4 25. Parents leave their children to do as they like. 3 4 26. Parents do not have an awareness of such issues as LD. 3 4 27. Parents rely on specialists for child rearing guidance. 3 4 28. Parents focus on their own lives. 3 4 29. Parents do not trust teachers. 3 4 30. Family situations have become more complex (e.g., divorce/remarriage). 3 4 31. Regional support has worsened. 32. Living habits have become irregular (e.g., sleeping hours). 3 4 33. Dietary habits have changed (e.g., menu or eating hours). 3 4 34. People have become materialistic (e.g., give money or things easily to their children). 3 4 35. There are no special classes for LD/ADHD. 3 4 36. There are insufficient resource rooms. 3 4 37. There are insufficient numbers of specialists. 3 4 38. The national government does not have an awareness of issues such as ED. 3 4 39. The municipality does not have an awareness of issues such as ED. 3 4 40. The school district system causes ED. 3 4 41. The Ministry of Education strictly controls each school. 3 4 42. Schools do not have authority. 3 4 43. The early detection and follow-up intervention system has not been fully developed. 3 4 44. Medical techniques and early detection have improved and can detect more disabilities. 3 4 45. Psychological tests have been developed and are used on many occasions. 3 4 46. Educational background influences employment. 3 4 47. Environmental hormones and environmental pollution cause LD. 3 4 48. The mass media clamour about LD/ADHD alarms people. 3 4 49. People have a weak connection with their local area. 3 4 50. Students lack motivation. 3 4 51. Students do not know how to study. 3 4 52. Students do not study enough. 3 4 53. Children have a lot of stress. 3 4 54. Children's play has changed to TV games. 3 4 55. Children play less and communicate less with children across ages. 3 4 56. Children are attending JUKU or having extra lessons (piano, soccer, etc.) after school. 3 4 * Only teachers were asked Item 18. Table I Correlation Matrix of Factors Factors 1 2 3 4 2 .258 -- 3 .365 .172 -- 4 -.045 -.145 .004 -- 5 -.249 -.132 -.154 -.047 Table 2 Five Factors of Principals' and Teachers' Perceptions of Causes of Learning Disabilities FACTOR 1: CHANGES IN THE FAMILY AND SOCIAL SITUATION SS1: M = 2.24, SD = .49 Mean (SD) N Items 2.17 (.84) 23 The number of nuclear families has increased. * 2.05 (.73) 25 Parents leave their children to do as they like. 2.01 (.82) 34 People have become materialistic (e.g., give money or things easily to their children). 1.99 (.80) 24 Parents pay too much attention to children or spoil them. 2.08 (.79) 55 Children play less and communicate less with children across ages. 1.92 (.85) 22 Students do not receive adequate family support. 1.97 (.83) 56 Children are busy attending JUKU or having extra lessons (e.g., piano, soccer) after school. 2.02 (.77) 54 Children's play has changed to TV games. 1.93 (.69) 32 Living habits have become irregular (e.g., sleeping hours). 2.25 (.79) 28 Parents focus on their own lives. 1.96 (.82) 30 Family situations have become complex (e.g., divorce/ remarriage). 1.98 (.76) 31 Regional support has worsened. 2.08 (.71) 33 Dietary habits have changed (e.g., menu or eating hours). 2.21 (.80) 27 Parents rely on specialists for childrearing guidance. 2.19 (.78) 49 People have weak connection with local area. 2.72 (.82) 48 The mass media clamour about LD/ADHD alarms people. 2.43 (.91) 6 The government curriculum guidelines for kindergarten were revised and started the free education curriculum. 2.80 (.79) 50 Students lack motivation. 2.40 (.73) 29 Parents do not trust teachers. 1.96 (.78) 53 Children have a lot of stress. 2.83 (.80) 52 Students do not study enough. 2.54 (.83) 51 Students do not know how to study. 2.19 (.77) 26 Parents do not have an awareness of such issues as LD. 2.70 (.81) 42 Schools do not have authority. 2.68 (.82) 46 Educational background influences employment. FACTOR 2: INSUFFICIENT KNOWLEDGE OF AND SUPPORT FOR LD SS2: M = 2.26, SD = .56 Mean (SD) N Items 2.23 (.83) 39 The municipality does not have an awareness of issues such as LD. 2.20 (.85) 38 The national government does not have an aware- ness of issues such as LD. 2.01 (.80) 37 There are insufficient numbers of specialists. 2.38 (.79) 36 There are insufficient resource rooms. 2.01 (.82) 35 There is no special class for LD/ADHD. 2.05 (.78) 43 The early detection and follow-up intervention system has not been fully developed. 3.02 (.68) 41 The Ministry of Education strictly controls each school. 1.88 (.91) 15 The number of students in a class is large. FACTOR 3: TEACHERS' ABILITIES AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT SS3: M = 2.58, SD = .52 Mean (SD) N Items 2.44 (.77) 11 Teachers' creativity in education has worsened. 2.44 (.75) 21 Teachers' teaching skills have worsened. 2.78 (.85) 12 Teachers do not have an awareness of such issues as LD. 2.51 (.80) 16 Classroom teachers' leadership skills have worsened. 2.57 (.86) 7 Teachers are getting older and their desire to do new things is less strong. 2.18 (.84) 13 Teachers do not have appropriate training for such students. 2.79 (.73) 17 Principals' leadership skills have worsened. 2.60 (.79) 19 A system of cooperation in school has not been established. 2.96 (.78) 14 Teachers must teach all subjects. A classroom teacher takes all responsibility in his/her classroom. FACTOR 4: TEACHERS' SITUATION SS4: M = 1.74, SD = .60 Mean (SD) N Items 1.70 (.76) 9 Teachers are too busy. 1.85 (.77) 10 Teachers are under too much pressure. 1.65 (.70) 8 Teachers hardly make any time for individual students. 1.75 (.78) 20 There is a shortage in the number of teachers. FACTOR 5: GOVERNMENTAL ISSUES SS5: M = 2.67, SD = .49 Mean (SD) N Items 2.94 (.65) 3 The government curriculum guidelines are too difficult. 2.82 (.76) 4 The government curriculum guidelines do not regard basic academic skills as important. 2.47 (.84) 44 Medical techniques and early detection have improved and can detect more disabilities. 2.85 (.71) 18 ** Teachers feel restricted in teaching because school management does not understand. 2.62 (.78) 45 Psychological tests have been developed and used on many occasions. * The contrast to nuclear family is extended family, not single-parent family, which would be the common term in western countries. ** Only teachers were asked this item. Note. Nos. 47, 40, 2, 1 and 5 did not fit in any factor. A (Strongly agree) = 1, B = 2, C = 3 D (Do not agree at all) = 4. The suhscale in Factor 5 was calculated using four items (without item 18). Table 3 Summary of T-Tests and Cohen's d' for Independent Samples Mean Pooled Cohen's Fac- Prin- Teach- SD t (246) d' Standard tor cipals ers 1 2.1343 2.3525 .4805 3.553 ** -.4541 medium 2 2.3973 2.1234 .5434 3.960 ** .5040 medium 3 2.5038 2.6693 .5106 2.552 * -.3241 small 4 1.8031 1.6694 .5951 1.769 .2247 small 5 2.7211 2.6116 .4851 1.769 -.2257 small * p <.05, two-tailed. ** p <.001, two-tailed.
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Martial art that employs holds, throws, and paralyzing blows to subdue or disable an opponent. It evolved among the samurai warrior class in Japan from about the 17th century. housaku ni tsuite (singi Singi is a hut along trecking and ski-touring route Kungsleden ("the Kings trail") in the northern part of Sweden. In the vicinity
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loyal servant of the Green Hornet. [Radio: “The Green Hornet” in Buxton, 102–103]
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Bantu-speaking peoples living along the Atlantic coast in Congo (Kinshasa), Congo (Brazzaville), and Angola. They engage in subsistence agriculture and raise cash crops (including coffee, cacao, and bananas); many live and work in towns. no tokubetsu sien kyouiku no arikata ni tsuite (saishuu houkoku) [The final report on the future directions for Special support education]. Tokyo: Author.
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A physician who specializes in psychiatry. ]. Fukuoka Fukuoka (fk`ōkä), city (1990 pop. 1,237,062), capital of Fukuoka prefecture, N Kyushu, Japan, on Hakata Bay. kyouiku daigaku shougaiji chiryo kyouiku sentaa nenpou [Annual Report of the Research and Clinical Center for Children with Disabilities], 11, 55-60.
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Cambridge (kām`brĭj), city (1991 pop. 92,772), S Ont., Canada, on the Grand River, NW of Hamilton. It was formed in 1973 with the amalgamation of Galt, Hespeler, and Preston, all founded in the early 19th cent. : Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press (known colloquially as CUP) is a publisher given a Royal Charter by Henry VIII in 1534, and one of the two privileged presses (the other being Oxford University Press). .
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Bunka (Japanese:文化) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. year name) after Kyōwa and before Bunsei. no shakaigakuteki kenkyu (pp. 85-146). Tokyo: Taga Shuppan.
School Board of Gifu City. (2001). Gakushushogai keikou oyobi tadou keikou no am jidou no sidou nitsuite: Heisei This article is about the Japanese era. For the Toho studios kaijū continuity, see Heisei era (daikaiju eiga).
Heisei (Japanese: 平成) is the current era name in Japan. The Heisei era started on January 8, 1989. 12 nendo school counsellor katsuyou tyousa kenkyu [Research survey in 2000 about the use of teaching students with learning disabilities and attention disorder hyperactivity hyperactivity, excessive physical activity of emotional or physiological origin, usually seen in young children; one of the components of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. and at risk]. Gifu, Japan: Author.
Singleton, J. (1989). Gambaru: A Japanese cultural theory of learning. In J. J. Shields (Ed.), Japanese schooling Japanese School may mean
n. , equality, and political control (pp. 8-15). University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Pennsylvania State University, main campus at University Park, State College; land-grant and state supported; coeducational; chartered 1855, opened 1859 as Farmers' High School. Press.
Takayama, Y. (1998). LDji no ninchi hattatsu to kyouiku: Tsumazuki no rikai kara sidou/enjo no tedate e [Cognitive development and education of students with learning disabilities]. Tokyo: Kawashima Kawashima is a common Japanese name. It may refer to: Towns
Tsuge, M. (2001) Learning disabilities in Japan. In D. P. Hallahan & B. K. Keogh For the name, see Kehoe.
Keogh plans are full fledged pension plans for self employed people. They are sometimes called HR10 plans and are not Individual Retirement Accounts (IRA). (Eds.), Research and global perspectives in learning disabilities: Essays in honor As a verb, to accept a bill of exchange, or to pay a note, check, or accepted bill, at maturity. To pay or to accept and pay, or, where a credit so engages, to purchase or discount a draft complying with the terms of the draft. of William William, crown prince of Germany
William or Frederick William, 1882–1951, crown prince of Germany, son of William II. In World War I he commanded (1914) an army on the Western Front and was nominal commander in the German attack M. Cruickshank (pp. 255-272). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Lawrence.
1 City (1990 pop. 26,763), Marion co., central Ind., a residential suburb of Indianapolis, on the West Fork of the White River. It has light manufacturing.
2 City (1990 pop. 65,608), seat of Douglas co., NE Kans. Erlbaum Associates.
Ueno, K., Muta, E., & Konuki, S. (2001). LD no kyouiku: Gakkou ni okeru LD no handan Handan or Hantan (both: hän-dän), city (1994 est. pop. 894,000), SW Hebei prov., China. Its position as a communication and transportation center has led to significant industrial growth. to sidou [Education for LD: Assessment and educational guidance for LD in schools]. Tokyo: Nihon Bunka Kagakusha.
Westwood, P. (1995). Teachers' beliefs and expectations concern ing students with learning difficulties. Australian Journal of Remedial REMEDIAL. That which affords a remedy; as, a remedial statute, or one which is made to supply some defects or abridge some superfluities of the common law. 1 131. Com. 86. The term remedial statute is also applied to those acts which give a new remedy. Esp. Pen. Act. 1. Education, 27(2), 19-21.
Yamaguchi, K. (2000). Gakushushogai/gakushukonnan eno kyouikuteki taiou: Nihon no gakkou kyouiku kaikaku o mezasite [Educational provision for students with learning disabilities/difficulties: Aims of school educational reform in Japan]. Tokyo: Bunkyosiryokyokai.
Requests for reprints should be addressed to: Mika Mika can refer to:
MIKA KA TAOKA, M.Ed., is a Ph.D. candidate, Schonell Special Education Research Center, School of Education, The University of Queensland.
CHRISTINA E. van KRAAYENOORD, Ph.D., is associate professor, Schonell Special Education Research Center, School of Education, The University of Queensland.
JOHN ELKINS, Ph.D., is professor emeritus e·mer·i·tus
Retired but retaining an honorary title corresponding to that held immediately before retirement: a professor emeritus.
n. pl. , Schonell Special Education Research Center, School of Education, The University of Queensland.