President Bush's budget request for fiscal year 2005.
[The following are excerpts of the testimony before the House International Relations international relations, study of the relations among states and other political and economic units in the international system. Particular areas of study within the field of international relations include diplomacy and diplomatic history, international law, Committee Washington, D.C., February 11, 2004.]
The President's fiscal year 2005 International Affairs Noun 1. international affairs - affairs between nations; "you can't really keep up with world affairs by watching television"
affairs - transactions of professional or public interest; "news of current affairs"; "great affairs of state" Budget for the Department of State, USAID USAID United States Agency for International Development
USAID Agencia de los Estados Unidos para el Desarrollo Internacional (Spanish) , and other foreign affairs foreign affairs
Affairs concerning international relations and national interests in foreign countries. agencies totals $31.5 billion, broken down as follows:
Foreign Operations--$21.3 billion
State Operations--$8.4 billion
P.L. 480 Food Aid--$1.2 billion
International Broadcasting--$569 million
US Institute of Peace--$22 million
The President's top foreign policy priority is winning the war on terrorism Terrorist acts and the threat of Terrorism have occupied the various law enforcement agencies in the U.S. government for many years. The Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996, as amended by the usa patriot act . Forty-eight percent of the President's budget for foreign affairs directly supports that priority by assisting our allies and strengthening the United States' diplomatic posture. For example:
* $1.2 billion supports Afghanistan reconstruction, security and democracy building,
* $5.7 billion is provided for assistance to countries around the world that have joined us in the war on terrorism, and;
* $3.5 billion indirectly supports the war on terrorism by strengthening our ability to respond to emergencies and conflict situations.
Moreover, $190 million is aimed at expanding democracy in the Greater Middle East, in part to help alleviate the conditions that spawn terrorists. In addition, $5.3 billion is targeted for the President's bold initiatives to fight human immune-deficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency immune deficiency
See immunodeficiency. syndrome (HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ) and create the Millennium Challenge Corporation, both of which will support stability and improve the quality of life for the world's poor and, again, help to relieve conditions that cause resentment and despair.
Winning the War on Terrorism
Winning on the battlefield with our superb military forces is just one step in defeating terrorism. To eradicate terrorism, the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. must help create stable governments in nations that once supported terrorism, go after terrorist support mechanisms as well as the terrorists themselves, and help alleviate conditions in the world that enable terrorists to bring in new recruits. To this end, in fiscal year 2005 the Department of State and US Agency for International Development (USAID) will continue to focus on the reconstruction of Iraq Reconstruction of Iraq describes attempts by the international community, and particularly the United States, to improve and repair the infrastructure of Iraq in the aftermath of the 2003 invasion. and Afghanistan, support our coalition partners to further our counterterrorism coun·ter·ter·ror
Intended to prevent or counteract terrorism: counterterror measures; counterterror weapons.
Action or strategy intended to counteract or suppress terrorism. , law enforcement and intelligence cooperation, and expand democracy and help generate prosperity, especially in the Middle East.
Building a Free and Prosperous Iraq
The United States faces one of its greatest challenges in developing a secure, free and prosperous Iraq. The US government is contributing almost $21 billion in reconstruction funds and humanitarian assistance to this effort. The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund are expected to provide another $4 to 8 billion in loans and grants over the next three years. These resources, coupled with the growing assistance of international donors, will ease the transition from dictatorship to democracy and lay the foundation for a market economy and a political system that respects human rights and represents the voices of all Iraqis.
The Coalition Provisional Authority The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) سلطة الائتلاف الموحدة was established as a transitional government following the invasion of Iraq by the United States, (CPA (Computer Press Association, Landing, NJ) An earlier membership organization founded in 1983 that promoted excellence in computer journalism. Its annual awards honored outstanding examples in print, broadcast and electronic media. The CPA disbanded in 2000. ) and the Iraqi Governing Council The Iraqi Governing Council (IGC) was the provisional government of Iraq from July 13, 2003 to June 1, 2004. It was established by and served under the United States-led Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA). (IGC (Integrated Graphics Controller) The inclusion of the video display circuitry on the motherboard. An IGC is typically contained in the chipset, such as the Northbridge. See integrated graphics and IGP.
IGC - Institute for Global Communications ) have made great strides in the areas of security, economic stability and growth, and democratization de·moc·ra·tize
tr.v. de·moc·ra·tized, de·moc·ra·tiz·ing, de·moc·ra·tiz·es
To make democratic.
de·moc . Iraqi security forces Iraqi Security Forces (ISF) is the Multi-National Force-Iraq umbrella name for the military and police forces that serve under the Government of Iraq.
The armed forces are administered by the Ministry of Defense (MOD), and the Iraqi Police is administered by the Ministry of now comprise more than half of the total security forces in the country. In addition, the CPA has established a new Iraqi army The Iraqi Army is the army of Iraq, active in various forms since the country was formed in the aftermath of World War I.
Today, it is a component of the Iraqi Security Forces tasked with assuming responsibility for all Iraqi land-based military operations following the 2003 , issued a new currency and refurbished and equipped schools and hospitals. And, as you know, the CPA is taking steps to return sovereignty to the Iraqi people this summer.
Much work remains to be done. Working with our coalition partners, we will continue to train Iraqi police The creation of this unit was guided by the Coalition Provisional Authority however the command of the Police belongs to the new Government of Iraq. Overview
The Iraqi Police Forces are part of the Iraqi Ministry of the Interior (MOI) which in conjunction with the Civilian , border guards, the Civil Defense Corps and the Army in order to ensure the country's security as we effect a timely transition to democratic self-governance and a stable future. At the same time, we are helping provide critical infrastructure, including clean water, electricity and reliable telecommunications systems which are essential for meeting basic human needs as well as for economic and democratic development. Thousands of brave Americans, in uniform and in mufti, are in Iraq now working tirelessly to help Iraqis succeed in this historic effort. Alongside their military colleagues, USAID, Department of State and the Departments of the Treasury and Commerce are working to implement infrastructure, democracy building, education, health and economic development programs. These efforts are producing real progress in Iraq.
Winning the Peace in Afghanistan
Mr. Chairman, Afghanistan is another high priority for this Administration. The US is committed to helping build a stable and democratic Afghanistan that is free from terror and no longer harbors threats to our security. After we and our coalition partners defeated the Taliban government, we faced the daunting daunt
tr.v. daunt·ed, daunt·ing, daunts
To abate the courage of; discourage. See Synonyms at dismay.
[Middle English daunten, from Old French danter, from Latin task of helping the Afghan people rebuild their country. We have demonstrated our commitment to this effort by providing over $3.7 billion in economic and security assistance to Afghanistan since 2001.
Through our assistance and the assistance of the international community, the government of Afghanistan is successfully navigating the transition that began in October 2001. Afghanistan adopted a constitution last month and is preparing for democratic national elections in June. With technical assistance from the US, Afghanistan successfully introduced a new stable currency in October 2002 and is working to improve revenue collection in the provinces. The lives of women and girls are improving as women pursue economic and political opportunities and girls return to school. Since 2001, the United States has rehabilitated 205 schools and 140 health clinics and trained thirteen battalions of the Afghan National Army Afghan National Army (ANA) is a service branch of the Military of Afghanistan that is currently being trained by the to ultimately take the lead in land-based military operations. (ANA). Also, President Bush's commitment to demine and repave the entire stretch of the Kabul-Kandahar highway The Kabul-Kandahar highway is a 483-kilometer (300-mile) road linking Afghanistan's two largest cities, Kabul and Kandahar. This highway is a key portion of Afghanistan's national road system or "Ring Road". was fulfilled. The road had not been functional for over twenty years TWENTY YEARS. The lapse of twenty years raises a presumption of certain facts, and after such a time, the party against whom the presumption has been raised, will be required to prove a negative to establish his rights.
2. . What was once a 30-hour journey can now be accomplished in five or six hours. While the Afghanistan of today is very different from the Afghanistan of September 2001, there is still much left to accomplish. In the near-term, the United States will assist the government of Afghanistan in its preparations for elections in June to ensure that they are free and fair.
To demonstrate tangible benefits to the Afghan people, we will continue to implement assistance on an accelerated basis. The fiscal year 2005 Budget contains $1.2 billion in assistance for Afghanistan that will be focused on education, health, infrastructure, and assistance to the ANA, including drawdown Drawdown
The peak to trough decline during a specific record period of an investment or fund. It is usually quoted as the percentage between the peak to the trough.
Notes: authority and Department of Defense train and equip. For example, US assistance efforts will concentrate on rehabilitation and construction of an additional 275 schools and 150 health clinics by June 2004, and complete training and equipping of fifteen army battalions. The US will also extend the Kabul-Kandahar road to Herat so that people and commerce will be linked East and West across Afghanistan with a ground transportation link between three of the largest cities.
Support for Our Coalition Partners
As part of the war on terrorism, President Bush established a clear policy to work with other nations to meet the challenges of defeating terror networks with global reach. This commitment extends to the front-line states that have joined us in the war on terrorism and to those nations that are key to successful transitions to democracy in Iraq Iraq and Democracy focuses on the history of democracy in Iraq. Moreover, the article presents various opinions of Middle East Scholars and Politicians on contemporary debates about the future prospect for democracy in Iraq. and Afghanistan. Our assistance enables countries cooperating closely with the United States to prevent future attacks, improve counterterrorism capabilities and tighten border controls. As I indicated earlier, the fiscal year 2005 budget for International Affairs provides more than $5.7 billion for assistance to countries around the world that have joined us in the war on terrorism, including Turkey, Jordan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Indonesia and the Philippines.
US assistance has also resulted in unparalleled law enforcement and intelligence cooperation that has destroyed terrorist cells, disrupted terrorist operations and prevented attacks. There are many counterterrorism successes in cooperating countries and international organizations. For example:
* Pakistan has apprehended more than 500 al Qaeda terrorists and members of the Taliban through the leadership of President Musharraf, stronger border security measures Noun 1. security measures - measures taken as a precaution against theft or espionage or sabotage etc.; "military security has been stepped up since the recent uprising"
security and law enforcement cooperation throughout the country.
* Jordan continues its strong counterterrorism efforts, including arresting two individuals with links to al Qaeda who admitted responsibility for the October 2002 murder of USAID Foreign Service Officer Lawrence Foley in Amman.
* The North Atlantic Treaty Organization North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), established under the North Atlantic Treaty (Apr. 4, 1949) by Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, and the United States. has endorsed an ambitious transformation agenda designed to enhance its capabilities by increasing deployment speed and agility to address new threats of terrorism.
* Colombia has developed a democratic security strategy as a blueprint for waging a unified, aggressive counterterror-counternarcotics campaign against designated foreign terrorist organizations and other illegal, armed groups.
The US and its Southeast Asian allies and friends have made significant advances against the regional terrorist organization Jemaah Islamiyah Noun 1. Jemaah Islamiyah - a clandestine group of southeast Asian terrorists organized in 1993 and trained by al-Qaeda; supports militant Muslims in Indonesia and the Philippines and has cells in Singapore and Malaysia and Indonesia which was responsible for the Bali attack in 2002 that killed more than 200 people. In early August 2003, an Indonesian court convicted and sentenced to death a key figure in that bombing.
Since September 11, 2001, 173 countries have issued orders to freeze the assets of terrorists. As a result, terror networks have lost access to nearly $200 million in more than 1,400 terrorist-related accounts around the world. The World Bank, International Monetary Fund and other multilateral development banks have also played an important role in this fight by strengthening international defenses against terrorist finance.
While progress has been made attacking terrorist organizations both globally and regionally, much work remains to be done. The fiscal year 2005 President's budget strengthens our financial commitment to our coalition partners to wage the global war on terror This article is about U.S. actions, and those of other states, after September 11, 2001. For other conflicts, see Terrorism.
The War on Terror (also known as the War on Terrorism . Highlights of the President's request include $700 million for Pakistan to help advance security and economic opportunity for Pakistan's citizens, including a multi-year educational support program; $461 million for Jordan to increase economic opportunities for Jordanian communities and strengthen Jordan's ability to secure its borders; and $577 million for Colombia to support President Uribe's unified campaign against drugs and terrorism.
In September 2003, at the United Nations, President Bush said:
All governments that support terror are complicit in a war against civilization. No government should ignore the threat of terror, because to look the other way gives terrorists the chance to regroup and recruit and prepare. And all nations that fight terror, as if the lives of their own people depend on it, will earn the favorable judgment of history.
We are helping countries to that judgment.
Expansion of Democracy in the Middle East Proposed reasons for the relative absence of liberal democracy in the Middle East are diverse, from the long history of imperial rule by the Ottoman Empire, Britain and France and the contemporary political and military intervention by the United States, all of which have been blamed for
We believe that expanding democracy in the Middle East is critical to eradicating international terrorism Noun 1. international terrorism - terrorism practiced in a foreign country by terrorists who are not native to that country
act of terrorism, terrorism, terrorist act - the calculated use of violence (or the threat of violence) against civilians in order to attain . But in many nations of the Middle East, democracy is at best an unwelcome guest and at worst a total stranger. The US continues to increase its diplomatic and assistance activities in the Middle East to promote democratic voices, focusing particularly on women, in the political process, support increased accountability in government, assist local efforts to strengthen respect for the rule of law, assist independent media, and invest in the next generation of leaders.
As the President emphasized in his speech last November at the National Endowment for Democracy The National Endowment for Democracy, or NED, is a U.S. non-profit organization that was founded in 1983, to promote democracy by providing cash grants funded primarily through an annual allocation from the U.S. Congress. (NED), reform in the Middle East is of vital importance to the future of peace and stability in that region as well as to the national security of the United States. As long as freedom and democracy do not flourish in the Middle East, resentment and despair will continue to grow and the region will serve as an exporter of violence and terror to free nations. For the United States, promoting democracy and freedom in the Middle East is a difficult, yet essential.
There are promising developments upon which to build. The government of Jordan, for example, is committed to accelerating reform. Results include free and fair elections, three women holding Cabinet Minister positions for the first time in Jordan's history, and major investments in education. Positive developments also can be found in Morocco, which held parliamentary elections last year that were acclaimed as free, fair and transparent. In April 2003, the Administration launched the Middle East Partnership Initiative (MEPI MEPI Middle East Partnership Initiative
MEPI Maine Environmental Policy Institute
MEPI Moscow Engineering Physics Institute
MEPI Montessori Educational Programs International
MEPI Measuring Environmental Performance of Industry ), an intensive interagency effort to support political and education reform and economic development in the region. The President continues his commitment by providing $150 million in fiscal year 2005 for these efforts.
To enhance this US government effort with a key non-government organization, the President has doubled the National Endowment for Democracy budget to $80 million specifically to create a Greater Middle East Leadership and Democracy Initiative. The National Endowment for Democracy is a leader in efforts to strengthen democracy and tolerance around the world through its work with civil society. We want that work to flourish.
As President Bush said in his November speech at the National Endowment for Democracy Meeting:
The United States has adopted a new policy, a forward strategy of freedom in the Middle East. This strategy requires the same persistence and energy and idealism we have shown before. And it will yield the same results. As in Europe, as in Asia, as in every region of the world, the advance of freedom leads to peace.
Public Diplomacy Those overt international public information activities of the United States Government designed to promote United States foreign policy objectives by seeking to understand, inform, and influence foreign audiences and opinion makers, and by broadening the dialogue between American in the Middle East
And the advance of freedom is aided decisively by the words of freedom. Democracy flourishes with freedom of information and exposure to diverse ideas. The President's fiscal year 2005 budget promotes expansion of democracy in the Middle East by providing public access to information through exchange programs and the Middle East Television Network. New public diplomacy efforts including the Partnerships for Learning (P4L P4L Partnership for Learning ) and Youth Exchange and Study (YES) initiatives have been created to reach a younger and more diverse audience through academic and professional exchange programs. In fiscal year 2005, the P4L and the YES programs, funded at $61 million, will focus more on youth of the Muslim world The term Muslim world (or Islamic world) has several meanings. In a cultural sense it refers to the worldwide community of Muslims, adherents of Islam. This community numbers about 1.5-2 billion people, about one-fourth of the world. , specifically targeting non-traditional, non-elite, often female and non-English speaking youth.
US broadcasting initiatives in the Middle East encourage the development of a free press in the American tradition and provide Middle Eastern viewers and listeners access to a variety of ideas. The US revamped its Arabic radio broadcasts in 2002 with the introduction of Radio Sawa Radio Sawa is an Arabic language radio station, funded by the United States government. The station's goal is to provide it's vision of news and information to youth in Arabic-speaking countries, as local news in many Middle Eastern countries is considered by the U.S. , which broadcasts to the region twenty-four hours a day. As a result, audience size for our Arabic broadcasting increased from under 2 percent in 2001 to over 30 percent in 2003. Based on this successful model, the US introduced Radio Farda Radio Farda is a Persian language radio station based in Prague and Washington, D.C.. Supported by the U.S. government, Radio Farda broadcasts political, cultural, social and art news with emphasis on Iran (Persia). to broadcast to Iran around the clock. Building on this success, the fiscal year 2005 President Bush's budget request provides over $70 million for Arabic and Persian radio and television broadcasts to the Middle East. In early 2004, the United States will launch the Middle East Television Network, an Arabic language Arabic language
Ancient Semitic language whose dialects are spoken throughout the Middle East and North Africa. Though Arabic words and proper names are found in Aramaic inscriptions, abundant documentation of the language begins only with the rise of Islam, whose main texts satellite network that will have the capability of reaching millions of viewers and will provide a means for Middle Easterners to better understand democracy and free market policies, as well as the US and its people.
Our New Approach to Global Prosperity
President Bush's approach to global economic growth emphasizes proven American values: governing justly, investing in people, and encouraging economic freedom. President Bush has pledged to increase economic engagement with and support for countries that commit to these goals through an ambitious trade agenda and new approaches to development assistance focusing on country performance and measurable results.
The Millennium Challenge Account The Millennium Challenge Account (MCA), run by the Millennium Challenge Corporation, is a bilateral development fund announced by the Bush administration in 2002 and created in January, 2004.
In February of 2003, we sent the Congress a budget request for the Millennium Challenge Account (MCA MCA
in full Music Corporation of America
Entertainment conglomerate. It was founded in Chicago in 1924 by Jules Stein as a talent agency. In the 1960s it bought Decca Records and Universal Pictures, and today it produces films, music, and television shows. ) and legislation to authorize the creation of the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC (The Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation, Austin, TX) The first high-tech research and development consortium in the U.S., created in 1982 by leading companies within the electronics industry. ), the agency designed to support innovative development strategies and to ensure accountability for results. The MCC will fund only proposals for grants that have clear, measurable objectives, a sound financial plan and indicators for assessing progress. The Congress appropriated $1 billion for MCA for fiscal year 2004. The fiscal year 2005 budget request of $2.5 billion makes a significant second year increase to the MCA and paves the way to reaching the President's commitment of $5 billion in fiscal year 2006.
Trade Promotion Authority
President Bush recognizes that the fastest, surest way to move from poverty to prosperity is through expanded and freer trade. America and the world benefit from free trade. For this reason, one of his first actions upon taking office in 2001 was to seek Trade Promotion Authority (TPA (Transient Program Area) See transient area.
TPA - Transient Program Area ), allowing him to negotiate market-opening agreements with other countries. The President aims to continue vigorously to pursue his free trade agenda in order to lift developing countries out of poverty, while creating high-paying job opportunities for America's workers, businesses, farmers and ranchers and benefiting all Americans through lower prices and wider choices. As the President said in April, 2001 at the Organization of American States Organization of American States (OAS), international organization, created Apr. 30, 1948, at Bogotá, Colombia, by agreement of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, :
Open trade fuels the engines of economic growth that creates new jobs and new income. It applies the power of markets to the needs of the poor. It spurs the process of economic and legal reform. It helps dismantle protectionist bureaucracies that stifle incentive and invite corruption. And open trade reinforces the habits of liberty that sustain democracy over the long term.
Since receiving TPA in 2002, the President has made good on his promise, completing free trade agreements with Chile and Singapore, which were quickly approved by Congress and went into effect on January 1. We have recently completed negotiations with five Central American countries on the Central America Central America, narrow, southernmost region (c.202,200 sq mi/523,698 sq km) of North America, linked to South America at Colombia. It separates the Caribbean from the Pacific. Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA cafta
see catha edulis. ) and are working to bring the Dominican Republic Dominican Republic (dəmĭn`ĭkən), republic (2005 est. pop. 8,950,000), 18,700 sq mi (48,442 sq km), West Indies, on the eastern two thirds of the island of Hispaniola. The capital and largest city is Santo Domingo. into that agreement. Earlier this week, we announced the conclusion of an agreement with Australia. Negotiations are ongoing with Morocco, the Southern African Customs Union The Southern African Customs Union (SACU) is a customs union among five countries of Southern Africa. History
SACU is the oldest customs union in the world. (SACU SACU Southern African Customs Union
SACU Stand-Alone Digital Communications Unit
SACU Scanner Air Conditioning Unit ), Bahrain, and on the Free Trade Agreement of the Americas (FTAA FTAA Free Trade Area of the Americas
FTAA Free Trade Agreement of the Americas
FTAA Florida Turkish American Association
FTAA Federated Tanners Association of Australia
FTAA Fixed Threshold Adaptation Algorithm ). We are concluding comprehensive agreements that include market access for goods and services In economics, economic output is divided into physical goods and intangible services. Consumption of goods and services is assumed to produce utility (unless the "good" is a "bad"). It is often used when referring to a Goods and Services Tax. , strong intellectual property and investment provisions, and include commitments for strong environmental and labor protections by our partners. These arrangements benefit Americans and our trading partners.
Building on this significant progress, the President intends to launch free trade negotiations with Thailand, Panama, and the Andean countries of Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia and Peru. The President has also stated his vision for a Middle East Free Trade Area The U.S. MEFTA initiative started in 2003 with the purpose of creating a U.S. Middle East Free Trade Area by 2013.
The U.S. objective with this initiative has been to gradually increase trade and investment in the Middle East, and to assist the Middle East countries in by 2013, to ignite economic growth and expand opportunity in this critical region. Finally, the President is committed to wrapping up successfully the World Trade Organization's Doha agenda. The United States has taken the lead in re-energizing these negotiations following the Cancun Ministerial.
Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief
When President Bush took office in January 2001, the HIV/AIDS pandemic pandemic /pan·dem·ic/ (pan-dem´ik)
1. a widespread epidemic of a disease.
2. widely epidemic.
Epidemic over a wide geographic area.
n. was at an all time high, with the estimated number of adults and children living with HIV/AIDS globally at 37 million, with 68 percent of those individuals living in Sub-Saharan Africa. From fiscal years 1993 to 2001 the total US government global AIDS budget was about $1.9 billion. As part of the Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, the President proposed $2 billion in fiscal year 2004 as the first installment of a five-year, $15 billion initiative, surpassing nine years of funding in a single year. The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief The President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief (PEPFAR/Emergency Plan) is a commitment of $15 billion over five years (2003–2008) from United States President George W. Bush to fight the global HIV/AIDS pandemic. represents the single largest international public health initiative ever attempted to defeat a disease. The President's plan targets an unprecedented level of assistance to the fourteen most afflicted af·flict
tr.v. af·flict·ed, af·flict·ing, af·flicts
To inflict grievous physical or mental suffering on.
[Middle English afflighten, from afflight, countries in Africa and the Caribbean to wage and win the war against HIV/AIDS. In addition, programs will continue in seventy-five other countries.
By 2008, we believe the President's plan will prevent seven million new infections, treat two million HIV-infected people, and care for ten million HIV-infected individuals and those orphaned by AIDS in Botswana In the African country Botswana, AIDS is becoming a major concern. It is infecting a huge percentage of the population and will have major consequences. Botswana is the most AIDS prevalent country in the world. Botswana's own national government is working with the U.S. , Cote d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Guyana, Haiti, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa South Africa, Afrikaans Suid-Afrika, officially Republic of South Africa, republic (2005 est. pop. 44,344,000), 471,442 sq mi (1,221,037 sq km), S Africa. , Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia. Announced during President Bush's State of the Union address “State of the Union” redirects here. For other uses, see State of the Union (disambiguation).
The State of the Union is an annual address in which the President of the United States reports on the status of the country, normally to a joint session of Congress (the on January 28, 2003, the Emergency Plan provides $15 billion over five years for those countries hardest hit by the pandemic, including $1 billion for the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. The fiscal year 2005 budget provides $2.8 billion from State, USAID, and the Department of Health and Human Services Noun 1. Department of Health and Human Services - the United States federal department that administers all federal programs dealing with health and welfare; created in 1979
Health and Human Services, HHS (HHS HHS Department of Health and Human Services. ) to combat global AIDS, more than tripling funding for international HIV/AIDS since the President took office.
Over the past year, we have worked with the Congress to pass legislation laying the groundwork for this effort and to appoint a senior official at the Department of State to coordinate all US government international HIV/AIDS activities. Ambassador Randall Tobias has been confirmed by Congress and has now taken steps to assure immediate relief to the selected countries. He announced mechanisms to initiate services in five key areas, such as care for orphans and vulnerable children as well as care and antiretroviral treatment for HIV-infected adults.
As a crucial next step, the fiscal year 2005 budget request expands on the Emergency Plan. By working together as a highly collaborative team, and placing primary ownership of these efforts in the hands of the countries that we are helping, just as you will recall the Marshall Plan Marshall Plan or European Recovery Program, project instituted at the Paris Economic Conference (July, 1947) to foster economic recovery in certain European countries after World War II. The Marshall Plan took form when U.S. did so successfully in post-World War II Europe, the Department of State, USAID and HHS can use significantly increased resources quickly and effectively to achieve the President's ambitious goals in the fight against global AIDS.
Mr. Chairman, President Bush summed it up this way in April of last year,
There are only two possible responses to suffering on this scale. We can turn our eyes away in resignation and despair, or we can take decisive, historic action to turn the tide against this disease and give the hope of life to millions who need our help now. The United States of America chooses the path of action and the path of hope. These dollars put us squarely on that path.
Emergency Humanitarian Assistance--Helping Others in Need
The President's Budget Request reflects a continued commitment to humanitarian assistance. The request maintains US leadership in providing food and non-food assistance to refugees, internally displaced persons, and other vulnerable people in all comers all who come, or offer, to take part in a matter, especially in a contest or controversy.
- Bp. Stillingfleet.
See also: Comer of the world. In addition, the budget reflects the findings of the Program Assessment Rating Tool The Program Assessment Rating Tool, or PART, is a program run through the United States Office of Management and Budget instituted by President George W. Bush in 2002 to rate all federal programs on their effectiveness. (PART) evaluations completed for the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (established December 14, 1950) protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the United Nations and assists in their return or resettlement. and for USAID's Public Law 480 Title II International Food Assistance, which confirmed a clear purpose for these programs.
In 2003, the Administration provided funding to several international and non-governmental organizations to assist nearly 200,000 Angolan refugees and internally displaced persons return home after decades of civil war. In an Ethiopia enveloped en·vel·op
tr.v. en·vel·oped, en·vel·op·ing, en·vel·ops
1. To enclose or encase completely with or as if with a covering: "Accompanying the darkness, a stillness envelops the city" by drought, the Administration led international efforts to prevent widespread famine among thirteen million vulnerable people, providing over one million metric tons of emergency food aid (valued at nearly half a billion dollars) to the World Food Program and non-government organizations, funding immunizations for weakened children, and supplying emergency seeds to farmers.
In Sudan, the Administration worked with the United Nations and the government of Sudan so that vital assistance could be delivered to the Sudanese people. This year the US will provide about $210 million in vital assistance to the people in the south, including approximately 125,000 metric tons (valued at nearly $115 million) in food aid, as well as non-food assistance, such as sanitation and water. We anticipate that a comprehensive peace agreement in Sudan will allow us to expand significantly our development assistance to help the Sudanese people in effecting a long-awaited recovery following decades of civil war. The fiscal year 2005 budget includes $436 million in humanitarian and development, economic, and security assistance funding, much of which will be contingent upon a peace settlement between the government and the south.
The fiscal year 2005 budget ensures that the Administration can continue to respond quickly and appropriately to victims of conflict and natural disasters and to help those in greatest need of food, shelter, health care and other essential assistance, including those in areas starting to recover from conflict and war, such as Liberia. In particular, the budget requests funding for a flexible account to give the President the ability to respond to unforeseen emergency needs, the Emergency Fund for Complex Foreign Crises, funded at $100 million.
Keeping Americans Safe at Home and Abroad
We also have a sacred responsibility to look to the security of our citizens, here and overseas, when that security is a part of our responsibility.
Capital Security Cost Sharing Program
The State Department has the responsibility to protect more than 60,000 US government employees who work in embassies and consulates abroad. Since the 1998 bombings of two US embassies in East Africa, the Department of State has improved physical security overseas; however, as many of you are well aware, many posts are still not secure enough to withstand terrorist attacks and other dangers. To correct this problem, in 1999, the Department of State launched a security upgrade and construction program to begin to address requirements in our more than 260 embassies and consulates.
Working with the Congress, President Bush has accelerated the pace of improving and building new secure facilities. Moreover, we have reorganized the Overseas Buildings Office to manage the effort with speed, efficiency, and effectiveness. Within the budget, we are launching a plan to replace the remaining 150 embassies and consulates that do not meet current security standards over the next fourteen years, for a total cost of $17.5 billion. To fund construction of these new embassy compounds, we will begin the Capital Security Cost Sharing (CSCS CSCS Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist
CSCS Center for the Study of Complex Systems (University of Michigan)
CSCS Construction Skills Certification Scheme (UK)
CSCS Center for Surface Combat Systems ) Program in fiscal year 2005. We will implement this program in phases over the next five years. Each agency with staff overseas will contribute annually towards construction of the new facilities based on the number of positions and the type of space they occupy. We arrived at the cost shares in the fiscal year 2005 President's budget request in consultations with each agency and the Department of State's Overseas Buildings Office.
Capital Security Cost Shapring Program is also a major component of the President's Management Agenda The President's Management Agenda is an initiative, announced by U.S. President George W. Bush in 2001, to make the U.S. federal government more efficient and effective. In its drive to make government more "citizen-centered, market-based, and results-oriented," the agenda Initiative on Rightsizing Selecting a computer system, whether micro, mini or mainframe, that best meets the needs of the application. . Along with securing facilities, we have focused on assuring that overseas staffing is deployed where they are most needed to serve US interests. As agencies assess the real cost of maintaining staff overseas, they will adjust their overseas staffing levels. In this way, new embassies will be built to suit appropriate staffing levels. The program is already producing rightsizing results. Agencies are taking steps to eliminate unfilled positions from their books to reduce any unnecessary Capital Security Cost Sharing Program charges, which in turn is leading to smaller embassy construction requirements.
Prior to September 11,2001, the Department of State's consular officers focused primarily on screening applicants based on whether they intended to work or reside legally in the United States. In deciding who should receive a visa, consular officers relied on the Department of State information systems as the primary basis for identifying potential terrorists. The Department of State gave overseas consular officers the discretion to determine the level of scrutiny that should be applied to visa applications and encouraged the streamlining of procedures.
Today, Consular Affairs at the Department of State, working with both Customs and Border Protection and the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration immigration, entrance of a person (an alien) into a new country for the purpose of establishing permanent residence. Motives for immigration, like those for migration generally, are often economic, although religious or political factors may be very important. Services at the Department of Homeland Security Noun 1. Department of Homeland Security - the federal department that administers all matters relating to homeland security
executive department - a federal department in the executive branch of the government of the United States , are cooperating to achieve our goals more effectively by sharing information and integrating information systems. The Department of State has invested substantial time, money, and effort in revamping its visa and passport process as well as its provision of American Citizen Services. The Department has more than doubled its database holdings on individuals who should not be issued visas, increased training for all consular officers, established special programs to vet applications more comprehensively, increased the number of skilled, American staff working in consular sections overseas, and improved data-sharing among agencies. The Department of State, along with the Department of Homeland Security, is currently developing biometrics, such as fingerprints, digital photographs or iris scans, for both visas and passports in order to fulfill requirements of the Patriot and Border Security Acts and the International Civil Aviation Organization International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), specialized agency of the United Nations, organized in 1947, with headquarters at Montreal. The objective of the ICAO, which has 187 member nations, is to encourage the orderly growth of international civil aviation, .
As a part of the Department of State's efforts to screen visa applicants more effectively, and in particular to ensure that a suspected terrorist does not receive a visa to enter the United States, we will be an active partner in the Terrorist Screening Center (TSC TSC Thestreet.com (stock symbol)
TSC Time Stamp Counter
TSC Tuberous Sclerosis Complex
TSC Tractor Supply Company
TSC Terrorist Screening Center (Department of Homeland Security) ). The TSC, established in December 2003, will maintain a single, consolidated watch list of terrorist suspects to be shared with federal, state, local and private entities in accordance with applicable law. The Department of State will also participate in the Terrorist Threat Integration Center (TTIC TTIC Terrorist Threat Integration Center (US government)
TTIC Technology Transfer Information Center
TTIC Toyota Technological Institute at Chicago (Illinois)
TTIC Thermal Transtech International Corporation ), a joint-effort aimed at reducing the potential of intelligence gaps domestically and abroad.
To achieve our goal of secure borders and open doors, in fiscal year 2005 the Department of State plans to expand the use of biometrics to improve security in the visa and passport processes; more effectively fill gaps worldwide by hiring people with specific skills including language expertise; improve and maintain all consular systems; and more broadly expand data sharing with all agencies with border control or immigration related responsibilities. The budget in fiscal year 2005 includes $175 million for biometric projects including photographs and fingerprints to comply with Border Security and Patriot Acts.
The Border Security program underwent a PART analysis in the development of the fiscal year 2004 and fiscal year 2005 budgets and this budget request reflects the results of those analysis. The Department is moving ahead on program management improvements that clearly link to the Department of Homeland Security goals related to visa policy.
The Critical Importance of Diplomatic Readiness
We created the Diplomatic Readiness Initiative (DRI See Digital Research. ) in 2002 to address staffing and training gaps that had become very adverse to the conduct of America's diplomacy. The goal of DRI was to hire 1,158 new foreign and civil service employees over a three-year period. These new hires, the first over-attrition hires in years, would allow us to provide training opportunities for our people and greatly improve the Department's ability to respond to crises and emerging priorities overseas and at critical domestic locations. To bring these new people on board and to select the best men and women possible, we significantly improved Department hiring processes, to include recruiting personnel from more diverse experience and cultural backgrounds and people who could fill critical skill gaps. In the process, we broke records in recruiting and thus had the best and the brightest from which to select. The Department of State will be reaping the benefits from this process for many years to come. We also created new mandatory leadership and management training, enhanced public diplomacy and consular training, and made significant increases in the amount of language training available for new foreign service officers. DRI hiring has supported the Department's efforts in responding to crises since September 11, 2001 and provided the additional resources necessary to staff overseas locations that truly represent the front line in the war on terrorism.
Some of these positions, however, are being diverted to support new requirements not envisioned by DRI, such as permanently staffing new embassies in Afghanistan, Iraq, Sudan, and possibly in Tripoli. Because of this, the fiscal year 2005 budget request provides additional resources to continue our DRI commitment. DRI has allowed the Department to focus on recruiting, training and retaining a high quality work force, sized to requirements that can respond more flexibly to the dynamic and demanding world in which we live. We need to continue it.
USAID has begun a similar effort to address gaps in staffing in technical skills, calling it the Development Readiness Initiative. USAID plans to hire approximately forty foreign service officers in fiscal year 2004 under this initiative. This budget request includes authority for USAID to hire up to fifty additional foreign service officers in fiscal year 2005, in order to fill critical skill gaps identified through a comprehensive workforce analysis.
Colin L. Powell
United States Secretary of State