Presence of Rickettsia felis in the cat flea from Southwestern Europe (1).Rickettsia rickettsia (rĭkĕt`sēə), any of a group of very small microorganisms, many disease-causing, that live in vertebrates and are transmitted by bloodsucking parasitic arthropods such as fleas, lice (see louse), and ticks. felis, formerly called ELB ELB Extending the Littoral Battlespace
ELB Electric Bass (music)
ELB English Language Bookshop (Brighton, UK)
ELB Earth Leakage Breaker
ELB Emmett L Brown agent, was identified by using molecular biology techniques in the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis felis) from southwestern Spain. For the first time this flea-transmitted rickettsia has been detected within its vector in Eurasia.
Members of the genus Rickettsia are commonly associated with hematophagous hematophagous
subsisting on blood, e.g. hematophagous flies. arthropods such as ticks, fleas, or lice. Rickettsia felis, formerly ELB agent, was detected in 1990 when tissues from the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, were examined under electron microscopy. After this, several antigenic and molecular studies concerning this rickettsia were developed (1). R. felis is maintained in cat fleas by transovarian transmission (2). Infection in humans has been described in the USA (3), Mexico (4), and Brazil (1) by polymerase chain reaction polymerase chain reaction (pŏl`ĭmərās') (PCR), laboratory process in which a particular DNA segment from a mixture of DNA chains is rapidly replicated, producing a large, readily analyzed sample of a piece of DNA; the process is (PCR PCR polymerase chain reaction.
polymerase chain reaction
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ) amplification and recently in France by serologic tests (1).
During a study concerning rickettsial rickettsial /rick·ett·si·al/ (ri-ket´se-al) pertaining to or caused by rickettsiae.
Relating to, or caused by a member of the genus Rickettsia. organisms transmitted by ticks in southwest Spain, using molecular tools for diagnosis, a rickettsial microorganism microorganism /mi·cro·or·gan·ism/ (-or´gah-nizm) a microscopic organism; those of medical interest include bacteria, fungi, and protozoa. was detected in some cat fleas on domestic cats and dogs Cats and Dogs
A slang term referring to speculative stocks that have short or suspicious histories for sales, earnings, dividends, etc.
In a bull market analysts will often mention that everything is going up, even the cats and dogs. from different counties of the Cadiz Province.
The fleas used in this study (60 females and 11 males) were collected, together with ticks, from 2 cats and 12 dogs from eight localities of Cadiz Province in southwestern Spain from May to August of 1999 (Figure, Table). The hosts were domestic and peridomesticated dogs and cats living in a range of health-care conditions. Collected fleas were fixed in 70% ethyl alcohol and stored at 4 [degrees] C until they were processed. Taxonomic determination was made by using current taxonomic keys (5,6). All specimens subjected to analysis were C. felis felis (Bouche, 1835).
DNA DNA: see nucleic acid.
or deoxyribonucleic acid
One of two types of nucleic acid (the other is RNA); a complex organic compound found in all living cells and many viruses. It is the chemical substance of genes. was extracted from 14 lots of fleas (ranging from 1 to 11 specimens per lot) by using the DNeasy_Tissue kit(Qiagen GmbH, Hilden, Germany) (7). Elution elution /elu·tion/ (e-loo´shun) in chemistry, separation of material by washing; the process of pulverizing substances and mixing them with water in order to separate the heavier constituents, which settle out in solution, from the of DNA was made in 100 [micro]L of TE buffer (1 mM Tris HC1, 0.1 mM EDTA EDTA: see chelating agents. ). Extraction blanks, consisting of water processed along with flea samples, were also included as controls.
A Biometra DNA Thermalcycler (Gottingen, Germany) was used for all PCR amplification. Three microliters of each DNA extraction were added to 27 [micro]L of master mixture for each reaction. Final reagent concentration was 0.2 [micro]M for each primer, 200 [micro]M for each deoxynucleotide triphosphate triphosphate /tri·phos·phate/ (tri-fos´fat) a salt containing three phosphate radicals.
A salt or ester containing three phosphate groups. (Promega Corp., Madison, WI), 2 U of Biotaq polymerase (BioLine, London, UK), and 1x Bioline buffer. The following thermal cycler parameters were used with the primer pairs for citrate synthase (glta) RpCS.877p and RpCS1258n (8), 120-kDa genus common antigen (ompB) (rfompbf: 5'-GAC AAT Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT)
A blood component that breaks down infection-fighting enzymes such as elastase.
Mentioned in: Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease TAA TAA - Track Average Amplitude TAT CGG CGG Compagnie Generale de Geophysique
CGG Canadian Grenadier Guards (Canadian reserve military unit)
CGG Cancer Genetics Group (Birmingham, UK) TGA See TARGA.
TGA - Targa Graphics Adaptor CGG, and rfompbr: 5'-TGC ATC ATC Air Traffic Control
ATC Average Total Cost
ATC Certified Athletic Trainer
ATC At the Center (Hartford, Maine retreat center)
ATC Applied Technology Council
ATC All Things Considered AGC ATT ATT
ammonia tolerance test. ACC See adaptive cruise control. GCT TGC), 190-kDa protein antigen (ompA) Rr190.70p, and Rr190.602n (8): 96 [degrees] C (90 sec), followed by 35 cycles of 94 [degrees] C (30 sec), 50 [degrees] C (30 sec), and 72 [degrees] C (45 sec), followed by an extension period (72 [degrees] C, 7 min). For the amplification of a 426-base pair fragment of 16S rRNA gene, we used the primers fD1 (9) and Rc16S.452n (10) and 59 [degrees] C as annealing annealing (ənēl`ĭng), process in which glass, metals, and other materials are treated to render them less brittle and more workable. temperature.
Seven lots from five localities around Cadiz and Gibraltar bays were positive to amplification of fragments of 16S rRNA, glta, ompA and ompB genes.
In brief, after amplification, primers and nucleotides were removed from 300 [micro]L of PCR products by purification on the Wizard PCR preps purification system (Promega, Madison, WI). Approximately 100 fmol of the purified PCR product (4-5 [micro]L) were used directly in the sequencing reaction.
The PCR cycle sequencing was performed for each amplicon by using the correct forward or reverse primers and the Silver sequence DNA Sequencing System (Promega). Sequencing reaction products were loaded twice on 40 cm 6% polyacrylamide 7M urea gels by electrophoresis in the Sequi-Gen Nucleic Acid Sequencing System (BioRad, Hercules, CA) at 55 W of constant electrophoresis (55 [degrees] C) and separated for 4 hr 30 min. and 2 hr 30 min, respectively. Gel was silver stained by using the standard Promega protocol. A permanent record was made in scanning the gel. To determine the sequence of positions near primers, we used a 10% polyacrylamide 7M urea electrophoresis gel. The sequence of both strings was determined twice for each fragment.
Sequences obtained were compared with those from other Rickettsia species in GenBank by using the BLAST utility (National Center for Biotechnology Information The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is part of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), a branch of the National Institutes of Health. The NCBI is located in Bethesda, Maryland and was founded in 1988. , Bethesda, MD) and FASTA FASTA Fraternidad de Agrupaciones Santo Tomás de Aquino (Spanish: Fraternity of St Thomas Aquinas Groups )
FASTA Federal Acquisition Streamlining Act
FASTA Fresno Area Substitute Teachers Association routine from GCG environment. Fragment sequence for 16S rRNA, glta, ompA, and ompB sequence were identical to previously reported sequence for R. felis. The 16S rRNA amplified fragment was identical to previously reported sequence (GenBank L28944) between positions 1 and 410 (3). The fragment sequenced for citrate synthase corresponded to positions 757 and 1138 in GenBank accession AF210692 (1). The fragment amplified for ompA corresponded to positions 478 to 987 in GenBank accession AF191026 (11). The fragment amplified for ompB corresponded to positions 599 to 1259 in GenBank accession AF210695 (1). Amplification was unsuccessful in all negative controls.
R. felis has been found extensively in commercial colonies and natural cat fleas, parasitizing a large range of mammalian hosts in several states of the United States (12,13).
For the first time R. felis was detected in Eurasia, by means of PCR and partial sequencing of genes classically used in rickettsial molecular characterization and phylogeny. The sequences of glta, ompA, ompB, and 16S rRNA from Cadiz cat fleas were identical to the homologous sequences previously reported for R. felis obtained from fleas reared in EL Laboratories (Soquel, CA) (3) and Louisiana State University Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, generally known as Louisiana State University or LSU, is a public, coeducational university located in Baton Rouge, Louisiana and the main campus of the Louisiana State University System. (11) and isolated by Flea Data Inc. (Freeville, NY) (1).
In humans, R. felis may produce a clinical syndrome similar to murine typhus (3). Thus, R. felis could be implicated in murine typhus-compatible cases detected in southwest Spain (14), especially since the oriental rat flea, Xenopsylla cheopis (Rothschild, 1903), is absent from this area.
Thirteen species of flea belonging to the genus Ctenocephalides have been described to date (15), mainly distributed in continental Africa (16), with a worldwide contemporary distribution in a large range of hosts, mainly anthropic species of the group (C. felis), which has a large potential host range. The primary source of the bacterium might be Africa, where this flea genus apparently originated.
This work was supported in part by grants from the Fondo de Investigacion Sanitaria (FIS-99/0296), Servicio Andaluz de Salud (SAS-203/98) of Junta de Andalucia, and Universidad de Jaen (UJA-FLV/jbf) research programs.
Table. Origin, host range lot composition, and polymerase chain reaction results of cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis felis), captured in Cadiz Province, southwestern Spain, used in this study Capture C.f. felis C.f. felis PCR Locality date Host females males result Arcos de la 23/05/ dog 2 1 + Frontera 1999 Benalup 09/08/ dog 7 4 + 1999 Jerez 24/05/ dog 2 -- -- 1999 Paterna de 24/05/ dog 5 1 -- Rivera 1999 San Jose del 24/05/ dog 6 -- -- Valle 1999 San Roque 21/05/ dog 8 -- + 1999 San Roque 21/05/ dog 1 -- + 1999 Tarifa 11/06/ dog 5 3 + 1999 Tarifa 11/06/ dog 1 -- + 1999 Vejer de la 12/06/ dog 3 2 -- Frontera 1999 Vejer de la 09/08/ cat 7 -- + Frontera 1999 Vejer de la 09/08/ cat 4 -- -- Frontera 1999 Vejer de la 09/08/ dog 5 -- -- Frontera 1999 Vejer de la 09/08/ dog 4 -- -- Frontera 1999
Dr. Marquez is associate professor of zoology and parasitology at the Faculty of Experimental Sciences at Jaen University, Spain. His research interests focus on medical entomology and arthropod-borne diseases.
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This occurs when a microorganism is found on or in a person without causing a disease.
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Arising or occurring within a species: intraspecific competition.
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(14.) Bernabeu-Wittel M, Pachon J, Alarcon A, Lopez-Cortes LF, Viciana P, Jimenez-Mejias ME, et al. Murine typhus as a common cause of fever of intermediate duration. A 17-year study in the South of Spain. Arch Intern Med 1999;159:872-6.
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Fracisco J. Marquez, * Miguel A. Muniain, ([dagger]) Jesus M. Perez, * and Jeronimo Pachon ([double dagger])
* Universidad de Jaen, Jaen, Spain; [dagger] Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena, Seville, Spain; and [double dagger] Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Seville, Spain
(1) This study was presented in part at the II National Meeting of the Rickettsia and Borrelia Borrelia
A genus of spirochetes that have a unique genome composed of a linear chromosome and numerous linear and circular plasmids. Borreliae are motile, helical organisms with 4–30 uneven, irregular coils, and are 5–25 micrometers long and 0. Group (Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology), Sitges, Barcelona, Spain, October 2000.
Address for correspondence: Francisco J. Marquez, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Biologia Vegetal vegetal /veg·e·tal/ (vej´e-t'l) vegetative (defs. 1, 2, and 3).
1. Of, relating to, or characteristic of plants.
2. y Ecologia, Universidad de Jaen, Paraje Las Lagunillas s/n, 23071 Jaen, Spain; fax: 34-53-012141; e-mail: jmarquez@ujaen.