Preparing psychologists to work with underserved populations: a faith-based pre-doctoral training model.The purpose of this article is to provide a pre-doctoral training model for preparing future psychologists to work with underserved clients and communities from a uniquely Christian perspective. Another major goal of this article is to encourage others to develop pre-doctoral training programs dedicated to working with underserved groups. The training model presented in this article is based on the Chicago Area Christian Training Consortium (CACTC) Internship internship /in·tern·ship/ (in´tern-ship) the position or term of service of an intern in a hospital.
n the course work or practicum conducted in a professional dental clinic. in Professional Psychology, which provides pre-doctoral interns This article or section is written like an .
Please help [ rewrite this article] from a neutral point of view.
Mark blatant advertising for , using . the opportunity to work with underserved urban, suburban, and rural populations. In this work, interns are challenged to expand their repertoire to also include non-traditional modes of service delivery which, in many cases, is considered to be more effective in work with underserved populations. Consequently, the CACTC (a) mission statement, (b) program description, (c) training objectives, (d) CACTC sites, and (e) training philosophy are highlighted.
Throughout the Scriptures there are numerous references calling Christians to serve the poor, marginalized, and oppressed--to reach out to the underserved (Deuteronomy 14:28-29; Matthew 5:17-18; Matthew 25:34-40). Ethnic minorities, older adults, children, low-income individuals, persons with Human Immunodeficiency Virus human immunodeficiency virus
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
A transmissible retrovirus that causes AIDS in humans. (HIV HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), either of two closely related retroviruses that invade T-helper lymphocytes and are responsible for AIDS. There are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is responsible for the vast majority of AIDS in the United States. ) or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
A viral disease of humans caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which attacks and compromises the body's immune system. (AIDS), persons with disabilities, inner-city residents and rural residents represent just a few of the modern day people groups who remain underserved (Acuff, Archambeault, Greenberg, Hoeltzel, McDaniel, Meyer, et al., 1999; American Psychological Association The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. Description and history
The association has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. , 1999; 2000; Center for Mental Health Services For the California public school, see .
The Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS) is a unit of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) witin the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
US government-supported group. , 1998; Department of Health and Human Services Noun 1. Department of Health and Human Services - the United States federal department that administers all federal programs dealing with health and welfare; created in 1979
Health and Human Services, HHS , 2001; Hahn, 1988; Sue & Lam, 2002; Walker, Mays, & Warren, 2004; Wong-McDonald, 2002). This is particularly true in regards to access and utilization of mental health services health services Managed care The benefits covered under a health contract (i.e., Merwin, Dembling, Hinton, & Stern, 2003; Power, Eiraldi, & Clarke, 2005). Variables such as oppression, racism, discrimination, poverty, stigma stigma: see pistil.
mark of Cain
God’s mark on Cain, a sign of his shame for fratricide. [O. T.: Genesis 4:15]
scarlet letter , lack of available mental health professionals, and inadequate (if not unattainable) health insurance make it difficult for the aforementioned to receive adequate psychological treatment (American Psychological Association, 2000; Burns & Friedman, 1990; Hahn, 1988; Kallen, 2004; Surgeon General The U.S. Surgeon General is charged with the protection and advancement of health in the United States. Since the 1960s the surgeon general has become a highly visible federal public health official, speaking out against known health risks such as tobacco use, and promoting disease , 2002).
Fortunately, professional organizations such as the American Psychological Association (APA (All Points Addressable) Refers to an array (bitmapped screen, matrix, etc.) in which all bits or cells can be individually manipulated.
APA - Application Portability Architecture ) are bringing attention to these issues (i.e., APA, 1999). A number of task force teams have been vested with the responsibility of studying underserved populations. For Example, groups like the APA Working Group on the Older Adult (APA, 1998) are attempting to identify mental health trends present in underserved populations and clinical competencies for mental health professionals who practice with underserved clients.
Researchers have also begun to attend to the unique needs of underserved populations (i.e., Bond, 1997; Campbell & Gordon, 2003; Stuart, 2004). Grant funding agencies (i.e., National Institutes of Health and the National Institutes of Mental Health) are also supporting research studies that investigate issues pertaining per·tain
intr.v. per·tained, per·tain·ing, per·tains
1. To have reference; relate: evidence that pertains to the accident.
2. to underserved populations. Also, the special issue volume (volume 21) of the Journal of Psychology and Christianity (2002) on underserved populations represents a growing interest among Christian scholars. While this recent increased scholarship is notable, sufficient research on underserved populations is still lacking and a paucity pau·ci·ty
1. Smallness of number; fewness.
2. Scarcity; dearth: a paucity of natural resources. of mental health providers who are engaged with these people groups remains. This reality is underscored by the disproportionately dis·pro·por·tion·ate
Out of proportion, as in size, shape, or amount.
dispro·por low number of psychologists who provide therapeutic services to underserved clients despite the ever-increasing number of psychologists who enter the field annually (APA, 1995; Kruse & Canning, 2002, Robiner & Crew, 2000; Peterson & Rodolfa, 2000; Pion pion (pī`ŏn) or pi meson, lightest of the meson family of elementary particles. The existence of the pion was predicted in 1935 by Hideki Yukawa, who theorized that it was responsible for the force of the strong , Kohout, & Wicherski, 2000). In response to this trend, Kruse and Canning (2002) noted, "The fact that there are too many psychologists for some communities and too few for others begs an explanation" (p. 58).
While far from being the only explanation, the lack of specialized or applied training opportunities for psychologists focused on underserved populations is a plausible contributing factor. Despite the pioneering efforts of community psychology training programs during the 1960's and 1970's, opportunities to specialize in work with the underserved still appear to be lacking in comparison to other pre-doctoral internship focuses (i.e., specialization in child psychology). This is unfortunate given the fact that there is research to support the notion that professionals who report having an increased sense of competence based on prior training with underserved groups tend to work with them to a greater degree (Kruse & Canning, 2002).
Moreover, the lack of training models available in the psychological literature for preparing psychologists to work with underserved populations may be another likely reason. This void is particularly noticeable in regards to pre-doctoral training models (while these training models may exist, they do not exist in the current literature). In fact, the majority of published pre-doctoral training models have emphasized primary care (e.g., Talen, Fraser, & Caulcy, 2005; Masters, Stillman, & Browning, 2005), primary behavioral health Behavioral health was first used in the 1980's to name the combination of the fields mental health and substance abuse. As an example, an organization serving both mental health and substance abuse clients might refer to its practice as behavioral health or care (e.g., Dobmeyer, Rowan rowan
ash tree which guards against fairies and witches. [Br. Folklore: Briggs, 344]
See : Protection , & Etherage, 2003), and psychopharmacology psychopharmacology (sī'kōfär'məkŏl`əjē), in its broadest sense, the study of all pharmacological agents that affect mental and emotional functions. (e.g., Tulkin & Stock, 2004; Dunivin & Southwell, 2000). Consequently, a pre-doctoral internship training model which emphasizes a Christian response to working with the underserved appears absent in the literature.
The purpose of this article is to provide a pre-doctoral training model for preparing future psychologists to work with underserved clients and communities from a uniquely Christian perspective. By providing a framework, the authors hope to promote the development of other training programs dedicated to cultivating a greater number of psychologists equipped to work with marginalized groups. The training model presented in this article is based on the Chicago Area Christian Training Consortium (CACTC) Internship in Professional Psychology, and highlights the CACTC (a) mission statement, (b) program description, (c), training objectives (d) CACTC sites, and (e) training philosophy.
CONSORTIUM MISSION STATEMENT
The purpose of the CACTC Internship in Professional Psychology is to strengthen psychological service delivery to underserved persons and their communities by equipping and preparing pre-doctoral interns to work competently with these groups. In the context of a multidisciplinary mul·ti·dis·ci·pli·nar·y
Of, relating to, or making use of several disciplines at once: a multidisciplinary approach to teaching. training consortium, a distinct course of study is provided for pre-doctoral interns in professional psychology. This training is founded on a commitment to develop pre-doctoral interns' competence as professional psychologists in service provision to underserved groups from a distinctly Christian perspective. Furthermore, given CACTC's commitment to excellence in training, the program has been accredited accredited
recognition by an appropriate authority that the performance of a particular institution has satisfied a prestated set of criteria.
cattle herds which have achieved a low level of reactors to, e.g. by the American Psychological Association (APA) since 2002 and has been a member of the American Pre-doctoral and Post-doctoral Internship Centers (APPIC APPIC Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers ) since 2000.
CACTC was initially created in 2000 in response to a need for internship training specifically geared towards increasing the number of psychologists able to effectively work with underserved populations. Thus far, this goal is being reached as outcome data of CACTC graduates indicates that around 80% of its graduates are currently working in settings with underserved groups (Kruse & Gorham, 2006). While this high percentage may be explained to some degree by self-selection bias (i.,e., interns who intend to engage with underserved groups post-graduation are the ones who tend to gravitate grav·i·tate
intr.v. grav·i·tat·ed, grav·i·tat·ing, grav·i·tates
1. To move in response to the force of gravity.
2. To move downward.
3. toward CACTC), it also seems likely that the CACTC program has had a critical shaping influence on the professional direction of its graduates.
For example, while professionals would likely agree about the need to serve underserved groups, many may shy away from Verb 1. shy away from - avoid having to deal with some unpleasant task; "I shy away from this task"
avoid - stay clear from; keep away from; keep out of the way of someone or something; "Her former friends now avoid her" engaging in such work given their perceptions of the challenges inherent in work with these populations. One such challenge is the belief that working with underserved groups is less rewarding due to the decreased financial compensation associated with this work. Though this may be true in some settings and with some populations, this does not appear to be true across the board. In fact, research by Lindberg, Canning and Johnston [Kruse] (1999) indicated that while some practitioners associate work with underserved populations with obtaining less economic rewards, data from their study revealed no significant relationship in engagement with underserved populations. In other words Adv. 1. in other words - otherwise stated; "in other words, we are broke"
put differently , the belief that working with underserved groups may be less financially rewarding is a perception that, when studied, may not be supported.
Notwithstanding, there are still some professionals that may need assistance in repaying student loans in order to make their engagement with underserved populations more feasible. Groups such as the National Health Service Corps (NHSC NHSC National Health Service Corps
NHSC National Horse Show Commission
NHSC National Homeland Security Council
NHSC Neighborhood Housing Services of Chicago (Chicago, IL)
NHSC National Highway Safety Council ; www.nhsc.bhpr.hrsa.gov), a program through the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, provide scholarships and loan repayment awards to health and mental health providers who commit (typically for 2 years) to work in areas with a shortage of providers. Additionally, there are also loan forgiveness programs which operate on a state level. For example, the State Loan Repayment Program is a part of the Health Resources and Services Administration's (HRSA) Bureau of Health Professions strategy to improve access to underserved communities. NHSC grants matching funds Noun 1. matching funds - funds that will be supplied in an amount matching the funds available from other sources
cash in hand, finances, funds, monetary resource, pecuniary resource - assets in the form of money directly to States to operate their own loan repayment programs, thus creating another avenue for newer professionals to receive loan forgiveness support while also making a meaningful contribution in underserved communities.
CACTC is a collaborative effort of five mental health organizations and one graduate institution. The partner agencies working together are: Outreach Community Ministries (Wheaton, IL), Lydia Home Association (Chicago, IL), Cornerstone Counseling Center of Chicago (Chicago, IL), Lawndale Christian Health Center (Chicago, IL), Center for Rural Psychology (Elburn, IL), and the partner institution is Wheaton College Wheaton College may refer to:
All pre-doctoral interns maintain responsibilities at two of the five agencies through primary and secondary placements. The length and duration of secondary rotations may vary, depending on intern intern /in·tern/ (in´tern) a medical graduate serving in a hospital preparatory to being licensed to practice medicine.
in·tern or in·terne
n. interest and program need. However, in most cases, interns spend four days at their primary rotation and one day at their secondary rotation.
Furthermore, all interns receive training that focuses on the integration of psychology and Christianity in clinical practice. This training may take the form of training seminars, spiritual retreats, collaborative professional scholarship (i.e., writing articles and presenting at conferences), reading resource packets, and/or supervision which cultivates the intern's psychological framework in light of a Christian worldview Christian worldview refers to a collection of distinctively Christian philosophical and religious beliefs. The term is typically used in one of three ways:
n. pl. psy·cho·ther·a·pies
The treatment of mental and emotional disorders through the use of psychological techniques designed to encourage communication of conflicts and insight into problems, with the goal being techniques and skills. The culmination of these experiences exposes interns to a variety of ways to conceptualize con·cep·tu·al·ize
v. con·cep·tu·al·ized, con·cep·tu·al·iz·ing, con·cep·tu·al·iz·es
To form a concept or concepts of, and especially to interpret in a conceptual way: and practice faith integration, with the hope of creating an enriching atmosphere for the intern to then develop and articulate their own emerging worldview world·view
n. In both senses also called Weltanschauung.
1. The overall perspective from which one sees and interprets the world.
2. A collection of beliefs about life and the universe held by an individual or a group. .
The internship is an important year in an intern's professional development, which provides a "bridge" between their prior academic and clinical training and future professional practice. Through supervision, mentoring and involvement in the activities of the CACTC, pre-doctoral interns are encouraged to grow in their awareness of the multifaceted mul·ti·fac·et·ed
Having many facets or aspects. See Synonyms at versatile.
Adj. 1. multifaceted - having many aspects; "a many-sided subject"; "a multifaceted undertaking"; "multifarious interests"; "the multifarious nature of persons, and the interface between the psychological, sociological, biological, and spiritual dimensions of life. The CACTC internship program embodies a practitioner-scholar model of training in order to promote competencies congruent con·gru·ent
1. Corresponding; congruous.
a. Coinciding exactly when superimposed: congruent triangles.
b. with the discipline of professional psychology and informed by the Christian faith. While this model of training is primarily geared towards preparing interns for applied practice, it is built on the assumption that well-researched and empirically supported treatments help to provide a strong conceptual framework For the concept in aesthetics and art criticism, see .
A conceptual framework is used in research to outline possible courses of action or to present a preferred approach to a system analysis project. for this clinical practice to take place.
Furthermore, the program was built on the premise that service to underserved groups is directly related to our Christian calling to reach out to those in need, who in contemporary society are those who have been marginalized due to their race, age, socioeconomic so·ci·o·ec·o·nom·ic
Of or involving both social and economic factors.
of or involving economic and social factors
Adj. 1. background and so forth. Thus, one aspect of Christian integration in the CACTC program includes encouraging interns to develop their heart and voice for social justice.
CACTC has the following objectives: 1) To develop pre-doctoral interns' knowledge of the APA ethical standards in the practice of psychology, and the ability to demonstrate behavior consistent with these standards, 2) To assist pre-doctoral interns' in the acquisition of a broad range of scientific and clinical knowledge and skills in professional psychology practice, including the ability to approach cases with a holistic understanding of persons (i.e., biological, psychological, systemic, spiritual and social), 3) To facilitate pre-doctoral interns' ability to effectively integrate psychological and religious/spiritual dimensions of personhood per·son·hood
The state or condition of being a person, especially having those qualities that confer distinct individuality: "finding her own personhood as a campus activist" from a distinctly Christian perspective, while also valuing a diverse range of religious perspectives in their work with clients, 4) To develop pre-doctoral interns' critical thinking skills regarding the contemporary models of Christian integration and practice, 5) To develop pre-doctoral interns' capacity to both assess and provide treatment to a diverse range of persons, especially those who are traditionally underserved by mental health providers, 6) To expand pre-doctoral interns' multicultural competence in work with a diverse spectrum of client populations and presenting problems, 7) To promote the development of pre-doctoral interns' emerging identity as a practitioner-scholar psychologist by promoting the active utilization of, and/or contribution to, the professional scholarly literature as it applies to direct service provision, and 8) To provide broad based clinical training in order to prepare pre-doctoral interns for licensure licensure
(lī´snsh as professional psychologists.
Training objective three may be of particular interest to readers, with emphasis being placed on the integration of psychology and Christianity. The interns in the CACTC come from a wide background of educational experiences, with Christian, secular, and seminary seminary
Educational institution, usually for training in theology. In the U.S. the term was formerly also used to refer to institutions of higher learning for women, often teachers' colleges. backgrounds (or a combination of the aforementioned). A developmental approach based on interns' theological background and understanding, is facilitated through a spiritual retreat, trainings on the integration of psychology and Christianity, clinical supervision, and additional educational opportunities made available through Wheaton College (i.e., attending colloquiums or seminars). Though no test of theology is administered before embarking on their field placements, interns are evaluated on this training objective (as are the other training objectives) throughout their pre-doctoral internship year.
Outreach Community Ministries
(Suburban Outpatient Setting)
Outreach Community Ministries is a Christian community-based not-for-profit organization located in the western suburbs Western Suburbs (Wests) is the premier soccer club in Wellington, New Zealand and current holders of the Chatham Cup. The 2005 season was particularly successful for the club with the First Team claiming the Central League championship and the Reserve side gaining promotion to the of Chicago. With their mission to "put Christian faith into responsible action," the commitment of Outreach Community Ministries over the past thirty-five years has been to provide distinctively Christian mental health and social services social services
welfare services provided by local authorities or a state agency for people with particular social needs
social services npl → servicios mpl sociales in several communities, focused specifically on responding to the needs of the lowest income residents. Outreach Community Ministries programs include shelter care for homeless young women and their children, counseling centers in three communities, and a large community center with counseling, mentoring, basic needs and children and youth programs serving racially diverse poor families and children in one of the largest low-income census tracts A census tract, census area, or census district is a particular community defined for the purpose of taking a census. Usually these coincide with the limits of cities, towns or other administrative areas and several tracts commonly exist within a county. in DuPage County. Outreach Community Ministries serves a low-income, multi-age, multi-ethnic population with problems which include domestic violence, child physical and sexual abuse, substance abuse, and family instability. Interns are involved in the counseling program with those who are already identified as at-risk as well as in prevention and community-based education programs at the community center to reduce risk in the community-at-large.
Lydia Home Association
(Inner-City Residential Setting)
Founded as an orphanage ORPHANAGE, Eng. law. By the custom of London, when a freeman of that city dies, his estate is divided into three parts, as follows: one third part to the widow; another, to the children advanced by him in his lifetime, which is called the orphanage; and the other third part may be by him in 1916 to serve children, Lydia Home Association is an inner-city Christian social Christian Social can refer to:
Cornerstone Counseling Center of Chicago
(Inner-City Outpatient Setting)
Located near the heart of Chicago across from the Cabrini-Green Public Housing Project, Cornerstone Counseling Center of Chicago is a non-profit counseling center started by LaSalle Street LaSalle Street is a major north-south street in Chicago named for Sieur de La Salle, an early explorer of Illinois. The portion that runs through the Loop is considered to be Chicago's financial district. For most of its length, the street has the address 150 West. Church in the early 1970's. Cornerstone Counseling Center of Chicago staff seeks to participate in developing a deeper understanding of the interface between faith and the human condition as related to emotional, relational, and spiritual life and works to serve those who have been oppressed op·press
tr.v. op·pressed, op·press·ing, op·press·es
1. To keep down by severe and unjust use of force or authority: a people who were oppressed by tyranny.
2. or marginalized by society. Mental health services in the areas of individual, couples, family, and group counseling, along with psychoeducation and assessment services for adults, children, families and the surrounding community are provided. Community-based services are also provided in schools to at-risk children throughout the city of Chicago.
Lawndale Christian Health Center
(Inner-City Primary-Care Setting)
Lawndale Christian Health Center is a faith-based community A faith-based community is a community with members who all believe in the same religious concepts, or at least they did when it was founded. Many faith-based communities are communes, although this is not a requirement. medical clinic located on the Westside of Chicago and serving the Lawndale and East and West Garfield communities. Pre-doctoral interns who are completing their primary rotation at Lawndale Christian Health Center are trained in the Behavioral Health Consultant Model, an innovative approach to adapting clinical psychology skills to a primary care setting (pediatric pediatric /pe·di·at·ric/ (pe?de-at´rik) pertaining to the health of children.
Of or relating to pediatrics. to geriatric geriatric /ger·i·at·ric/ (jer?e-at´rik)
1. pertaining to elderly persons or to the aging process.
2. pertaining to geriatrics.
1. ). The health center is a Federally Qualified Health Center A Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) is an American community-based health organization. An FQHC provides comprehensive primary health, oral, and mental health/substance abuse services to persons in all stages of the life cycle. providing primary care medical services to an African-American and Hispanic population. The clinic was founded in 1984 through the efforts of local residents and members of the Lawndale Community Church who sought to address the stark health disparities
Health disparities (also called health inequalities in some countries) refer to gaps in the quality of health and health care across racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups. in these medically underserved neighborhoods. Lawndale Christian Health Center now serves over 30,000 patients, providing comprehensive pediatric and adult medicine, health support services support services Psychology Non-health care-related ancillary services–eg, transportation, financial aid, support groups, homemaker services, respite services, and other services in the areas of diabetes, asthma, HIV, substance abuse, maternal-child health, and pastoral and behavioral health services. Lawndale Christian Health Center patients are primarily first and second generation Mexican immigrant and African-American in background, with a variety of psychosocial psychosocial /psy·cho·so·cial/ (si?ko-so´shul) pertaining to or involving both psychic and social aspects.
Involving aspects of both social and psychological behavior. issues related to poverty and multiple life stressors.
Center for Rural Psychology
(Rural Out-Patient Setting)
The Center for Rural Psychology is a training site for pre-doctoral interns who want to focus on the needs of rural clients and communities. Opportunities are available in individual, couple family, and group therapy as well as experiences in providing supervision, assessment, program development, equine equine
Any member of the ungulate family Equidae, which includes the modern horses, zebras, and asses, all in the genus Equus, as well as more than 60 species known only from fossils. Equines descended from the dawn horse (see Eohippus). assisted psychotherapy psychotherapy, treatment of mental and emotional disorders using psychological methods. Psychotherapy, thus, does not include physiological interventions, such as drug therapy or electroconvulsive therapy, although it may be used in combination with such methods. , and community education. Opportunities to collaborate with local schools in prevention and intervention efforts for children are also available. The mission of Center for Rural Psychology is to train Christian mental health professionals with the unique skills and knowledge needed to effectively serve in rural communities and to provide psychological consultation, support, and training to professionals and natural helpers in underserved rural communities.
Prior to internship, most interns have been trained in traditional models which tend to be grounded in a Western perspective valuing individualism individualism
Political and social philosophy that emphasizes individual freedom. Modern individualism emerged in Britain with the ideas of Adam Smith and Jeremy Bentham, and the concept was described by Alexis de Tocqueville as fundamental to the American temper. (i.e., autonomy, internal processes and behavior) and are geared towards those who are economically resourced. Services from this perspective typically follow the traditional office-based, private practice model. While this model of service delivery may be effective for some people groups, it is less so for those who have been marginalized. Given this, interns are encouraged to broaden their perspective of what assessment and intervention should look like and to consider what approaches may be more helpful to a wider range of persons and communities.
Furthermore, there are specific elements that are essential in working with underserved groups. In the U.S. Surgeon General's Report on Mental Health (2002), services which are integrated, community-based, family supportive and culturally sensitive are considered to be vital components of effective service. Moreover, others have argued that effective services to marginalized persons are most effective when they are: (a) community-based, (b) collaborative, (c) home-based, (d) strength-based, (e) culturally sensitive, and (f) advocating/empowering (Canning, Case, & Kruse, 2001). The following section will highlight a few of these elements and provide examples of how they are implemented throughout the various CACTC sites.
Consistent with its name, community-based services are services delivered in the community or neighborhood in which they are needed as opposed to the more medical-model practice of providing services only from a clinic or hospital setting. However, despite the proven effectiveness of many community-based programs, there still remains a dearth of providers working from a community-based perspective (Department of Health and Human Services, 2001). The importance of this type of community-based service in work with underserved persons is three-fold: it increases accessibility to services, it demonstrates a commitment to the community, and it provides increased contact with the community and its specific needs, thus creating increased potential for more relevant services within the community.
Throughout CACTC, the application of a community-based perspective can be seen by how the agencies are located in specific communities where mental needs have been identified and work to partner with those in the community to provide services specific to those needs (i.e. starting Heartland Counseling Center through Center for Rural Psychology to meet the needs of a rural community, Lawndale's community-based medical center to serve the needs of the Lawndale community, a Latino Services Program through Cornerstone Counseling Center of Chicago and Outreach Community Ministries to meet the needs of the lower-income, Latino families in the community, etc.).
Community-based collaboration with other service providers may also be an effective means of providing mental health services to underserved persons. For example, in many rural locations, there has been increased movement in integrating mental health services with medical care (Bird, et al., 1998). This approach may be an effective way to increase visibility of services while also decreasing the level of stigma associated with mental health care. This is exemplified at LCHC LCHC Latino Coalition for a Healthy California
LCHC Louisiana Collegiate Honors Council where interns work in a primary health care setting as behavioral health consultants to the physicians within the health center. In this role, they learn how to diagnose and screen for psychological disorders Noun 1. psychological disorder - (psychiatry) a psychological disorder of thought or emotion; a more neutral term than mental illness
folie, mental disorder, mental disturbance, disturbance , and design problem and strength-based behavior change Behavior change refers to any transformation or modification of human behavior. Such changes can occur intentionally, through behavior modification, without intention, or change rapidly in situations of mental illness. plans. Pre-doctoral interns also consult with medical providers and to assist providers in utilizing pharmacological Pharmacological
Referring to therapy that relies on drugs.
Mentioned in: Pain Management
pertaining to pharmacology. treatment effectively. By pairing mental health services with medical services, the stigma of receiving psychological services decreases while the utilization rates of services increases.
This same collaborative movement has also been noted in recent efforts to provide mental health services within school settings, which typically is the first place first to identify mental health concerns in many children and adolescents. Given this, CACTC sites such as Center for Rural Psychology and Cornerstone Counseling Center of Chicago provide school-based groups in order to meet the needs of those who may be at-risk or to help prevent future disruptions emotionally or academically for the children served.
Furthermore, CACTC interns engage in church-based consultation and collaboration where they work with area churches on developing programs targeting key areas of mental and spiritual health. They also provide consultations to local pastors, missions organizations, private Christian schools A Christian School is a school run on Christian principles or by a Christian organization.
The nature of Christian schools varies enormously from country to country according to the religious, educational, and political culture. and ministries on mental health topics and provide guidance regarding making appropriate referrals when necessary (the specific opportunities differ depending on the site).
Additionally, there is a growing body of literature regarding the need for, and effectiveness of, a specific type of community oriented o·ri·ent
1. Orient The countries of Asia, especially of eastern Asia.
a. The luster characteristic of a pearl of high quality.
b. A pearl having exceptional luster.
3. services, or home-based services in order to serve at-risk children and their families (Evans & Boothroyd, 1997; Veraaijen & VanAcker, 1993). While this may seem foreign, and possibly be perceived by some as inappropriate for clinicians trained to provide services in more traditional office settings, there are some advantages to providing these services in the home. Some of these advantages include the provision of more information on the home context (environmental conditions, members of the family, neighborhood, etc.), communicating willingness to "meet on the client's turf", and providing services to those who are home bound (i.e., older adults, persons with disabilities) or lacking in transportation. For example, interns who work in the Outreach Community Ministries Older Adults Program, provide mood and memory assessments which include a home visit in order to assess the older adult's activities of daily living skills and independent functioning in their home environment.
During graduate training, many interns were immersed im·merse
tr.v. im·mersed, im·mers·ing, im·mers·es
1. To cover completely in a liquid; submerge.
2. To baptize by submerging in water.
3. in paradigms that are "deficit-focused", placing heavy emphasis on diagnosis and the presence of pathology. While this approach is important, it should not be the only paradigm considered when engaging with underserved groups. Rather, interns at CACTC are encouraged to utilize a strengths-based perspective, which identifies the existing resources, competencies and resiliencies of their clients and communities in which they reside. Interns learn that approaching clients from a strengths-based perspective does not diminish or minimize the problems that clients find distressing. Rather, it enhances therapy in a number of ways by providing a more holistic perspective of personhood. External resources such as a strong church community, and/or internal strengths such as a good sense of humor Noun 1. sense of humor - the trait of appreciating (and being able to express) the humorous; "she didn't appreciate my humor"; "you can't survive in the army without a sense of humor"
sense of humour, humor, humour or a strong faith in God can be employed as catalyst for therapeutic change.
Far too often, services are created from a Eurocentric, middle-class perspective that does not take into account the unique needs of a diverse range of persons and communities. In order for services to underserved groups to be effective, they must be culturally relevant and culturally sensitive, which include moving beyond the majority perspective to developing an understanding and respect for other world-views. Providing services in conjunction with community gatekeepers, such as pastors and community leaders, is one way to work to learn from those in the community in order to provide services that are more relevant and sensitive. CRP C-reactive protein (CRP)
A protein present in blood serum in various abnormal states, like inflammation.
Mentioned in: Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
n.pr See C-reactive protein. interns routinely consult with community leaders in order to ensure that they are taking into account the specific needs of the rural community.
Furthermore, the therapist must be perceived as culturally credible, which among other things includes having a posture of humility Humility
See also Modesty.
Humorousness (See WITTINESS.)
Bernadette Soubirous, St.
humble girl to whom Virgin Mary appeared. [Christian Hagiog.: Attwater, 65–66]
washes dishes even though a cardinal. , and a desire to learn from those whom he or she serves. CACTC interns are encouraged to expand their cultural perspectives by engaging in work with persons different from themselves, learning from others and stretching their perceptions of traditional service provision. An exemplary illustration of this can be seen in the way the Lydia Home Association residential unit (which serves ethnically diverse children) seeks to emphasize aspects of the child's cultural background rather than imposing a more majority perspective and worldview. Their cultural heritage is viewed as a strength that needs to be nurtured through celebrating and learning about heroes in their cultural tradition (i.e., political or religious figures, musicians, artists, etc.) expressing their specific faith background, and when possible, staying connected to their family and community throughout their residential placement.
Some CACTC interns over the past few years have also been involved in collaborative research examining the construct of cultural competence cultural competence Social medicine The ability to understand, appreciate, and interact with persons from cultures and/or belief systems other than one's own and discovering what training methods are being employed in graduate programs and internships across the country in order to increase these competencies. It is hoped that by inviting interns into the process of engaging in this research, they will develop a greater appreciation for the complexity of cultural issues as well as learn the value of contributing to the scholarly literature on critical topics.
Inherent in an advocacy perspective is the understanding that there are oppressive systemic factors that may be creating additional obstacles, hindering a person's ability to receive fair treatment and thus potentially contributing to the disruption in their functioning and well-being. In the Old Testament, God consistently advocated for the alien, fatherless and widow, leaving Christians with numerous examples of advocacy (e.g., Deut. 15:7-8, 11; Deut. 23; 6, 9).
What does this type of advocacy or empowerment look like in therapeutic settings? Change may occur on either on an interpersonal level (first order change) or structural level (second order change). On an interpersonal level, examples of advocacy or empowerment can be seen at CACTC sites where lay leaders are utilized. Services of this nature focus on empowering and equipping natural or lay people-helpers within the community by providing them with the resources to support those in need. CACTC staff and interns play an important role in providing consultation and/or training to support these services to the community.
Change on a structural level goes beyond the individual in order to alter the larger system or context. Christian mental health professionals can reflect biblical teachings (i.e., love your neighbor) by speaking out against injustice directed toward marginalized persons and working to ameliorate a·mel·io·rate
tr. & intr.v. a·me·lio·rat·ed, a·me·lio·rat·ing, a·me·lio·rates
To make or become better; improve. See Synonyms at improve.
[Alteration of meliorate. conditions of discrimination or inequities in service provision and/or power. For example, Christian mental health professionals can be advocates in the area of racial reconciliation by engaging in the process of raising awareness Raising awareness is a common phrase advocacy groups use to justify a particular event, brochure or even the entire organization. Raising awareness refers to alerting the general public that a certain issue exists and should be approached the way the group desires. of the problem (including the ways they also knowingly or unknowingly harbor racial prejudices), providing a biblical context for advocacy and providing avenues for increased cross-cultural dialogue and relationship. In the past, CACTC interns have engaged in opportunities for more in-depth, cross-cultural relationships through the Culture and Ethnic Studies Initiative (CESI CESI Centro Elettrotecnico Sperimentale Italiano (Italy)
CESI Chauffe-Eau Solaire Individuel
CESI Centre d'Etudes Superieures Industrielles (French)
CESI Canadian Educational Standards Institute ), an ethnically diverse group of students and staff who explore issues of race/ethnicity in order to increase personal and group awareness through dialogue regarding issues of culture, specifically race and ethnicity. This group also hopes to expand this activity to engaging in cultural experiences together (such as attending a museum of African-American history, reading articles on white privilege White privilege has the following meanings:
CACTC prepares future psychologists to work with underserved clients and communities through a range of training experiences and opportunities from a distinctly Christian perspective. Pre-doctoral interns are given opportunities to work with underserved populations in urban, suburban, and rural locations and are taught both traditional and nontraditional methods of service provision for increased efficacy with these groups. These diverse experiences are integrated into a practitioner-scholar model of training, in order to highlight the complementary relationship between science and practice.
To date there has been very little written in the literature about training models that equip psychologists with the knowledge and skills necessary for effectively working in underserved areas. Additional models like the one presented in this article are needed. Unique and novel training strategies and exercises that prepare psychologists to work in underserved areas are also needed. Furthermore, qualitative and quantitative investigations on training models, issues, and approaches should be conducted. For instance, psychologists practicing in underserved areas might be interviewed about their preparation for their current work and be asked to make training recommendations. Another key area for further exploration, and perhaps one of the most important, would be to focus on the character formation of professionals going into practice with underserved groups. By working to identify the attributes most associated with higher levels of resilience resilience (r·zilˑ·yens),
n , compassion and cultural credibility with underserved groups, our methods of training and mentoring could be bolstered in order to cultivate these attributes in the next generation of mental health professionals.
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1. An instrument for tamponing.
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1. Anatomically located far from a point of reference, such as an origin or a point of attachment. outcomes for CACTC program graduates' post-internship engagement with underserved groups. Unpublished data. Chicago area Christian Training Consortium, Carol Stream, IL.
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the plural of loaf1
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KRUSE, SANDRA JOHNSTON. Address: Chicago area Christian Training Consortium-Internship in Professional Psychology, 336 Gunderson Drive, Suite B, Carol Stream, IL 60188. Title: Licensed Clinical Psychologist/Director. Degree: PsyD, Wheaton College. Specializations: Professional training, working with underserved groups, supervision, and psychological assessment.
Variant of Aton.
Noun 1. Aten - the sun (or solar disc) which was the deity of a monotheistic cult under the Pharaoh Akhenaten
Aton , JAMIE D. Address: The University of Southern Mississippi, 118 College Drive #5025, Hattiesburg, MS 39406. Title: Assistant Professor of Psychology. Degree: PhD, Indiana State University Indiana State University, main campus at Terre Haute; coeducational; est. 1865 as a normal school, became Indiana State Teachers College in 1929, gained university status in 1965. There is also a campus at Evansville (opened 1965). . Specializations: spirituality, clinical supervision, and rural psychology.
SANDRA JOHNSTON KRUSE
Chicago area Christian Training Consortium/Outreach Community Ministries
JAMIE D. ATEN
The University of Southern Mississippi
Correspondence concerning this article may be sent to: Jamie Aten, PhD, The University of Southern Mississippi, 118 College Drive #5025, Hattiesburg, MS 39406.