Preferences and perceptions about getting support expressed by low-income fathers.This report examines the perspectives of fathers of low-income children about their needs and resources for support to help them with their parenting responsibilities. The data are taken from open-ended, qualitative
interviews of 575 men as part of a comprehensive study of fathers related to the Early Head Start Longitudinal Study longitudinal study
a chronological study in epidemiology which attempts to establish a relationship between an antecedent cause and a subsequent effect. See also cohort study. . The interviews, taken when the father or father figure's child was 24 months of age, asked fathers about the barriers they experienced to fathering, about the sources of support or help they had available, and about supports they thought might be useful. The transcripts were analyzed an·a·lyze
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.
2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.
3. using a constant comparison method to create a coding structure and coded using NUD*IST NUD*IST Non-numerical Unstructured Data Indexing, Searching, and Theorizing software. The primary barrier discussed by fathers was the difficulty of juggling work and other time demands, and their time for fathering. A number of fathers said there were no barriers and furthermore said they did not want any help or support. Fathers described their primary sources of support as their spouse spouse A legal marriage partner as defined by state law or partner, their own parents (especially their mothers), and their own internal resources (e.g., motivation, patience). Themes fathers discussed related to Early Head Start included (a) direct supports to fathers for parenting or concrete supports (e.g., employment, social services social services
welfare services provided by local authorities or a state agency for people with particular social needs
social services npl → servicios mpl sociales ); (b) indirect supports to their child's mother; and (c) no supports perceived. Implications for Early Head Start father involvement programs are discussed.
Keywords: fathers, father involvement, Early Head Start, father support services support services Psychology Non-health care-related ancillary services–eg, transportation, financial aid, support groups, homemaker services, respite services, and other services
Over the past decade there has been an increasing policy emphasis on encouraging greater involvement of fathers in the lives of their children, the result of research findings associating father involvement with positive school outcomes for older children (Fagan & Iglesias, 1999; Grolnick & Slowiaczek, 1994), child support enforcement provisions in the 1996 Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF, often pronounced "TAN-if") is the July 1, 1997, successor to the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program, providing cash assistance to indigent American families with dependent children through the United States Department of Act (45 CFR CFR
See: Cost and Freight 302, 2003), and advocacy by fathers themselves for policies that enable them to have a greater role in their children's lives (http://www.promisekeepers.org, 2003; http://www.fatherhood.org, 2003).
Responses to this policy emphasis have led to more services intended to enhance father involvement with their children. Key among them has been the emphasis on father involvement in Early Head Start. While Head Start itself has for many years encouraged father or father-figure involvement in both the program and in the lives of their children (Head Start Information and Publication Center, 2001; Administration for Children, Youth and Families, 2000), Early Head Start, serving families with children under age three since 1996, has explicitly emphasized support, goal-setting, and education for fathers under the umbrella of its two-generation (child and parent) services (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Noun 1. Department of Health and Human Services - the United States federal department that administers all federal programs dealing with health and welfare; created in 1979
Health and Human Services, HHS , 1994; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1996). Targeting fathers follows findings that more men are involved in young, low-income children's lives than previously thought. For example, while only 35% of the infants and toddlers in the Early Head Start national study lived with a resident biological father married to the child's mother, just under 90% had regular contact with a father or father figure (Administration on Children and Families, 2002). Early Head Start may also be a logical program to provide supports to fathers, as recent studies suggest that fathers are more likely to be present at birth than during any other period of the child's life (Mincy & Oliver, 2003). The Administration on Children, Youth, and Families has responded to these findings by funding fatherhood support demonstration programs for Early Head Start (Administration for Children, Youth and Families, 2000).
We are learning something about the range of supports offered to fathers in Early Head Start programs. For example, Raikes, Boiler boiler, device for generating steam. It consists of two principal parts: the furnace, which provides heat, usually by burning a fuel, and the boiler proper, a device in which the heat changes water into steam. , Vankammen, and Summers (2002) conducted a study of 261 Early Head Start programs concerning father involvement. Based on program representative reports, 99% attempted to involve resident biological fathers, 95% attempted to involve resident non-biological fathers, and 77% offered program services to nonresident non·res·i·dent
1. Not living in a particular place: nonresident students who commute to classes.
2. biological fathers. Although father participation in most programs was low, "a few" fathers were reported to attend typical program events. The low participation rates may be explained by the fact that most program representatives rated their programs as in the "early stages" of father involvement, with only 28% of the programs considering themselves to be "mid-stage" or "mature" in their thinking about father involvement. Indeed, many of the more mature programs did report higher levels of father involvement.
A key factor related to father participation in Early Head Start may be the fathers' perceptions of the meaning of and their need for support, as well as their understanding of how Early Head Start might (or might not) meet those needs. A deeper understanding of fathers' perceptions about supports may contribute to the development of supports that best match fathers' preferences and attitudes, both about the types of supports they believe they need and involvement strategies they may find attractive.
Doherty, Kouneski, and Erickson (1998) developed a theoretical framework that may be useful in understanding how fathers interpret and utilize supports. Doherty and colleagues present a model of "responsible fathering," with the triadic tri·ad
1. A group of three.
2. Music A chord of three tones, especially one built on a given root tone plus a major or minor third and a perfect fifth.
3. relationship of mother-father-child in the center, surrounded sur·round
tr.v. sur·round·ed, sur·round·ing, sur·rounds
1. To extend on all sides of simultaneously; encircle.
2. To enclose or confine on all sides so as to bar escape or outside communication.
n. by larger contextual factors in the environment. Based on this model, father involvement is an interaction of father factors (e.g., role identification, knowledge, commitment, psychological well-being psychological well-being Research A nebulous legislative term intended to ensure that certain categories of lab animals, especially primates, don't 'go nuts' as a result of experimental design or conditions , relationships with one's own father, and so on); co-parental relationships (dual- versus single-earner family, custodial arrangement, relationship commitment, cooperation, mutual support, and conflict); mother factors (attitude toward father, expectations of father, support of father, employment); and child factors (attitude toward father, behavioral behavioral
pertaining to behavior.
see psychomotor seizure. difficulties, temperament temperament, in music, the altering of certain intervals from their acoustically correct values to provide a system of tuning whereby music can move from key to key without unacceptably impure sonorities. , gender, age, developmental status). Larger contextual factors surrounding sur·round
tr.v. sur·round·ed, sur·round·ing, sur·rounds
1. To extend on all sides of simultaneously; encircle.
2. To enclose or confine on all sides so as to bar escape or outside communication.
n. this triadic interaction include institutional practices, employment opportunities, economic factors, race or ethnicity ethnicity Vox populi Racial status–ie, African American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic resources and challenges, cultural expectations, and social support.
This model is consistent with family systems theory (Whitchurch & Constantine, 1993), which describes the ways in which transactional patterns within families lead to family outcomes, including feedback and control to define boundaries and roles among the family members. Placing the family system in the center of the familiar Bronfrenbrenner ecological ecological
emanating from or pertaining to ecology.
the state of balance in an ecosystem when its inhabitants have established their permanent relationships with each model (1979), the contextual factors described by Doherty et al. (1998) form the circles of support surrounding the family. Based on this model, the Early Head Start program may be theorized as a social support mechanism in the environment, and more specifically, as a part of the formal support system as opposed to the informal supports supplied by extended family, friends, and neighbors (Dunst, Trivette, & Deal, 1994). Such a view of support is consistent with the purposes of Early Head Start (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1996). Social support theory suggests that access and utilization of formal supports is highly dependent on family culture as well as on community norms or influences from the informal support network, which either encourages or frowns upon accessing formal supports (McGoldrick & Giordano, 1996). The literature on help-seeking suggests that persons will tend to turn to informal resources (family and friends) in preference to formal agencies and that users of formal supports tend to be young, white, educated, middle-class, and female (Gourash, 1978). Thus, both theory and the research literature lead us to expect that men from low-income families will seek support first from family and friends and secondarily from formal sources such as Early Head Start.
To explore how fathers from families eligible for Early Head Start perceive supports in general and the usefulness of accessing Early Head Start in particular, this study presents information from a qualitative study of fathers of Early Head Start children, conducted when the children were 24 months old. We analyzed these interviews to shed light on the following research questions:
* How do fathers define and interpret "supports" and "support needs" for enhancing their role as fathers?
* What types of informal and formal supports do fathers say they use to enhance their fathering role?
* What axe fathers' perceptions about their involvement in Early Head Start and its value?
This research is a part of a group of projects conducted by the Early Head Start Research Consortium's Father Studies Work Group. The Father Studies Work Group is itself an outgrowth of the Early Head Start Research Consortium's ongoing studies of low-income families and children who are participating in a study of the effectiveness of Early Head Start. Three thousand and one families who had been recruited by local Early Head Start programs were randomly assigned as·sign
tr.v. as·signed, as·sign·ing, as·signs
1. To set apart for a particular purpose; designate: assigned a day for the inspection.
2. to program and comparison groups, and the Early Head Start Research Consortium collected a variety of child, program, and family measures. Fourteen of the 17 Consortium sites elected to participate in a series of studies of the fathers whose children were the focal children of the larger study. These sites were located in Arkansas Arkansas, river, United States
Arkansas (ärkăn`zəs, är`kənsô'), river, c.1,450 mi (2,330 km) long, rising in the Rocky Mts., central Colo. , California California (kăl'ĭfôr`nyə), most populous state in the United States, located in the Far West; bordered by Oregon (N), Nevada and, across the Colorado River, Arizona (E), Mexico (S), and the Pacific Ocean (W). Colorado (two sites), Iowa, Michigan Michigan (mĭsh`ĭgən), upper midwestern state of the United States. It consists of two peninsulas thrusting into the Great Lakes and has borders with Ohio and Indiana (S), Wisconsin (W), and the Canadian province of Ontario (N,E). , Missouri, New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of , Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Utah, Vermont, and Washington State (two sites). The Father Studies include fathers from both program and comparison families and involve a range of measures intended to investigate father characteristics, attitudes, and father-child interactions. For purposes of this study, "fathers" were defined as the biological father or other father figure (e.g., stepfather step·fa·ther
The husband of one's mother and not one's natural father.
a man who has married one's mother after the death or divorce of one's father
Noun 1. , mother's relative) whom the mother identified as most involved in the child's life and whom the mother did not prohibit pro·hib·it
tr.v. pro·hib·it·ed, pro·hib·it·ing, pro·hib·its
1. To forbid by authority: Smoking is prohibited in most theaters. See Synonyms at forbid.
2. the investigators from contacting. Interviews of those fathers agreeing to participate and videotapes of father-child interactions are being collected at the child's age of 24 months, 36 months, and entry into kindergarten kindergarten [Ger.,=garden of children], system of preschool education. Friedrich Froebel designed (1837) the kindergarten to provide an educational situation less formal than that of the elementary school but one in which children's creative play instincts would be .
While the overall thrust of the study was deductive de·duc·tive
1. Of or based on deduction.
2. Involving or using deduction in reasoning.
de·duc and therefore quantitative in its predominant pre·dom·i·nant
1. Having greatest ascendancy, importance, influence, authority, or force. See Synonyms at dominant.
2. design, the Father Workgroup included an embedded Inserted into. See embedded system. qualitative study intended to gain more open-ended, exploratory information about fathers' perceptions of their roles. Thus the overall study may be characterized char·ac·ter·ize
tr.v. character·ized, character·iz·ing, character·iz·es
1. To describe the qualities or peculiarities of: characterized the warden as ruthless.
2. as a mixed design using a concurrent framework--that is, collection of the qualitative and quantitative data proceeding simultaneously (Creswell, Clark, Gutmann, & Hanson, 2003). These qualitative interviews are the focus of this report.
>From the 3001 families across all 17 sites in the Early Head Start Longitudinal lon·gi·tu·di·nal
Running in the direction of the long axis of the body or any of its parts. Research Study, 89% of the mothers identified a father or father figure who was involved in their child's life. Forty-eight percent were resident (i.e., living with the child) biological fathers; 18% were involved non-resident biological fathers, and 20% were resident or non-resident father figures. To participate in the father study, we needed cooperation from the mother to help us contact her child's father, and following that, we needed to contact and gain permission from the father or father figure himself. Based on these procedures, a total of 769 fathers participated in the 14 father study research sites in the 24-month interviews, which included both qualitative and quantitative measures. The qualitative portions of the interview were audiotaped. Accounting for tapes that were inaudible or defective defective adj. not being capable of fulfilling its function, ranging from a deed of land to a piece of equipment. (See: defect, defective title) , the total sample size for this qualitative analysis Qualitative Analysis
Securities analysis that uses subjective judgment based on nonquantifiable information, such as management expertise, industry cycles, strength of research and development, and labor relations. was 575 fathers and father figures. Forty-nine percent were from the Early Head Start group and 51 percent were from the control group. On average, 41 fathers participated in each of the father study sites; the number of fathers ranged from 9 to 67. Sixty-six percent were resident, biological fathers; 16% were nonresident, biological fathers; 15% were resident father figures (such as the mother's husband or partner or the child's grandfather); and 4% were nonresident father figures (with rounding, the total is greater than 100%). The fathers' characteristics are summarized in Table 1. Compared with the sample of non-respondents, more of the fathers who participated in the Father Study were resident biological fathers, and more were married to their child's mother (Cabrera et al., 2004).
INTERVIEW PROTOCOL AND PROCEDURE
The qualitative interview protocol for the 24-month interview included six primary, or "grand tour" (Miles & Huberman, 1994), items: (1) What does being a "good father" mean to you? (2) How has becoming a father impacted your life? (3) Talk about your experiences with your own father. (4) What kinds of help or support do you get to do your job as a father? (A follow-up probe within this question asked program fathers their impressions of Early Head Start.) (5) What gets in the way of being a father? (6) What are you proudest of about your child? For each of these questions, a series of suggested probes was developed for use by the interviewers, intended to elicit e·lic·it
tr.v. e·lic·it·ed, e·lic·it·ing, e·lic·its
a. To bring or draw out (something latent); educe.
b. To arrive at (a truth, for example) by logic.
2. more elaborative responses to these questions. This study primarily reports results of responses to research questions four and five, related to supports and support needs, though some contextual inferences will be drawn using responses to some of the other questions.
The open-ended interview was interspersed throughout the quantitative father interview; interviewers had instructions to tape-record only the qualitative portions as they went through the overall interview session with the respondent In Equity practice, the party who answers a bill or other proceeding in equity. The party against whom an appeal or motion, an application for a court order, is instituted and who is required to answer in order to protect his or her interests. . This was the procedure followed at most sites, although in two sites the local research team decided to deliver all the qualitative questions at either the beginning or the end of the quantitative interview because the interviewers were more comfortable with that procedure.
One or more interviewers participated in the study in each of the 14 Early Head Start Father Study sites. Approximately half of these were male interviewers. There was a wide range of skill in conducting qualitative interviews among these interviewers, with some having extensive backgrounds in ethnographic eth·nog·ra·phy
The branch of anthropology that deals with the scientific description of specific human cultures.
eth·nog research and/or clinical interviewing and others having a primary background in quantitative research Quantitative research
Use of advanced econometric and mathematical valuation models to identify the firms with the best possible prospectives. Antithesis of qualitative research. methodologies. All interviewers were provided with a manual and a demonstration videotape videotape
Magnetic tape used to record visual images and sound, or the recording itself. There are two types of videotape recorders, the transverse (or quad) and the helical. to provide training in techniques of qualitative interviewing. In addition, three conference calls were held during the early stages of data collection for the 24-month interview, intended to provide feedback to the interviewers, facilitate discussion and peer debriefing de·brief·ing
1. The act or process of debriefing or of being debriefed.
2. The information imparted during the process of being debriefed.
Noun 1. about early results, and generate additional probes that might be helpful.
Audiotapes of the interviews were transcribed; Spanish language Spanish language, member of the Romance group of the Italic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Romance languages). The official language of Spain and 19 Latin American nations, Spanish is spoken as a first language by about 330 million persons interviews were transcribed in both Spanish and their English translation. Each site received copies of all their transcripts and was asked to provide an assessment of the accuracy of a randomly selected set of the transcripts. Two sites (New York and Vermont) conducted accuracy checks of samples of their transcripts and reported no substantive corrections of the content of the transcripts as a result of this accuracy check. This procedure was part of a credibility check, intended to enhance the trustworthiness trustworthiness Ethics A principle in which a person both deserves the trust of others and does not violate that trust of the study (Anfara, Brown, & Mangione, 2002).
An initial framework for analysis (Miles & Huberman, 1994) was developed using the results of a pilot study involving focus groups conducted in four of the Early Head Start Father Workgroup sites (see Summers et al., 1999). This initial framework was submitted to the Father Studies Workgroup and revised with their suggestions for use in analyzing the 24-month father interviews. This framework formed the basis for an initial "Index Tree" and coding "nodes" in the NUD*IST qualitative software program. The senior author and two research assistants (the analysis team) completed the coding process, adding new codes as new concepts presented themselves in the transcripts.
After coding the first 234 transcripts, the senior author and research assistants transferred the codes and their definitions to index cards and, as a team, sorted the codes in conceptually logical categories and sub-categories. This resulted in a revised analytical analytical, analytic
pertaining to or emanating from analysis.
control of confounding by analysis of the results of a trial or test. framework and coding structure. Reports of a randomly selected sample of the codes were pulled from NUD*IST; these reports were reviewed by the senior member of the team to determine whether the text in that report had been appropriately coded. Text units on which team members disagreed were discussed and either retained in that code, with a revision or clarification of the code, or reassigned to a different code. The Fathers' Work Group as a whole also reviewed the revised coding structure and provided conceptual feedback. In addition, one site (Michigan) independently coded transcripts from their own site using the revised structure and reported general agreement with the appropriateness of the codes.
The remaining transcripts from the 24-month father interviews were coded using this revised framework. This report presents the data reflecting a total of all 575 transcripts of the open-ended interviews from the 24-month data collection.
In the discussion that follows, we present the categories conceptualized as types of barriers/needs and resources that fathers identified along with one or more quotations from the respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. to illustrate the concept behind the category. All quotes are verbatim ver·ba·tim
Using exactly the same words; corresponding word for word: a verbatim report of the conversation.
adv. comments from the respondents, with the exception that in some cases the interviewer's question was also included in order to clarify the context. In those cases, the respondent comment is designated with an "R" and the interviewer comment designated with an "I." In all categories a particular factor was identified by some respondents as a barrier or need and by others as a resource. For example, many fathers described job and time demands as a barrier, but a few described them as a resource (e.g., they had flexible schedules). We do not report the number or percentages of our total sample that made particular comments. As an unstructured interview Unstructured Interviews are a method of interviews where questions can be changed or adapted to meet the respondent's intelligence, understanding or belief. Unlike a structured interview they do not offer a limited, pre-set range of answers for a respondent to choose, but instead , respondents spontaneously spontaneously Medtalk Without treatment generated these factors, and therefore responses made by some fathers may simply not have occurred to others; items that were seldom mentioned may or may not be as important as items that were mentioned with greater frequency. Also some respondents identified more than one category or talked about a person or factor as both a resource and a barrier (e.g., their job, extended family); therefore it would be meaningless to identify the frequencies with which particular categories were mentioned. Following principles of mixed design approaches (Morse, 2003), we adhere to adhere to
verb 1. follow, keep, maintain, respect, observe, be true, fulfil, obey, heed, keep to, abide by, be loyal, mind, be constant, be faithful
2. the methodological assumptions of our base method and refrain from "quantitizing" (Teddlie & Tashakkori, 2003, p. 9) the qualitative data.
RESEARCH QUESTION 1: INTERPRETATION OF SUPPORT NEEDS--PRACTICAL NEEDS AND RESOURCES
The respondents identified tangible or practical barriers or resources for fathering. These responses usually came from the question, "Everyone has some little things that get in the way of being a parent. What are those things for you?"
Time and work. Predictably, fathers identified their work or job responsibilities, or other issues related to a lack of time, as barriers to their fathering job. Fathers mentioned long working hours, jobs that took them away from home for part of the week, or shift work that required them to be sleeping or to be away from home when the child was home and awake. Some jobs involving heavy physical labor also drained fathers' energy to interact with their children, as in this example:
My main thing that I feel that gets in the way of me being a better parent is the job that I do. I'm constantly lifting heavy boxes. It's a very active job. There are some times when I come home and I don't want to leave the couch. The kids will come and say. "Dad, let's go out front and play catch." My body is telling me not to move, and my mind starts thinking about how I don't want my son to be mad at me because I don't want to play catch. I'm just so tired.... Sometimes I just kick myself in the butt and tell myself to go out [and play with them] anyway. I'll deal with the sleep later. Sometimes you just can't, though, and your body just wants to relax, and you have to do it. That's my main thing.
Fathers also identified their jobs, or time availability, as a resource for them in terms of being with their children. Most of these comments concerned flexible work schedules or employers who were understanding about a father's need to take time off if a child is sick or for other needs.
Money. Fathers in this study mentioned money as a barrier to fathering. There was a sense that a lack of money was a given, and therefore some fathers appeared reluctant to speak of money as a barrier, as in this case: "More money? (Laughs). That's everybody's problem, so that doesn't count." Those who identified money as a barrier spoke of wanting to be able to buy their children more, as in purchasing special things, or to take them places. A few respondents spoke of money as a resource. These were fathers who responded to the question about sources of support or help by describing some financial benefit or assistance they were receiving. Comments concerned financial help from family members, such as the father's parents or other relatives. The support received was occasional and often was in the form of food, diapers, or clothes:
I: Do you get any kind of help from people or from different services that help you?
R: Oh! From like people like family members.... They make sure I keep on my job, but if I don't have that, they'll help me out. They'll buy stuff for [child]. Just for no reason my cousin will come and knock on Noun 1. knock on - (rugby) knocking the ball forward while trying to catch it (a foul)
rugby, rugby football, rugger - a form of football played with an oval ball
rugby, rugby football, rugger - a form of football played with an oval ball the door, and he'll have a little outfit OUTFIT. An allowance made by the government of the United States to a minister plenipotentiary, or charge des affaires, on going from the United States to any foreign country.
2. for [child].
Child care. Respondents identified a lack of available child care as a barrier. Comments about child care as a need related to occasional care when the father wanted to go out either with his child's mother or on his own. For example, one father said, "It would be nice, on our day off, to have someone to count on to watch the kids for a couple of hours so [wife] and I could have some quiet time. That would be nice."
The respondents also identified resources for child care, usually relative care. However, some identified Early Head Start as a child care resource, and their comments are discussed in Research Question 3.
My grandmother is the one who picks her up from day-care most of the time because she knows my schedule doesn't allow me to pick her up. It's a huge help to me. My mother will--when she can--take [child] and have her spend the night so I'll have some time to rest. That's a big help.
Parenting information. Fathers specifically mentioned a need for information or said they had educational resources on parenting. Types of resources mentioned as potentially useful included parenting classes, written information, or a number to call (i.e., a "hotline"). Types of information these fathers thought they could use were information on how to help a child when she/he is sick, advice on child development, and guidance on discipline. A typical comment is:
Yeah, I could use help with everything. I could probably use some classes. I don't know what kind of classes are there, but I'd certainly be willing to go to a few to get some pointers on working with kids and how to raise them up as good as you can..... I could use some hints on how to get them to do what you want. How to make discipline more ... of a forethought than an afterthought, if you know what I mean. And I just need help with day-to-day operations.
NO NEEDS, NO RESOURCES
We quickly learned that asking about support needs and barriers was a difficult question for many fathers. Many fathers initially responded to the question, "What gets in the way of being the kind of father you'd like to be?" with at least one statement that there were no barriers for them, no people who get in their way, no supports available, and/or no supports needed. As the interviewer probed further, however, most of these respondents moved beyond this initial reaction and discussed some barriers or supports related to their fathering role, such as the problem of juggling work and parenting, as discussed above. Even after probing, however, some respondents continued to maintain that they had no supports and/or no barriers at all to fathering.
No barriers. Among the respondents saying there were no barriers at all to fathering, the exchange was often fairly brusque brusque also brusk
Abrupt and curt in manner or speech; discourteously blunt. See Synonyms at gruff.
[French, lively, fierce, from Italian brusco, coarse, rough , with a response such as "nothing really gets in my way," when asked about "practical, everyday things" that might get in their way of fathering. Some fathers did respond at greater length, explaining they had no barriers because they had taken steps in a very pragmatic way to make sure they could meet their responsibilities. Other fathers saw the question about addressing barriers as a matter of principle, or the need to prioritize pri·or·i·tize
v. pri·or·i·tized, pri·or·i·tiz·ing, pri·or·i·tiz·es Usage Problem
To arrange or deal with in order of importance.
v.intr. one's children above other things, as in this father: "(Emphatic) No, no, no. When it comes to a baby, nobody, nobody has no business letting anything getting in the way when it comes to a baby. Nobody!"
No people barriers. For those fathers who responded to our question about barriers by discussing tangible barriers such as time or money, interviewers followed up with a probe, "Are there any people who get in your way?" Often the response to this question was a simple "no," with no elaboration. Other fathers made it clear that there were no people in their way because they would not allow any such obstructions, for example: "No. They get in the way; they get knocked out of the way." As another father put it: "No, I wouldn't allow anybody to come in here and just ramrod my house. The way I see it, it's mine and [wife's] house and our children, and we set oar own rules."
No resources available. When asked about sources of support or help, some respondents made statements about having no resources or help. Some of these respondents also described support received from their child's mother or their extended family, thus contradicting their own statement that they had no help. We interpret this as evidence that the fathers believed this question was asking about formal services such as community agencies or assistance programs. A few, however, maintained that they had no support resources at all.
No resources wanted. Some fathers made it very clear that not only did they not have formal or community resources or supports, they did not want any, nor would they access any services or supports if they were available. Some simply expressed that that they would not access a formal service program because "there's something about my personality that I'm not inclined to seek things like that out." Others expressed a strong sense of independence about parenting, for example:
I: [Do you turn to] any social agencies or anything in the neighborhood?
R: I don't ever go to any of that stuff. I'm on my own. I'll [take care] of my child on my own. I'd rather do it on my own instead of letting them people tell me what do with my child. I do it on my own.
Still other fathers saw parent education as interference in their families.
A lot of the programs ... try to write a book about it. They say you should do this, and you should do that. As far as I'm concerned that's not right. That's trying to take the parent's role. The parent role should come from what you believe and what you've been taught. It shouldn't come out of some manual. Yon come with your own manual as to how you're supposed to act as a parent, and that's fine.
RESEARCH QUESTION 2: SOURCES OF SUPPORT--INFORMAL RESOURCES
Support from spouse. Fathers identified their wife or partner as a source of information and support for parenting. For some the acceptance of support from a spouse was a continuation of the theme of independence from their family, as they made it clear that their support was from their wife only (e.g., "I: Whom do you go to when you need help or support with your fatherhood? R: Between my wife and me only"). Comments from some men suggest that they found support from their partners to be acceptable because the interaction with their spouse was a partnership, where the two were on an equal footing. In other words Adv. 1. in other words - otherwise stated; "in other words, we are broke"
put differently , they were learning together: "Help and support is my wife; I couldn't do it alone. She helps me tremendously.... We learn and grow together as parents of our children. We learn from each other." Other men, however, appeared to look more to their wives for leadership in learning to parent, as in this example:
My wife's support.... She corrects me. If something is sort of wrong, she tells me "this is wrong," and I think about it, and if it is wrong we fix it. Basically she is the one that helps me with that.
Other informal support. In addition to comments about support from a spouse, respondents also identified other informal resources for information on raising their child, including their own mother or father, other extended family members, and friends. There is a significant overlap of those who identify their spouse as a support and those who also identify extended family. A typical response to the question about sources of support was a list of different people, for example: "Really all the support I get is from my spouse and from my parents and her mom (1) (Messaging-Oriented Middleware) See messaging middleware.
(2) (Microsoft Operations Manager) Software that monitors and captures system and application events throughout the network. ."
Fathers seemed to rely in particular on the older generation as a source of expertise. For example:
If I have problems, I usually ask my dad or my wife's dad what they would do in a situation, or if I have a problem I talk to one of them about it.... They've been there, done that.
The father's own mother seemed to be a particular resource, but there were references to a wealth of other relatives and friends, including uncles and aunts, grandparents grandparents npl → abuelos mpl
grandparents grand npl → grands-parents mpl
grandparents grand npl , and friends. Fathers described getting help with discipline, as in this example: "My mom will tell me, "Stay calm. Kids do that. Let him throw his tantrum tan·trum
A fit of bad temper.
n a sudden outburst or violent display of rage, frustration, and bad temper, usually occurring in a maladjusted child or immature or disturbed adult. ." They give me advice to keep me from ... losing it and snatching him or smacking smack·ing
Brisk; vigorous; spanking: a smacking breeze.
Noun 1. smacking - the act of smacking something; a blow delivered with an open hand
slap, smack him--stuff like that." Fathers also received advice about health issues, some describing mothers or aunts who were nurses, others explaining that their mother knew what to do because of their experience. One father, listing his mother, aunt, and grandmother as a source of information on health care, said, "They give us little tidbits TidBITS is an award-winning electronic newsletter and web site dealing primarily with Apple Computer and Macintosh-related topics. Internet publication
TidBITS has been published weekly since April 16, 1990, which makes it one of the longest running Internet publications. of wisdom here and there." The terms "tidbits of wisdom" and "two cents' worth" were sprinkled throughout fathers' discussions of the type of informational advice they received. Here is an example of a grandmother bringing her wisdom from "back home":
I: So your mom She goes to the gym. helps you out a lot?
R: Yes. She tells me what to look for.... My mom tells me little tidbits of information.
I: Are there any cultural things she tells you like from back home?
R: She has a few of them. She's quite good with tea leaves. She grows her own spearmint spearmint: see mint.
Aromatic herb (Mentha spicata) of the mint family, the common garden mint widely used for culinary purposes. and other herbs. She whips up some home remedies A home remedy is a treatment to cure a disease or ailment that employs certain spices, vegetables, or other common items from the kitchen. Home remedies may or may not have actual medicinal properties that serve to treat or cure the disease or ailment in question, as they are that are very effective even for me. She knows what plants are good for bums, cuts, and scrapes. She's quite good.
PERSONAL TRAITS TRAITS Travel Reservations Accounting Information and Ticketing System AND RESOURCES
Fathers responded to the question about sources of support or barriers with a discussion of their own experiences or personal traits, including their relationships with their own fathers. In a different section of the interview, fathers were asked directly about their experiences with their father as they were growing up. Positive memories of their fathers included spending time "Spending Time" is the first single released by Christian artist Stellar Kart.
The lyrics describe the band members desire to spend "more time with God". "Sometimes it’s a real struggle to spend time with God. with their father or being taken on special outings, learning important values from their father, and admiring ad·mire
v. ad·mired, ad·mir·ing, ad·mires
1. To regard with pleasure, wonder, and approval.
2. To have a high opinion of; esteem or respect.
3. their father as being a good provider or "staying around." Other respondents had negative memories of fathers who seldom or never spent time with them, were emotionally distant, left the family through divorce or abandonment, or were alcoholic alcoholic /al·co·hol·ic/ (al?kah-hol´ik)
1. pertaining to or containing alcohol.
2. a person suffering from alcoholism.
1. and/or violent. These data provide context for the participants who responded to our question about available supports or resources by citing their intent either to follow their fathers' positive examples or their determination to avoid repeating their fathers' mistakes. For example, one father said:
The things that help me are the great foundation I received from my parents. It's the only thing that helps me; I get no help from outside other than maybe from school. No other help from outside.
An example of a "support" derived from determination to avoid a parent's negative example can be found in this comment:
Probably the fact that I didn't have the parent background. I had it, but my biological parents--they didn't do it for me. I said I would never be like them.... [T]hat drives me. I don't want to be like them. As -- gets older I want to be able to go to his ballgame, or see him perform in his first play, or watch him at practice, take him to practice.... Those are the little important things.
In addition to describing their own fathers as role models or negative examples, other fathers simply described "experience" as their source of support. For example, some men talked about providing child care as an older sibling sibling /sib·ling/ (sib´ling) any of two or more offspring of the same parents; a brother or sister.
n. , cousin, or uncle. Some respondents had older children from a previous relationship, and they either said they learned how to parent from that experience or were determined to "be there" for this child in ways they had not been for their older children. For still others, sources of support were traits or skills or behaviors they had. For example, some fathers cited patience as a support--or the lack of patience as a barrier. Other fathers spoke of their ability to take time to problem-solve or "think things through" when faced with an issue related to their child.
FORMAL COMMUNITY SERVICES AND SOPPORTS
Specific comments about Early Head Start will be presented under Research Question 3 below. With regard to other services and supports, as we noted in the discussion about fathers receiving no services, many fathers said they either did not know about any resources for fathers in the community, or did not think such programs--available or not--would be useful.
Some fathers talked about other formal sources of support they had received, such as parenting or child development courses they had taken. A few fathers mentioned that their families received assistance in programs such as WIC WIC - WAN Interface Card or food stamps food stamp
A stamp or coupon, issued by the government to persons with low incomes, that can be redeemed for food at stores.
Noun 1. . When asked about types of services that might be helpful, a few fathers talked about park and recreational services or other places they could take their family. Some fathers described getting help from religious organizations or leaders; this seemed to be a combination of both the support of the religious leader and the support represented by their own religious beliefs. One father's comment is an example of the dual source of support represented by religious participation:
I guess basically I'm getting most of my patience from going to church and reading my Bible. Because there's a lot of laws in there that help.... If I can't figure it out on my own and my wife can't really help me, I would go to my pastor and see if he couldn't help me. He uses counseling--most of them are real peaceful men. There's a few out there that aren't. And they're older and they're wise, so they can give you some advice. Most of them have had children, and they know what kids are going to do.
RESEARCH QUESTION 3: PERCEPTIONS OF EARLY HEAD START
Not all respondents discussed Early Head Start. Obviously, those who were a part of the comparison group had no experiences and were not asked about Early Head Start. Even among the program group (49.2% of the sample), there were some who did not mention Early Head Start unless the interviewer asked them directly about their involvement. The interviewers asked fathers who were part of the program group how Early Head Start had been helpful to them, rather than how they had participated, so fathers tended to answer specifically about their views of assistance they had received.
Three themes emerged from the qualitative analyses of fathers' responses: (1) direct support and participation perceived by some fathers; (2) indirect support perceived by some fathers; and (3) no perception of support or need for involvement by some.
DIRECT SUPPORT FROM EARLY HEAD START AND PARTICIPATION
Support for involvement with child. Fathers talked about attending meetings or socialization socialization /so·cial·iza·tion/ (so?shal-i-za´shun) the process by which society integrates the individual and the individual learns to behave in socially acceptable ways.
n. events, parenting education, home visits, support groups, or child care. Some fathers described receiving helpful information from Early Head Start. For example, one father said, "I get ideas [about parenting] ... guys at the Early Head Start, they've given us some good ideas." Another father said he had benefited from child development information from the program. "I didn't have a clue about child development before; now I have a better understanding of it, and I think as far as (child) being prepared to use his brain, it's beneficial."
Participation in center programs seemed also to be helpful to fathers through providing emotional supports to them when they needed it. For example, one father said: "At the day-care I get a lot of encouragement." Another father said, "They're always willing to sit down and talk to you if you have a problem or something. They are real open over there." Still another father described the emotional support he received from his home visitor:
One day I was having a really bad day, and I thought I was the only one who knew it, but she zoomed in, and we talked for about 45 minutes. That day we didn't actually do anything with [child] other than moving him around and playing with stuff. So she does what needs to be done.
Another father described how the socialization events (group gatherings featuring parent-child activities) were helpful to him:
They have a carnival type deal where they have a bunch of different games set up.... I try to explain to [child] how to toss the beanbag or walk a certain way in the games.... I sit there and have that patience and the time to explain to her ... it's just one on one with her and me.
Support for employment or social assistance. A number of responses to the question of how Early Head Start had been helpful focused on the concrete help received through employment counseling, help with medical care, nutrition, or other resources for the family. One father said,
There is a guy there (at Early Head Start), and sometimes I would run out of money, and he'd make sure that he'd stocked up on some Pampers for my children.... They always kept us informed so we could be involved with whatever we wanted to be involved with, and I think that was great.
In the same vein as concrete support, fathers responded to the question about help or support they had received by talking about the child care the program offered. As one father put it, "Day-care does help out a lot sometimes, because you can't always find somebody to baby-sit. Plus when your finances are low, you can't afford to pay for baby-sitting. So it's a big help."
INDIRECT SUPPORT FROM EARLY HEAD START
Fathers responded to the question of how the Early Head Start had helped them by helping their palmer or their child, which we labeled "indirect support" to the father himself. For example, one father described learning more about parenting from his partner: "I think [wife's] early intervention ear·ly intervention
n. Abbr. EI
A process of assessment and therapy provided to children, especially those younger than age 6, to facilitate normal cognitive and emotional development and to prevent developmental disability or delay. training with Early Head Start helped her a lot. It's been a great benefit to us as parents. She's learned a lot from the program, and so I guess I benefit." Another father described the peace of mind he received as a result of his child's attending the Early Head Start Center: "As far as a convenience of having a place to drop him off that I can trust, that relieves my mind as a parent. It comforts me knowing that he's in good hands."
Still other fathers, when asked how the program helped them, saw the teaching and instruction their child received as a help to them in fulfilling their role as a father. One Hispanic father, asked whether Early Head Start helped him fulfill ful·fill also ful·fil
tr.v. ful·filled, ful·fill·ing, ful·fills also ful·fils
1. To bring into actuality; effect: fulfilled their promises.
2. his role as a father, said, "I think it helps me plenty ... I noticed many things that [child] has learned from the program." This response was not confined con·fine
v. con·fined, con·fin·ing, con·fines
1. To keep within bounds; restrict: Please confine your remarks to the issues at hand. See Synonyms at limit. to Hispanic fathers, however; one Caucasian father from a rural community, when asked whether the program had been a help to him, responded, "I believe it helped ]child] out with socialization. He got to associate with other kids. He got to be with them and play and learn things through them ... and that was good for him."
A third theme, non-involvement, characterized responses to questions about Early Head Start. A few of the interviews with non-residential fathers described conflicts with the mother, so that involvement with the child as well as the program was in jeopardy jeopardy, in law, condition of a person charged with a crime and thus in danger of punishment. At common law a defendant could be exposed to jeopardy for the same offense only once; exposing a person twice is known as
double jeopardy. . For other non-involved fathers from the 24-month interviews, the question "How does Early Head Start help you as a father?" resulted in short answers, such as "Not at all," or "I don't see where it helps me." Some fathers said that their work left them with no time available to participate. Still others thought that the program was intended mostly for mothers. For example, one stepfather explained turning down participation in a home visit:
I've never been asked to participate. Well, I have, and I said no one time because I thought it was best for their relationship [home visitor and mother] because [wife] wasn't ready. She was really stressed out, and I figured it would be focused on themselves.
A father in a different program said he thought the program was not for fathers: "I think [program] is more geared toward mothers--they're a great program--but they're more geared toward the mothers and health care of the children."
In some interviews when fathers responded that they were not involved in Early Head Start, the interviewers asked them for recommendations concerning what the program could offer. In most of these cases, fathers responded that they did not know of anything or couldn't think of anything "right off hand." When probed, some fathers said they didn't think fathers in general would be interested in some of the offerings mothers attended. For example, "Most fathers I know go do stuff by themselves and leave the kids with their mothers, so I don't think [a father's day out] would be helpful."
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
A sample size of 575 respondents in a qualitative study is unprecedented; thus, we learned many lessons about the limitations of the design and about data management. As a qualitative study, this research has its limitations in that it cannot provide an estimate of the true prevalence of the various attitudes we encountered about support needs and resources. Also, as a mixed design study, the qualitative findings reported here are limited since there was little opportunity for more intensive qualitative follow-up with some respondents on specific issues they raised to get a more in-depth understanding of their interpretations. Further, in most qualitative studies the interviewers are also the analysts, and the process occurs in an iterative it·er·a·tive
1. Characterized by or involving repetition, recurrence, reiteration, or repetitiousness.
2. Grammar Frequentative.
Noun 1. fashion, with the analysis of initial interviews influencing revisions in subsequent protocols (Anfara et al., 2002). The size and multi-site nature of this study precluded that approach, since the interviewers in the field conducted both the qualitative and quantitative interviews while the qualitative study team completed the analyses. Finally, a limitation of this study is that the qualitative analysts coded transcripts blindly, that is, without information about the demographic characteristics of a given respondent. At the time this seemed like a good idea to reduce potential bias in the coding. But our ability to describe the specific demographic of a given respondent, as in the quotes provided in this paper, is limited. Future studies of this scope should include a cross-coding process to enable identification of the characteristics of the respondents.
A further limitation arose from the fact that, as developmental psychologists This list includes notable psychologists and contributors to psychology, some of whom may not have thought of themselves primarily as psychologists but are included here because of their important contributions to the discipline. , our approach to interviewing parents in general was based almost entirely on experiences in research with mothers. Even though some members of the Early Head Start Father Study Work Group were men and/or were experienced fatherhood researchers, we still encountered some "surprises" in our approach to interviewing fathers (see Summers & McLaughlin, 2002, for a more detailed discussion of this point). For example, we were unprepared for the obvious challenge posed to many respondents by our questions about support needs and resources. As noted above, the fact that our interviewers and our analysts were not the same people meant that a number of interviews were collected before we were able to brainstorm with the data collection team and change our approach to these questions. Still, as is often true of qualitative research Qualitative research
Traditional analysis of firm-specific prospects for future earnings. It may be based on data collected by the analysts, there is no formal quantitative framework used to generate projections. , this limitation is also a finding, as our "blind spot" about different ways that men might perceive the issues about support may well be shared by Early Head Start staff (see practice implications, below).
IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH AND THEORY
Given these limitations, however, the study does provide us with some insights into the ways that fathers interpret the question of support and resources for help in parenting. Fathers may interpret the word "support" and/or the need for support differently than mothers. Many fathers responded to the question about supports they had available by citing internal resources such as motivation or patience or describing their own previous experience either with their parents or with older children, siblings siblings npl (formal) → frères et sœurs mpl (de mêmes parents) , or cousins. This corresponds to Doherty et al.'s (1998) "father factors" component of their responsible fathering conceptual framework For the concept in aesthetics and art criticism, see .
A conceptual framework is used in research to outline possible courses of action or to present a preferred approach to a system analysis project. .
The strong reactions of a minority of fathers to the mere suggestion that they might need supports illustrates that, for some of these men, asking for help or accepting help may be a mark of failure. This finding is compatible with general research about gender differences in help-seeking behavior. For example, men visit physicians less often than women (Banks, 2001; Tudiver & Talbot, 1999) and less often accept psychological counseling (Moeller-Leimkuehler, 2002) or substance abuse treatment (Generali, 2002). Shek (1992) found in a sample of Chinese men and women that men more often rely on internal coping strategies The German Freudian psychoanalyst Karen Horney defined four so-called coping strategies to define interpersonal relations, one describing psychologically healthy individuals, the others describing neurotic states. (reliance on self) while women more often seek help from others. This finding would be compatible with comments from some of the fathers in this study that the sources of supports for them were their experiences, internal motivations, or personal traits.
Theorists propose that some men may have developed a social construction of masculinity masculinity /mas·cu·lin·i·ty/ (mas?ku-lin´i-te) virility; the possession of masculine qualities.
1. The quality or condition of being masculine.
2. that excludes getting help (Addis & Mahalik, 2003; Mahalik, Good, & Englar-Carlson, 2003) and that help-seeking is in conflict with some men's understanding of their role as males. In fact, African-American men with higher scores on a measure of gender-role conflict were found to be less likely to have positive help-seeking attitudes (White, 2002). Similarly, among college-aged men those with higher gender-role strain were less tolerant of the idea of seeking counseling (Bursley, 1996).
Social support theory draws a distinction between formal and informal sources of support (Dunst et al., 1994). The findings of this study suggest that the gender role strain and an avoidance of help-seeking found by the researchers described above may apply primarily to formal support systems. The many references to getting both emotional and tangible help from the respondent's spouse or girlfriend supports the idea that mothers are pivotal in providing the father with access to his child. Similarly, fathers described receiving support in the form of concrete assistance, information ("tidbits of wisdom"), and general encouragement from their own or their spouse's extended family. Fathers also interpreted the question about "what helps" to include their own personal traits and experiences as sources of knowledge and motivation to engage in their fathering role. Especially powerful was the father's relationship with his own father, which appeared to serve either as a positive role model or a negative example of what these respondents wanted to do (or not do) with their children. All of these findings are consistent with the conceptual model of responsible fathering proposed by Doherty et al. (1998). The responsible fathering model, with its emphasis on contextual or environmental influences, underscores the importance of the father's relationship with the mother and with his social support network in combination with his own traits and experiences with his own father, which Doherty and colleagues call the internal father factor.
IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE
The reluctance of many men to seek help from formal supports provides at least a partial explanation for lower levels of participation reported in many Early Head Start programs (Raikes et al., 2002). Programs wishing to attract more fathers will need to recognize men's sensitivity to the implication that they may need outside support. Other terms such as "family information sharing See data conferencing. " or strategies such as embedding 1. (mathematics) embedding - One instance of some mathematical object contained with in another instance, e.g. a group which is a subgroup.
2. (theory) embedding - (domain theory) A complete partial order F in [X -> Y] is an embedding if parenting information in social events and emphasis on couple or whole-family events may be more acceptable. Programs may also consider finding ways to recognize the internal motivations and resources that men cite as supports for themselves.
The aversion a·ver·sion
1. A fixed, intense dislike; repugnance, as of crowds.
2. A feeling of extreme repugnance accompanied by avoidance or rejection. to seeking outside help also suggests that fathers may be reluctant to accept anything that might be "interference" in their family. A number of these respondents had strong beliefs about their unwillingness to have someone else "come in and ramrod" different ideas about parenting. This reaction suggests that sensitivity to issues of cultural diversity and respect for family styles of child-rearing-already an important tenet TENET. Which he holds. There are two ways of stating the tenure in an action of waste. The averment is either in the tenet and the tenuit; it has a reference to the time of the waste done, and not to the time of bringing the action.
2. in Head Start--is doubly important when interacting with fathers. Programs will need to look for ways to demonstrate in a very visible way their respect for a family's autonomy and choice in making decisions about their children.
Another finding from these interviews is that many fathers find juggling jobs and fatherhood to be a challenge. This is not an unfamiliar theme, either among men or women. Palkovitz (2002) found, in a sample of 40 primarily middle-class fathers, that juggling responsibilities of work/career and parenting was a subject of extensive discussion by many of the fathers he interviewed. For the respondents in this study who were from low-income backgrounds, many described working long, physically demanding jobs, working more than one job, or working evening shifts. These stresses add to the challenges of being able to find the time to interact with their children, let alone find time to seek help or participate in a parenting program. Programs will need to address this barrier by finding more creative ways to involve fathers (e.g., by providing reading materials or videos they might use any time) or by having meetings at different times to accommodate different schedules.
In addition, many fathers talked of getting advice or tangible supports from other members of their family, especially the father's own parents. Fathers respected the perspectives of their own parents because they appeared to have the "credential credential verb To determine or verify titles, qualifications, documents, completion of required training, and continuing education, in those persons who function in a professional or official capacity–eg, ER physician, neurosurgeon, etc. Cf Credentials. " of having raised them; therefore they saw them as having the experience to explain or interpret their child's sometimes puzzling puz·zle
v. puz·zled, puz·zling, puz·zles
1. To baffle or confuse mentally by presenting or being a difficult problem or matter.
2. behaviors. The more tangible supports such as child care, gifts of food or clothing, or outright loans of money were also mentioned. The fact that these extended family members were "insiders" in the family may have made their help more acceptable. Programs might consider ways to involve fathers through involving grandparents--if they are engaged in the program and advising the father to participate, fathers might find participation in the program more acceptable.
In conclusion, many fathers in this study did report that they benefited either directly or indirectly from Early Head Start. In general, enhancing father participation in Early Head Start can be further aided by a thorough understanding of how fathers interpret the invitation to become involved. If the proposed activities are perceived as an implication they are not effective fathers, or if supports are perceived as "interference" in the family or a challenge to the "rights" of fathers or parents to make decisions for their families, then the chances are they will not participate. If, on the other hand, the activities are presented in a respectful re·spect·ful
Showing or marked by proper respect.
re·spectful·ly adv. manner that assures fathers they are welcome and that makes a visible effort to accommodate their needs, fathers may feel more welcome. This study also suggests that programs might further enhance father involvement by (a) developing programs that respect fathers' competence and perhaps even provide an opportunity for reciprocity reciprocity
In international trade, the granting of mutual concessions on tariffs, quotas, or other commercial restrictions. Reciprocity implies that these concessions are neither intended nor expected to be generalized to other countries with which the contracting parties in the giving and taking of support; and (b) embedding support in the natural environment the father already uses--such as participation with his wife/partner or including grandparents.
Table 1 Characteristics of Fathers with Available Transcripts from 24-Month Interviews Characteristics Age at Time of Child's Birth (%) 15 to 19 Years 15.5 20 to 24 Years 30.8 25 to 29 Years 23.1 30 Years and Older 30.6 Age at Time of Child's Birth (M) 27.0 Race/Ethnicity (%) Hispanic 30.2 African American 24.8 White 42.4 Other 2.7 Relationship to Child and Residency Status (%) Biological Father 81.4 Resident Biological Father 65.9 Nonresident Biological Father 15.5 Resident Father Figure 15.0 Nonresident Father Figure 3.7 Married to Biological Mother 51.1 Educational Attainment (%) Less than 12 Years of School 37.2 High School Graduate/GED Recipient 34.6 College/Vocational School or More 28.2 Employment Average Number of Jobs in the Last Six Months 1.3 Average Income in Past Month (Dollars) 1406.4 Sample Size 540-575 * Note: Father interviews were conducted when children were approximately 24 months old. * Sample size varies by item due to missing data on the demographic interview protocol.
The findings reported here are based on research conducted as part of the national Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project funded by the Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (ACYF ACYF Administration on Children, Youth and Families
ACYF All China Youth Federation ), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, under contract 105-95-1936 to Mathematica Policy Research, Princeton, NJ, and Columbia University's Center for Children and Families, Teachers College, in conjunction with the Early Head Start Research Consortium. The Consortium consists of representatives from 17 programs participating in the evaluation, 15 local research teams, the evaluation contractors, and ACYF. Research institutions in the consortium (and principal researchers) include Administration for Children and Families The Administration for Children and Families (ACF) is a division of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). It is headed by the Assistant Secretary for Children and Families, which from 2001 to 2007 was Dr. Wade F. Horn. (Rachel Chazan-Cohen, Judith Jerald, Esther Kresh, Helen Ralkes, and Louisa Tarullo); Catholic University of America Catholic University of America, at Washington, D.C.; the national university of the Roman Catholic Church in the United States; coeducational; founded 1887 and opened 1889. (Michaela Farber, Lynn Milgram Mayer, Harriet Liebow, Christine Sabatino, Nancy Taylor, Elizabeth Taylor, Elizabeth, 1932–, Anglo-American film actress, b. London. Regarded as one of the world's most beautiful women, Taylor went from child star to a series of ladylike roles to playing worldly, sometimes shrewish women. Timberlake, and Shavaan Wall); Columbia University Columbia University, mainly in New York City; founded 1754 as King's College by grant of King George II; first college in New York City, fifth oldest in the United States; one of the eight Ivy League institutions. (Lisa Berlin, Christy chris·ty
Variant of christie. Brady-Smith, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, and Alison Sidle si·dle
v. si·dled, si·dling, si·dles
1. To move sideways: sidled through the narrow doorway.
2. Fuligni); Harvard University Harvard University, mainly at Cambridge, Mass., including Harvard College, the oldest American college. Harvard College
Harvard College, originally for men, was founded in 1636 with a grant from the General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. (Catherine Ayoub, Barbara Alexander Pan, and Catherine Snow Catherine Mandeville Snow, (c. 1793 – July 21, 1834) was the last woman hanged in Newfoundland, Canada.
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ISU is best known for its degree programs in science, engineering, and agriculture. ISU is also home of the world's first electronic digital computing device, the Atanasoff–Berry Computer. (Dee Draper drap·er
n. Chiefly British
A dealer in cloth or clothing and dry goods.
[Middle English, weaver or seller of cloth, from Old French drapier, from drap, cloth; see , Gayle Luze, Susan McBride, and Carla Peterson Carla L. Peterson is a Professor of English at the University of Maryland, College Park. Her expertise includes nineteenth-century African American women writers and speakers in the northern US, African American novelists in the post-Reconstruction era, and gender and culture in ); Mathematica Policy Research (Kimberly Boiler, Ellen Eliason Kisker, John M. Love, Diane Panlsell, Christine Ross, Peter Schochet, Cheri Vogel, and Welmoet van Kammen); Medical University of South Carolina “MUSC” redirects here. For Abel Santa María airport in Santa Clara, Cuba (ICAO code MUSC), see Abel Santa María Airport.
The Medical University of South Carolina (Richard Faldowski, Gni-Young Hong, and Susan Picktel); Michigan State University Michigan State University, at East Lansing; land-grant and state supported; coeducational; chartered 1855. It opened in 1857 as Michigan Agricultural College, the first state agricultural college. (Hiram Fitzgerald, Tom Reischl, and Rachel Schiffman); New York University New York University, mainly in New York City; coeducational; chartered 1831, opened 1832 as the Univ. of the City of New York, renamed 1896. It comprises 13 schools and colleges, maintaining 4 main centers (including the Medical Center) in the city, as well as the (Mark Spellmann and Catherine Tamis-LeMonda); University of Arkansas The University of Arkansas strives to be known as a "nationally competitive, student-centered research university serving Arkansas and the world." The school recently completed its "Campaign for the 21st Century," in which the university raised more than $1 billion for the school, used (Robert Bradley Robert Bradley or Bob Bradley can refer to:
Spicer attended the College of DuPage in Glen Ellyn, Illinois for two years. , and Norman Watt); University of Kansas The University of Kansas (often referred to as KU or just Kansas) is an institution of higher learning in Lawrence, Kansas. The main campus resides atop Mount Oread. (Jane Atwater, Judith Carta, and Jean Ann Summers Ann Summers is the most successful British chain of High street sex shops.
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In 2005, she was nominated for interviewer and news writer of the year in the UK Press Gazette student journalism awards . , and Robert McCall Robert McCall may refer to:
n.pl a set of standards, criteria, or specifications to be used or followed in the performance of certain tasks. of the Early Head Start Research Consortium publications polices. The authors express appreciation for the involvement of the children, families, and staff and the Early Head Start program directors from the research sites for their dedication to the national study. The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Department of Health and Human Services, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
45 CFR 302. (2003). Child support enforcement program, state plan approval and grant. Federal Register, 68, 25293-25305.
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JEAN ANN SUMMERS
Universtiy of Kansas
Society for Research in Child Development, Consultant Administration for Children and Families
Mathematica Policy Research, Inc.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Jean Ann Summers, Juniper juniper, any tree or shrub of the genus Juniperus, aromatic evergreens of the family Cupressaceae (cypress family), widely distributed over the north temperate zone. Many are valuable as a source of lumber and oil. Gardens Chidlren's Project, University of Kansas, 650 Minnesota, Kansas City, Kansas Kansas City, Kansas (KCK) is the third largest city in the U.S. state of Kansas and the county seat of Wyandotte County (WyCo); it is part of the "Unified Government" which also includes the cities of Bonner Springs and Edwardsville. 66101. Electronic mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.