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Power generating industry in Indonesia.

1. Backgrounds

Indonesia Indonesia (ĭn'dənē`zhə), officially Republic of Indonesia, republic (2005 est. pop. 241,974,000), c.735,000 sq mi (1,903,650 sq km), SE Asia, in the Malay Archipelago.  is facing crisis in electric power supply. Almost the entire areas including Java-Bali, the country's business center, are suffering the inconvenience. Java and Bali Bali (bä`lē), island and (with two offshore islets) province (1990 pop. 2,777,356), c.2,200 sq mi (5,700 sq km), E Indonesia, westernmost of the Lesser Sundas, just E of Java across the narrow Bali Strait. The capital is Denpasar.  account for 77% of power consumption in the country.

With economic growth of around 5%-6% power requirement grows 7%-8% a year as against production growth of only 3% per year. New power generating plants have not contributed significantly to supplying capacity since 2006. As a result shortage in supply which will potentially cause a drag on Verb 1. drag on - last unnecessarily long
drag out

last, endure - persist for a specified period of time; "The bad weather lasted for three days"

 economic development.

Power requirement has been fast in the country with the growing industrialization industrialization

Process of converting to a socioeconomic order in which industry is dominant. The changes that took place in Britain during the Industrial Revolution of the late 18th and 19th century led the way for the early industrializing nations of western Europe and
, but the surge lately in the requirement came with many manufacturing companies formerly using oil fuels (BBM BBM Brokeback Mountain (book/movie)
BBM Bureau of Broadcast Measurement
BBM Bachelor of Business Management
BBM Break Before Make
BBM Bread Board Model
BBM Bulk Business Mail
BBM Bahn Brenner Motorsport
) chose to use PLN PLN

In currencies, this is the abbreviation for the Polish Zloty.

The currency market, also known as the Foreign Exchange market, is the largest financial market in the world, with a daily average volume of over US $1 trillion.
 electricity to generate energy after the surge in BBM prices.

The shortage in supply is also attributable to many power plants being too old and inefficient. In addition the process of production in a number of large power plants has been interrupted in·ter·rupt  
v. in·ter·rupt·ed, in·ter·rupt·ing, in·ter·rupts
1. To break the continuity or uniformity of: Rain interrupted our baseball game.

. In 2007, power supply from PLTU PLTU Pct Line and Trunk Unit  of Tanjung Jati Noun 1. jati - (Hinduism) a Hindu caste or distinctive social group of which there are thousands throughout India; a special characteristic is often the exclusive occupation of its male members (such as barber or potter)  B declined as a result of delay in supply of coal to that power plant. The delay was caused by bad weather forcing postponement of coal shipments from outside Java.

Interruption INTERRUPTION. The effect of some act or circumstance which stops the course of a prescription or act of limitation's.
     2. Interruption of the use of a thing is natural or civil.
 in the process of production was also faced by the PLTU of Suralaya because of trouble in the transformers of its Unit V. Troubles were also faced by PLTGU of Cilegon over shortage in gas supply, PLTU of Gresik also over gas supply deficit. Decline in power output was also recorded by IPP (Internet Printing Protocol) A protocol for printing and managing print jobs over the Internet using HTTP. Initially conceived by Novell, Xerox and others, the IETF made it a standard in 2000 that includes authentication and encryption. See printing protocol and LPD.  (Independent Power Producers) on technical trouble faced by PLTU of Cilacap, PLTGU of Cikarang, PLTP PLTP Phospholipid Transfer Protein  of Drajat III, PLTP of Dieng and PLTA PLTA Pennsylvania Land Title Association
PLTA Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Air
PLTA Plastic Lumber Trade Association
PLTA Pusat Listrik Tenaga Air
PLTA ProfiLine Taurus
PLTA Punjab Lawn Tennis Association (India) 
 of Jatiluhur.

The past several years, have seen uncertainty in domestic gas supply resulting in delay in the construction of gas fired power plant projects. A number of oil fired power plants, which were already converted into gas fired power plants were forced to use oil fuel again.

In a bid to cope with deficit in power supply in the country, the government has launched its first crash program building coal-fired power plants with a total capacity of 10,000 MW. The program is expected to be fully completed in 2010. Energy and Mineral Resources Minister Purnomo Yusgiantoro said Indonesia will need still need 35,000 MW more power until 2015 the Minister, therefore, encourages development of renewable energy Renewable energy utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. Renewable energy technologies range from solar power, wind power, and hydroelectricity to biomass and biofuels for transportation.  and asks IPP to accelerate development of their projects.

The government has tried to cope with shortage in power supply by issuing regulation on operating hours of television broadcasting stations, calling on government offices to economize e·con·o·mize  
v. e·con·o·mized, e·con·o·miz·ing, e·con·o·miz·es

1. To practice economy, as by avoiding waste or reducing expenditures.

 on electricity. The government through PPLN PPLN Periodically Poled Lithium Niobate  even forced manufacturing companies to change part of their operating hours from normal working days to Saturday and Sunday Sunday: see Sabbath; week.  when PLN normally has idle capacity.

2. Management of electric power system in Indonesia

In line with the Law no 15/1985, PLN is responsible for electricity procurement The fancy word for "purchasing." The procurement department within an organization manages all the major purchases.  in the country, therefore, controls power production and distribution systems. PLN has established interconnections systems in some parts of the country Java Bali system, southern Sumatra interconnection system (covering part of Riau, West Sumatra West Sumatra (Indonesian: Sumatera Barat, abbreviated to Sumbar) is a province of Indonesia. It lies on the west coast of the island Sumatra, and borders the provinces of North Sumatra (Sumatera Utara) to the north, Riau and Jambi to the east, and , Jambi and South Sumatra South Sumatra or Sumatera Selatan is a province of Indonesia. It is on the island of Sumatra, and borders the provinces of Lampung to the south, Bengkulu to the west, and Jambi to the north. ), Northern Sumatra interconnection (covering North Sumatra North Sumatra (Indonesian: Sumatera Utara) is a province of Indonesia. Its capital is Medan. Geography and population
The province of North Sumatra stretches across the island of Sumatra between the Indian Ocean and the Strait Malacca.
 and Aceh). Other islands or parts of the country have not been fully covered by interconnection systems.

Java-Bali Interconnections

The Java-Bali interconnection is the largest system in the country connecting various power generating plants and load centers in Java, Madura and Bali. The system has a total capacity of 22,236 MW with transmission system of extra high voltage The term high voltage characterizes electrical circuits, in which the voltage used is the cause of particular safety concerns and insulation requirements. High voltage is used in electrical power distribution, in cathode ray tubes, to generate X-rays and particle beams, to  cable of 500 KV, high voltage cable of 150 KV and low voltage Low voltage is an electrical engineering term that broadly identifies safety considerations of an electricity supply system based on the voltage used. While different definitions exist for the exact voltage range covered by "low voltage", the most commonly used ones include "mains  cable of 70 KV.

Transmission system of extra high cable of 500 KV has connected all power plants in Java. The transmission cables extend along the northern coastal areas of Java supported by ones in its southern areas. The interconnection system is managed by PLN Penyaluran dan Pusat Pengatur Beban (PLNP3B) of Java-Bali.

The power plants in Java are all under control of PLN's subsidiaries PT Indonesia Power and PT Pembangkit Jawa Bali (PT PJB PJB PJ Brown (NBA Player)
PJB Pakistan Journal of Botany
PJB Pat Jordan Band
PJB Premature Junctional Beat
PJB Patrick Joseph Buchanan (politician) 

PT. Indonesia Power controls 8 Units of Generating Business--Suryalaya (3,400 MW), Tanjung Priok Tanjung Priok (also Tandjung Priok) is a subdistrict of North Jakarta, Indonesia. It hosts the city's main harbour of the same name. The port, Indonesia's busiest, is managed by national port company PT Pelindo.  (1,343.56 MW), Semarang (1,469.26 MW), Tanjung Perak (561.83 MW), Bali (324.82 MW), Kamojang (360 MW), Mrica (819 MW), and Saguling (797.36 MW).

The Suralaya business unit has 7 units of coal fired power plants (PLTU). The first four units each has a capacity of 400 MW and Units 5, 6 and 7 each has a capacity of 600 MW or a total of 3,400 MW.

PT Pembangkitan Tenaga Listrik Jawa-Bali II or now known as PT. PJB was established in 1995. PJB has 8 power plants with installed capacity of 6,526 MW with assets valued at Rp41.5 trillion One thousand times one billion, which is 1, followed by 12 zeros, or 10 to the 12th power. See space/time.

(mathematics) trillion - In Britain, France, and Germany, 10^18 or a million cubed.

In the USA and Canada, 10^12.
. PJB with 2,203 workers has become a world class power producer. Six of its power plants--Gresik (2259 MW), Muara Karang (1208 MW), Paiton (800 MW), Muara Tawar (920 MW), PLTA of Cirata (1008 MW), PLTA of Brantas (281 MW) meet international standards in capacity, quality, effectiveness and service.

Sumatra electric power system already integrated

With the completion of the 102 kilometer kilometer

one thousand (103) meters; 3280.83 feet; five-eighths of a mile; abbreviated km.
 150 KV transmission system between Rantau Prapat-Kota Pinang-Bagan Batu in July 2007, the interconnections system in the northern part of Sumatra has been connected with the system in the southern-central part of that island.

The system in the southern-central part will supply 70MW of its excess in power supply to the northern part of that island. The southern-central system has an excess in capacity of 100 MW.

The two interconnections systems are connected with a 150 KV transmission cable from Bandar Lampung Bandar Lampung is the capital province of Lampung, Indonesia. It was formerly called Tanjungkarang-Telukbetung, the names of the two major sections of the city, before being renamed in 1983.  to Banda Aceh spanning a distance of 3,000 km. Power distribution in Sumatra, therefore, has improved. The integration, however, has not fully done away with the power deficit in the northern part of Sumatra. Most of power plants in that region are relatively small in capacity while power requirement is growing fast.

Electric Systems in Other Islands

In Kalimantan interconnections have been built between Central Kalimantan Central Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Tengah often abbreviated to Kalteng) is a province of Indonesia, one of four in Kalimantan - the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. Its provincial capital is Palangkaraya.

The province has a population of 1.
 and South Kalimantan South Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Selatan often abbreviated to Kalsel) is a province of Indonesia. It is one of four Indonesian provinces in Kalimantan - the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. The provincial capital is Banjarmasin. . Work is still underway to establish interconnections between South Kalimantan and East Kalimantan East Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Timur abbrv. Kaltim) is Indonesian province on the east of Borneo island. The resource-rich province has two major cities, Samarinda (the capital and a center for timber product) and Balikpapan (a petroleum center with oil . In long term plan is interconnections will be built between West Kalimantan West Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Barat often abbreviated to Kalbar) is a province of Indonesia. It is one of four Indonesian provinces in Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. Its capital city Pontianak is located right on the Equator line.  and Central Kalimantan. The system will allow shortage in one region to be covered with supply from other regions.

West Kalimantan is left behind in the development of electricity sector. Pontianak is building transmission in a loop system as a kind of interconnection in that city.

PLN in East Kalimantan has a number of major power systems. The largest is the Mahakam system supplying power to Samarinda, Balikpapan, and Tenggarong, the capital of Kutai Kartanegara. The Bontang-Sangatta system supplies power to northern part of East Kalimantan. The Melak and Kota Bangun system supply power for Kutai Barat and Kutai Kartanegara, and the Petung and Tanah Grogot systems for subscribers in southern part of East Kalimantan.

The Mahakam system has 330,000 subscribers using 171.5 MW of power. The PLTGU of Tanjung Batu is one of six power plants in the Mahakam system. Other five plants are diesel fired power plants.

Condition of Power Generating Systems

PLN had a generating capacity of 22,236 MW in Java-Bali in 2007 up from 19,514 MW in 2005. Early 2008, the capacity rose to 22.296 MW with addition of 200 MW from the PLTU of Tarahan in Lampung, PLTP of Darajat and PLTP of Kamojang.

Outside Java-Bali, PLN's generating capacity rose from 5,573 MW in 2005 to 8,284.28 MW in 2007. Among the new plants coming on stream in 2007 were PLTU of Perusda 50 MW and PLTG of Menamas 20 MW. in the Kalimantan systems.

Condition of Transmission Systems

Development of distribution transformer capacity and distribution facilities in the Java-Bali system is shown in the following table.

The transformer capacity of 70/20 KV hardly changed because if growing use of 150 KV transmission system replacing 70-KV transmission cables.

In the past five years, the length of 70 KV transmission cables has continued to be reduced with the upgrading to 150 KV transmission.

Balance in capacity between power plants and transformers in the past five years is shown in the following table.

Improvement in the power distribution system outside Java-Bali system has been significant notably in Sumatra, Kalimantan, and Sulawesi after the completion of a number of transmission systems. Nusa Tenggara, Maluku, and Papua have not transmission system yet.

Construction of main power relay stations grew 11.9% a year with total installed capacity 9,122 MVA MVA
motor vehicle accident

MVA Motor vehicular/vehicle accident, see there
 in 2003 up to 12,381 MVA in 2006.

3. Growth of electricity sector

Number of subscribers

The number of PLN's subscribers grew slower as a result of the 1998 crisis. Before the crisis the number grew by more than 10% annually, but after that year the annual growth fell to 3%-4%.

The number of subscribers rose from 32.2 million in 2003 to 37.7 million in 2007 or an annual growth of 4%.

Electrification e·lec·tri·fy  
tr.v. e·lec·tri·fied, e·lec·tri·fy·ing, e·lec·tri·fies
1. To produce electric charge on or in (a conductor).


Household electrification ratio in the country is relatively low--around 60%. The ratio, however, has continued to increased from 56.4% in 2003 to 61.6% in 2007. In Java the ratio was 68.9% and in other regions it was 56.5%.

Sales of Electric Power up 6.4% per year

Sales of electric power by PLN grew 6.4% annually in 2003-007 period. In Java-Bali sales grew 5.9% and in Sumatra by 7.2%.

Coal main fuel

The soaring soaring: see flight; glider.
 or gliding

Sport of flying a glider or sailplane. The craft is towed behind a powered airplane to an altitude of about 2,000 ft (600 m) and then released.
 prices of crude oil force PLN to seek using substitute fuel such as coal, geothermal ge·o·ther·mal   also ge·o·ther·mic
Of or relating to the internal heat of the earth.

, gas, etc.

Use of coal by PLN rose in the past five years from 15.2 million tons in 2003 to 31.4 million tons in 2007. However, dependence on oil fuel (BBM) could not yet fully be done away. In 2003, BBM consumption totaled 7.6 million kilo Thousand (10 to the 3rd power). Abbreviated "K." For technical specifications, it refers to the precise value 1,024 since computer specifications are based on binary numbers. For example, 64K means 65,536 bytes when referring to memory or storage (64x1024), but a 64K salary means $64,000.  liters, up to 90 million kilo liters in 2006, but down to 5.1 million kilo liters in 2007. The decline in 2007 was thanks to growing use of coal especially by PLN.

Crisis in electric energy

Ideally peak load does not exceed 70% of the capacity to keep a reserve of 30% any time to cope with possible trouble in one of large generators. The condition, however, is far from being ideal in the country. If one of the power plants is out of function or needs repair in Java, blackout A complete loss of power. See brownout.  is almost certain in some areas.

Although the capacity has continued to increase, the crisis remains a threat. In the Java-Bali system peak load already increased to 16,743 MW as against capacity of 20,000 MW in 2007.

The system is facing a crisis as the peak load if already 83.7% of the generating capacity.

In other regions or islands the installed capacity is 8,284 MW, with generating capacity of 5,029 MW as against peak load of 4,712 MW.

Depreciation of networks and load factor

In the past five years, PLN has succeeded in reducing depreciation of networks resulting in slower rate of network losses. In 2007, network depreciation was only 11.4% and in 2008, the rate is expected to be lower. Annual load factor is 71%-76% in the past five years.

4. Program of primary energy diversification Diversification

A risk management technique that mixes a wide variety of investments within a portfolio. It is designed to minimize the impact of any one security on overall portfolio performance.

Diversification is possibly the greatest way to reduce the risk.

In the 2006-2015 RUPTL of PLN, 10 units of new power plants will be built in Java and 30 units outside Java-Bali. The 30 units will include 14 units in main program and 16 units to be built as a reserve in case power plants to be built by IPP are not implemented or completed as scheduled. Under the program BBM will account for not more than 5% of electric energy output in 2015.

The government wants diversification of sources of energy and phasing out BBM fired power plants by building more power plants fired with other fuels like coal, gas, etc.

PLN said the increase in the oil price will also cause an increase in the coal price as coal prices are linked to oil prices. Any increase of US$1 in the price of oil a barrel the production cost of PLN will rise Rp600 billion a year.

The coal price paid by PLN follow the trend in the price of Indonesian crude (ICP (1) (Internet Cache Protocol) A protocol used by one proxy server to query another for a cached Web page without having to go to the Internet to retrieve it. See CARP and proxy server. ) of US$ 95 per barrel. Early, July, the ICP averaged US$ 109 per barrel. Therefore, PLN's production cost was estimated at Rp 8.4 trillion in July.

Non-BBM power plants to be built outside Java to be completed in 2009/2010 are shown in the following table.

5. Government subsidy subsidy, financial assistance granted by a government or philanthropic foundation to a person or association for the purpose of promoting an enterprise considered beneficial to the public welfare.  

The electricity tariff tariff, tax on imported and, more rarely, exported goods. It is also called a customs duty. Tariffs may be distinguished from other taxes in that their predominant purpose is not financial but economic—not to increase a nation's revenue but to protect domestic  set by the government generally is lower than PLN's operating cost and margin. Subsidy, therefore, is needed to keep the company in operation to carry out its PSO PSO - Oracle Parallel Server  (Public Service Obligation). The amount of subsidy needs approval from the House of Representatives.

Subsidy has continued to increase from year to year. In 2005, PLN's subsidy paid by the government reached Rp12.51 trillion, up to Rp17 trillion in 2006, and to Rp32.4 trillion in 2007, up from Rp25.8 trillion set in the state budget before revision.

In 2008, PLN estimated that it will need a subsidy of Rp65 trillion with the soaring price of oil as against Rp55 trillion set in a revised draft state budget for the year.

This year, PLN hopes to be able to save Rp5 trillion through efficiency including Rp800 billion by using MFO MFO Mixed function oxidase, see there  instead of industrial diesel HSD HSD Human Services Department
HSD High Speed Data
HSD Hillsboro School District (Hillsboro, OR)
HSD Hybrid Synergy Drive (Toyota/Lexus)
HSD High School Diploma
HSD Historical Society of Delaware
, Rp1 trillion through gasification gas·i·fy  
tr. & intr.v. gas·i·fied, gas·i·fy·ing, gas·i·fies
To convert into or become gas.

 of PLTGU of Muara Tawar, Rp 500 billion through cut in network losses and Rp 2.7 trillion through imposition The printing of pages on a single sheet of paper in a particular order so that they come out in the correct sequence when cut and folded.  of non subsidized sub·si·dize  
tr.v. sub·si·dized, sub·si·diz·ing, sub·si·diz·es
1. To assist or support with a subsidy.

2. To secure the assistance of by granting a subsidy.
 tariff and distribution of energy saving lamps.

According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

 PLN's calculation, the target of saving Rp 2.7 trillion from imposition of non subsidized tariff and distribution of energy saving lamps could be achieved of the non subsidy tariff program reaches 33%. Without efficiency PLN is expected to be able only to save only Rp1.4 trillion.

6. Private Power Generating Plants

Before the country was hit by the monetary crisis in 1997, PLN signed Power Purchase Agreement (PPA PPA 1. Palpation, Percussion & Ausculation 2. Pittsburgh pneumonia agent 3. Postpartum amenorrhea 4. Price per accession 5. Pure pulmonary atresia ) and Energy Sales Contract Sales Contract

Contract between a seller and buyer for the sale of goods, services, or both.
 (ESC See escape character and escape key. See also ESC/P.

ESC - escape
) with a number of large private companies Independent Power Producer (IPP). After the crisis, PLN and a government team held renegotiations with the IPPs to revise the agreements and contracts especially on prices.

IPPs' plants already operational

In 2006, two large power plants of IPPs PLTU of Cilacap and PLTU of Tanjung Jati B both in Central Java Central Java (Indonesian: Provinsi Jawa Tengah) is a province of Indonesia. The administrative capital is Semarang. It is one of the six provinces of the island of Java. Central Java is both a political entity and a cultural concept.  came on line. The two plants helped overcome power shortage in the Java-Bali system.

The coal fired power plant (PLTU) of Cilacap came on line in February 2006 with a capacity of 2 x 300 MW. It was built by PT Sumber Segara Primadaya (S2P S2P State Second Pension (UK)
S2P Serial-To-Parallel
S2P Scan to Palm
S2P String to Print
) and Chengda Enggineering of China. PT S2P is jointly owned by PT Pembangkit Jawa Bali (PJB) and PT Sumber Energi Sakti Prima. The plant was built at a cost of Rp4 trillion (US$ 510 million) or US$ 850 per kW. The cost is relatively cheap compared to the general price of more than US$1,000 per KW for power generated from coal. Its selling price is also competitive at 4.57 U.S. cents per kWh as against the general price of 4.6 cents to 4.93 cents for coal power.

Construction of the plant took only 24 months. Normally it takes 36 months to build a 300-MW coal fired power plant. The Cilacap coal fired power plant has been used as benchmark for PLN's other projects of coal fired power plants.

The PLTU of Tanjung Jati B was among the projects shelved in the wake of the 1997/1998 crisis. Construction of the project was resumed in July 2003 under President Megawati Soekarnoputri. The coal fired power plant came on stream in October, 2006 with a capacity of 2 X 660 MM. The new power plant serves as a replacement for PLTGU of Tambak Lorok Semarang and other PLTGU using BBM. The operation of the power plant help reduce the use of BBM as much as 1.45 million kiloliters per year or efficiency in fuel of Rp7 trillion a year.

Note :

1) Agreement effective as from the date of signing and the selling price valid for 19 to 30 years after commercial operation.

2) AF = Power suppliers factors to be absorbed by PLN.

3) On 31 December 2000, PLN and Pertamina and Magma Nusantara Ltd. (Wayang Wayang is an Indonesian word for theater. When the term is used to refer to kinds of puppet theater, sometimes the puppet itself is referred to as wayang. "Bayang", the Javanese word for shadow or imagination, also connotes "spirit.  Windu project) held interim agreement on the use of price tariff for interim power purchase until the restructured ESC. In 2004, the project was acquired by Star Energy Investment. PLN still is awaiting instruction from the government about negotiation on ESC revision.

4) Formerly it was an IPP project of Himpurna California California (kăl'ĭfôr`nyə), most populous state in the United States, located in the Far West; bordered by Oregon (N), Nevada and, across the Colorado River, Arizona (E), Mexico (S), and the Pacific Ocean (W).  Energy Ltd. and Patuha Power Ltd. On May 2, 2001, the Indonesian government took over the project by paying US$ 260 million in insurance compensation to OPIC OPIC Overseas Private Investment Corporation
OPIC Office de la Propriété Intellectuelle du Canada (French: Canadian Intellectual Property Office)
OPIC Organization of Professional Immigration Consultants
OPIC Ohio Public Interest Campaign
. In 2002, Pertamina and PLN established PT Geo Dipa Energi to resume construction of the project.

Private power generating projects not yet operational are shown in the following table.

7. Development of power plants

PLN has drawn plan for the types of power plant to be developed both in the Java Bali systems and outside Java-Bali

In the Java Bali system the types of power plants to be built include coal--fired power plants with a total capacity of 600MW PLTGU (combined cycle A combined cycle is characteristic of a power producing engine or plant that employs more than one thermodynamic cycle. Heat engines are only able to use a portion of the energy their fuel generates (usually less than 50%). The remaining heat from combustion is generally wasted.  power plants) with a total capacity of 750MW, oil fueled gas power plant (PLTG) with a total capacity of 200MW and hydroelectric power hydroelectric power: see power, electric; water power.
hydroelectric power

Electricity produced from generators driven by water turbines that convert the energy in falling or fast-flowing water to mechanical energy.
 plants (PLTA Pumped Storage unit) with a capacity of 500. See the following table.

8. Projection of power requirement, 2008-2015

The government draws plan for national electric power general plan (RUKN) as an integrated policy in the development of electric power sector covering estimate of electric power provision and requirement, investment policy, source of fund, etc.

Based on the 2006-2015 RUPTL, the country's power requirement will rise from 113.8 TWh in 2006 to 239.5 TWh in 2015 or up 8.5% per year. Peak load is predicted to reach 21,316 MW in 2006 up to 43,694 MW in 2015 or an annual growth of 8.1% per year.

The prediction is based on economic forecasts of the National Development Planning Board Noun 1. planning board - a board appointed to advise the chief administrator
advisory board

governance, governing body, organisation, administration, brass, establishment, organization - the persons (or committees or departments etc.
 (Bappenas) as shown in the following table.

The number of PLN's subscribers is forecast to reach 39.9 million in 2008 up to 57.19 million in 2015 or an annual growth of 6.1% or 2.28 million subscribers. The household electrification ratio is forecast to rise from around 63.3% in 2008 to 77.3% in 2015. The country's population is predicted to rise from 221.6 million in 2006 to 246.8 million in 2015 as shown in the following table.

The target of electrification set by PLN is 76% in 2015 and 93% in 2025.

In 2008-2015, power requirement in the Java-Bali system is projected to rise from 104.2 TWh to 174.4 TWh or an annual growth of 9.6%. Outside Java-Bali the requirement is projected to rise from 29.4 TWh to 65.1 TWh or an annual growth of 17.3 % per year.

Estimates of load requirement are different between RUKN and RUPTL. Based on RUPTL 2008-2016, growth of load requirement will rise from 7.5% in 2008 to 8.7% in 2015. Based on RUKN, growth of load requirement will decline from 7.2% in 2008 to 6.9% in 2016.

9. Conclusion

Although the capacity of generating plants has increased to 22,236MW in 2007 from 19,514 MW in 2005 in the Java-Bali system and from 5,573 MW to 8,282 MW outside Java, the threat of electricity crisis is not yet over.

Currently many areas still have their turn of going through blackouts. Even in Java, the condition is not yet safe.

The government tried to cope with the problem by building more power plants such as through PLN's crash program to build coal-fired power plants with a total capacity of 10,000MW. The crash program is also designed to phase out BBM-fired power plants. The first crash program is scheduled to be completed in 2010. The government plans to launch the second crash program after the completion of the first.

The increase in the price of BBM, which is still used by some of PLNs' power plants will require larger subsidy for electricity as the government has no plan to raise the electricity tariff.
Installed capacity of power plants in Java-Bali
and other regions, 2007

Islands       PLN unit                   Capacity (MW)

Java-Bali                                       22,236
Sumatra       NAD                                  225
              North Sumatra                      1,135
              West Sumatra                       311,8
              Riau and Riau Islands                182
              Batam                                263
              S2JB                                  83
              Lampung                              363
              Kitlur Northern Sumatra            1,466
              Kitlur Southern Sumatra            1,338

Kalimantan,   West Kalimantan                   244,29
NTB, NTT      South and Central                 420,03
              East Kalimantan                      486
              West Nusa Tenggara (NTB)          198,24
              East Nusa Tenggara (NTT)           121,4

Sulawesi,     Maluku, North
Papua         Sulawesi, Central                    471
              Sulawesi, Gorontalo
              South Sulawesi, West
              Sulawesi Southeast                   623
              Maluku, North Maluku               182,8
              Papua                              168,7

Total                                         8,284.28

Source : RUPTL PLN 2007

Capacity of distribution transformers in the Java-Bali system,

Description            2003      2005 *    2007

150/20        (MVA)   23,092     23,825   26,790
70/20         (MVA)    2,927      2,987    2,918
Total         (MVA)   26,019     26,812   29,708
Peak load     (MW)    14,282     15,113   16,743

(*) up to first quarter of 2005

Source: Statistics 2005 of PT PLN

Transmission systems of PT PLN P3B, 2003-2007

Description            2003      2005 *    2007

500 kV        (kms)    3,532      4,068    3,763
150 kV        (kms)   11,055     11,121   22,475
70 kV         (kms)    3,757      3,603    3,425

(*) up to first quarter of 2005 Source: Statistic 2005 of PT PLN P3B

Source: RUPTL 2007

Capacity of power plants and transformers, 2003-2007

Description                     2003     2004     2005 *     2007

Power plants of       (MW)    10,793   11,651     11,651
system 500

Transformer.          (MVA)   15,500   15,500     15,500   17,000

Power plant of        (MW)     7,522    7,522      7,522
system 150

Transformer. 150/20   (MVA)   23,092   23,825     23,825   25,790

Transformer 150/70    (MVA)    3,439    3,399      3,399    3,610

Power plant of        (MW)       293      293        293
system 70

Transformer. 70/20    (MVA)    2,927    2,987      2,987    2,916

(*) up to first quarter of 2005

Source: RUPTL 2007

Number of PLN's subscribers by groups,

Year   Households     Industry      Business    Social

2003   29,997,554      46,818       1,310,686   659,034
2004   31,095,970      46,520       1,382,416   686,851
2005   32,174,922      56,475       1,455,797   716,194
2006   33,441,512      58,717       1,513,592   744,626
2007   35,069,525      61,570       1,587,152   780,814

         Office     Illumination
       buildings       Public
Year   Government      roads         Total         %

2003       83,810      53,514      32,151,416     --
2004       87,187      67,502      33,366,446    3.78
2005       89,533      76,432      34,559,353    3.58
2006       93,087      79,466      35,931,000    3.97
2007       97,611      83,328      37,680,000    4.86

Source: Statistics of PLN, 2005

Household electrification ratio in Indonesia, 2003-2007

Description     2003   2004   2005   2006   2007

Indonesia       56.4   58.3   59.0   60.1   61.6
Java Bali       61.4   63.0   63.9   68.9   68.9
Sumatra         49.6   53.5   54.2   56.6   56.5
Other regions   46.3   47.2   47.8   49.7   49.7

Source: Statistic of PLN, 2007

Sales of electric power of PLN (TWh), 2003-2007

Description     2003   2004    2005     2006    2007   Growth
                                  *                       (%)

Indonesia       90.4   99.8    106.5   109.8   118.3
Growth (%)       3.8   10.4      6.7     3.1     7.8      6.4
Java-Bali       72.2   79.8     85.4    87.1    93.1
Growth (%)       3.1   10.5      7.0     1.9     6.9      5.9
Sumatra         10.6   11.6     12.1    12.8    14.1
Growth (%)       6.1    9.8      4.3     5.8    10.2      7.2
Other regions    7.7    8.4      9.0     9.9    11.1
Growth (%)       7.7    9.8      7.1    10.0    12.1      9.3

Source: RUPTL 2006 PT PLN (Persero)

Consumption of fuels, 2003-2007

          BBM (kilo liters)

Year      HSD            IDO

2003    5,024,362       31,573
2004    6,299,706       36,935
2005    7,626,201       27,581
2006    6,967,428       34,504
2007    3,968,809       45,920

          BBM (kilo liters)

Year      MFO         Total

2003    2,557,546    7,613,481
2004    2,502,598    8,506,418
2005    2,258,776    9,912,558
2006    2,062,068    9,084,000
2007    1,146,271    5,161,000

          Coal         Gas
Year     (Ton)       (MMSCF)

2003   15,260,305      184,304
2004   15,412,738      176,436
2005   16,900,972      143,050
2006   25,963,000      227,000
2007   31,415,000      296,000

(*) Including PLTMG, starting 2004

Source: PT PLN (Persero) 2006

Peak load in Java-Bali system, 2007

                                   Java-Bali     Outside
Description                           system   Java-Bali

Installed cap.                MW      23,236       8,284
Generating capacity           MW      20,000       5,029
Peak load                     MW      16,743       4,712
Peak load to capacity ratio   %         83.7        93.7

Source: PT PLN

Network losses and load factor of
PLN, 2003-2007

Description    2003    2004    2005    2006    2007

Load Factor   71.88   72.64     n.a   64.15    76.5
Losses        16.88   11.29   11.54   11.45   11.40

Source: Statistic of PLN 2008

New non-BBM power plant in Java-Bali system

Power plants     Location       Capacity (MW)         COD

                               Unit/     Total   2009    2010

PLTU           Banten          1x600       600     600

PLTU Labuan    Banten          2x300       600     300     300

PLTU Teluk     Banten          3x300       900     600     300

PLTU Jabar     West Java       3x300       900     300     600

PLTU Jabar     West Java       3x300       900     300     600

PLTU           Central Java    2x300       600     600

PLTU Tanjung   Central Java    1x600       600     600
Jati Baru

PLTU Jatim     East Java       2x300       600     300     300

PLTU Paiton    East Java       1x600       600     600

PLTU Tj        East Java       2x300       600             600

Total                                    6,900   4,200   2,700

Source: RUPTL 2006

New non-BBM power plants to be built outside Java-Bali:

Power plants      Location    Capacity (MW)          COD

                               Unit/    Total  2008  2009  2010

PLTU              NAD          2x100     200               200

PLTU Pesisir      West         2x100     200         100   100
Selatan           Sumatra

PLTU              Bangka        2x10     20     20
Mantung           Belitung

PLTU Air          Bangka        2x10     20                 20
Anyer             Belitung

PLTU              Riau          2x7      14                 14

PLTU Selat        Riau          2x5      10                 10

PLTU              West
Pontianak         Kalimantan    2x50     100   100

PLTU              Central       2x60     120   120
Palangkaraya      Kalimantan

PLTU Kendari      Southeast     2x10     20     20

PLTU Bima         NTB           2x7      14           14

PLTU Lombok       NTB           2x25     50           25    25

PLTU Ende         NTT           2x7      14           14

PLTU Kupang       NTT           2x15     30     15    15

PLTU Ambon        Maluku        2x15     30           15    15

PLTU Ternate      North         2x17     14           7     7

PLTU Timika       Papua         2x7      14           7     7

PLTU              Papua         2x10     20     10    10
Jayapura Baru

PLTU              North         2x25     50           25    25
Amurang Baru      Sulawesi

PLTU Sibolga      North        2x100     200   100   100
Baru              Sumatra

PLTU Medan        North        2x100     200         100   100
Baru              Sumatra

PLTU Bangka       Bangka        2x10     20     10    10
Baru              Belitung

PLTU Belitung     Bangka        2x15     30     30
Baru              Belitung

PLTU Tj Balai     Riau          2x7      14           14

PLTU Tarahan      Lampung      2x100     200   100   100

PLTU              West
Singkawang        Kalimantan    2x25     50     50

PLTU Asam-        South         2x65     130   130
Asam Baru         Kalimantan

PLTU Sampit       Central       2x7      14           14
Baru              Kalimantan

PLTU Sulut        North         2x25     50           25    25
Baru              Sulawesi

Gorontalo         Gorontalo     2x25     50     50

PLTU Bone         South         2x50     100         100

Total                                   1,998  755   695   548

Source: RUPTL 2006

Electricity subsidy, 2007

Description                   Value (Rp billion)

Subsidy in 2007                          29,411
Shortage in subsidy in 2006               4,262
Total subsidy 2007                       33,675
Carry over to 2008                        1,231
Total                                    32,444

Source : PLN 2008


Private power plant already operational

No.      Companies       Project/location     Fuel      Capacity

1       PT Cikarang         Cikarang,         Gas          150
         Listrindo          West Java

2        PT Energi       Sengkang, South      Gas          200
          Sengkang           Sulawesi

3        PT. (DSPL)           Salak,          Geo-         330
       Dayabumi Salak       West Java       thermal
       Pratama. Ltd
        (d/h Unocal
      Indonesia Ltd.)

4        PT Makasar      Pare-pare, South     MFO          60
           Power             Sulawesi

5        PT Paiton          Paiton I,         Coal        1,230
           Energy           East Java

6      PT Jawa Power        Paiton II,        Coal        1,220
                            East Java

7         Amoseas            Drajat,          Geo-         140
         Indonesia          West Java       thermal
       Chevron Drajat
        LTd., Texaco
      Drajat Ltd. Dan
         PT Drajat

8          Magna          Wayang windu,       Geo-         110
       Nusantara Ltd        West Java       thermal
         (MNL) (3)

9       PT Geo Dipa           Dieng,
         Energi (4)        Central Java       Geo-         60

10      PT Asrigita         Palembang,
         Prasarana        South Sulawesi      Gas          150

11       PT Source
           Segara            Cilacap,         Coal         600
         Primadaya         Central Java

12    PT Central Java    Tanjung Jati B,      Coal        1,320
          Power c)         Central Java

           Total                                            5,570

                              AF (2)         price      Contract
No.      Companies              %            Cent$/     term (1)

1       PT Cikarang             72             4        1996-2016

2        PT Energi              85             4        1997-1998

3        PT. (DSPL)             90             4        2002-2040
       Dayabumi Salak
       Pratama. Ltd
        (d/h Unocal
      Indonesia Ltd.)

4        PT Makasar             80             6        1999-2016

5        PT Paiton              85             5        1994-2040

6      PT Jawa Power            83            4.67      1995-2040

7         Amoseas               95             4          2000-
         Indonesia                                      2030/2040
       Chevron Drajat
        LTd., Texaco
      Drajat Ltd. Dan
         PT Drajat

8          Magna                90             4        1998/1999
       Nusantara Ltd
         (MNL) (3)

9       PT Geo Dipa
         Energi (4)             85             4        2004-2046

10      PT Asrigita
         Prasarana              85            4.54      2002-2022

11       PT Source
           Segara               80            4.57      2004-2036

12    PT Central Java           80            4.93      2004-2026
          Power c)


Source: Directorate general of energy and mineral resources

Note :

(1) Agreement effective as from the date of signing and the
selling price valid for 19 to 30 years after commercial

(2) AF = Power suppliers factors to be absorbed by PLN.

(3) On 31 December 2000, PLN and Pertamina and Magma
Nusantara Ltd. (Wayang Windu project) held interim
agreement on the use of price tariff for interim power
purchase until the restructured ESC. In 2004, the
project was acquired by Star Energy Investment. PLN
still is awaiting instruction from the government
about negotiation on ESC revision.

4) Formerly it was an IPP project of Himpurna California
Energy Ltd. and Patuha Power Ltd. On May 2, 2001, the
Indonesian government took over the project by paying
US$ 260 million in insurance compensation to OPIC.
In 2002, Pertamina and PLN established PT Geo Dipa
Energi to resume construction of the project.


Private power generating projects not yet operational

No.       Companies       Name of project s      Fuels

1     PT. Tenaga Listrik  PLTU Sibolga           Coal
           Sibolga        PPA : 27/5/1995

2     PT. Tenaga Listrik  PLTU Arnurang          Coal
           Amurang        PPA : 27/5/1995
                          COD Unit I : 27
                          Sept 97 to 2020
                          COD Unit II : 2003
                          to 2022

3       Patuha Power      PLTP Patuha         Geothermal
           Limited        COD Unit I : 2002
                          COD Unit 2 : 2006

4       PT. Bajradaya     PLTA Asahan            Water
         Sentranusa       ppA: 2311111 996      energy
                          COD : 2007 to 2040

5     PT. Latoka Trimas   PLTP Kamojang       Geothermal
         Bina Energy      COD: 2006
                          ESC : 2112/1994

6     Bali Energy Ltd.    PLTP Bedugul        Geothermal
                          ESC : 17/11/1995

7     PT. Yala Teknosa    PLTP Cibuni         Geothermal
         Geothermal       ESC : 17/11/1996
                          PLTP Sibayak

8       PT. Dizamatra     COD 2006            Geothermal
          Powerindo       ESC: 1511/1996

9      PLN (d/h Unocal    PLTP Sarulla        Geothermal
       North Sumatera

10    Perum Jasa Tirta    PLTA Ir. H. Juanda     Water
             II                                 energyr

11     PT. Power West     PLTU Serang            Coal
            Java          PPA : 11/06/1997

12      PT. MEPPO GEN     PLTG Gunung         Natural gas

13        "JV Muba"       PLTG Muba           Natural gas

14       PT. Bosowa       PLTU Jeneponto         Coal
           Energi         COD: end of 2008

15      PT. Arthindo      PI-TG Sengeti       Natural gas

16    PT. Cahaya Fajar
           Kaltim         PLTU Embalut           Coal

17    PT. Intidaya Prima  PLTGU Anyer         Natural gas

                                              Prices    Term of
No.       Companies       Capacity            Cent$/    contract
                                                KWh      (year)

1     PT. Tenaga Listrik  200 MW(2 x 100       4.60        30
           Sibolga        MW)

2     PT. Tenaga Listrik  110 MW               4.65        30
           Amurang        (2 x 55 MW)

3       Patuha Power      180 MW
           Limited        (3 x 60 MW)          4.45        30

4       PT. Bajradaya     180 MW
         Sentranusa       (2 x 90 MW)          4.60        30

5     PT. Latoka Trimas   60 MW
         Bina Energy      (2 x 30 MW)          4.42        30

6     Bali Energy Ltd.    unit 1 10             *)         30
                          (1 x 10 MW)           **)
                          Unit 2,3,4
                          165 MW
                          (3 x 55

7     PT. Yala Teknosa    10 MW                            30
         Geothermal       (1 x 10 MW)
                          10 MW

8       PT. Dizamatra     (1 x 10 MW)          4.70        30

9      PLN (d/h Unocal    Unit 1
       North Sumatera     100 MW
         Geothermal       (1 x 100
                          Unit 2,3,4
                          195 MW
                          (3 x 65 MW)

10    Perum Jasa Tirta    150 MW                Rp         20
             II                               115.51

11     PT. Power West     450 MW               5.05        30
            Java          (1x 450 MW)
                          600 MW             Rp 450/
                          (2000 MW)             KWh

12      PT. MEPPO GEN     80 MW                4.35        20
                          (2 x 40 MW)

13        "JV Muba"       80 MW40              4.32        20
                          (2 x MW)

14       PT. Bosowa       200 MW
           Energi         (2 x 100             4.71        30

15      PT. Arthindo      1 x 27,5 MW       440.93/KWh     12

16    PT. Cahaya Fajar    50 MW                 Rp.
           Kaltim         (2 x 25 MW)         406.60/      30
17    PT. Intidaya Prima  1 x 380 MW           4.54        20

*) Unit 1 with tariff 70% of average power prices in Bali
in last quarter of 2003

**) Unit 2, 3, 4 with tariffs 71.25% of average prices
in Bali in last quarter of 2003

PPA : Power Purchase Agreement,

ESC: Energy Sales Contract

Source: Directorate general of energy and mineral resources


Types of power plants to be built in Java-Bali system

                     Capital   Duration of    Heat rate    Force
      Types of       Cost      construction   (kcal/kWh)   Outage
No.   power plants   (USD/kW)  (year)                      (%)

1     PLTU Coal          850            $4        2,324      10
2     PLTGU LNG          550             3        1,592       8
3     PLTG BBM           350             2        2,963       7
4     PLTA Pump          530             6           --      --

Source :  RUPTL 2006-2015

Economic growth, power requirement and
peal load forecasts

Description     Unit     2008      2009     2010     2015

Economy         %         7.0       8.6      7.1      7.1
Demand          TWh     133.6     146.2    158.6    239.5
Peak load       MW     24,873    27,136   29,348   43,694

Source: PLN

Projection of population, number of PLN's
subscribers and Household electrification
ratio, 2008-2015

Description         Unit       2008       2009     2010     2015

Population        Million     227,2      230,0    232,8    246,8
Subscribers       thousand   39,900     42,157   44,333   57,186
  ratio              %         63.3       65.4     67.2     77.3

Source: PLN

Estimate of electric power requirement, growth rate
and Electrification ratio, 2008-2015

Description             Unit    2008    2009    2015

Energy Demand           Kwh
Indonesia                      133.6   146.2   239.5
Java-Bali                      104.2   113.2   174.4
Outside Java-Bali               29.4    33.0    65.1

Growth Demand           (%)
Indonesia                        8.7     9.4     8.7
Java-Bali                        8.0     8.6     7.5
Outside Java-Bali               11.3    12.1    12.0

Electrification ratio   (%)
Indonesia                       63.3    65.4    77.3
Java-Bali                       67.5    69.5    80.4
Outside Java-Bali               56.3    58.4    72.2

Source: RUPTL 2008

Estimate of load requirement in Indonesia, 2008-2016

Description                   2008      2009      2010

Requirement          GHW   132,274   141,737   151,762

Growth               %         7.2       7.2       7.1

Production           GWH   151,867   162,730   173,932

Peak load            MW     23,163    24,826    26,512

Installed capacity
(existing)           MW     23,054    21,929    24,486

Total capacity of    MW

Power needed         MW      8,489    11,631    11,619

Additional power
needed per year      MW      3,441     3,392      -202

Description                   2015      2016

Requirement          GHW   213,225   228,036

Growth               %         7.0       6.9

Production           GWH   242,204   257,229

Peak load            MW     36,874    39,095

Installed capacity
(existing)           MW     17,812    16,696

Total capacity of    MW

Power needed         MW     32,419    36,258

Additional power
needed per year      MW      4,164     3,848

Source: RUKN 2006.
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Publication:Indonesian Commercial Newsletter
Geographic Code:9INDO
Date:Jul 1, 2008
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