Power generating industry in Indonesia.
Indonesia is facing crisis in electric power supply. Almost the entire areas including Java-Bali, the country's business center, are suffering the inconvenience. Java and Bali account for 77% of power consumption in the country.
With economic growth of around 5%-6% power requirement grows 7%-8% a year as against production growth of only 3% per year. New power generating plants have not contributed significantly to supplying capacity since 2006. As a result shortage in supply which will potentially cause a drag on economic development.
Power requirement has been fast in the country with the growing industrialization, but the surge lately in the requirement came with many manufacturing companies formerly using oil fuels (BBM) chose to use PLN electricity to generate energy after the surge in BBM prices.
The shortage in supply is also attributable to many power plants being too old and inefficient. In addition the process of production in a number of large power plants has been interrupted. In 2007, power supply from PLTU of Tanjung Jati B declined as a result of delay in supply of coal to that power plant. The delay was caused by bad weather forcing postponement of coal shipments from outside Java.
Interruption in the process of production was also faced by the PLTU of Suralaya because of trouble in the transformers of its Unit V. Troubles were also faced by PLTGU of Cilegon over shortage in gas supply, PLTU of Gresik also over gas supply deficit. Decline in power output was also recorded by IPP (Independent Power Producers) on technical trouble faced by PLTU of Cilacap, PLTGU of Cikarang, PLTP of Drajat III, PLTP of Dieng and PLTA of Jatiluhur.
The past several years, have seen uncertainty in domestic gas supply resulting in delay in the construction of gas fired power plant projects. A number of oil fired power plants, which were already converted into gas fired power plants were forced to use oil fuel again.
In a bid to cope with deficit in power supply in the country, the government has launched its first crash program building coal-fired power plants with a total capacity of 10,000 MW. The program is expected to be fully completed in 2010. Energy and Mineral Resources Minister Purnomo Yusgiantoro said Indonesia will need still need 35,000 MW more power until 2015 the Minister, therefore, encourages development of renewable energy and asks IPP to accelerate development of their projects.
The government has tried to cope with shortage in power supply by issuing regulation on operating hours of television broadcasting stations, calling on government offices to economize on electricity. The government through PPLN even forced manufacturing companies to change part of their operating hours from normal working days to Saturday and Sunday when PLN normally has idle capacity.
2. Management of electric power system in Indonesia
In line with the Law no 15/1985, PLN is responsible for electricity procurement in the country, therefore, controls power production and distribution systems. PLN has established interconnections systems in some parts of the country Java Bali system, southern Sumatra interconnection system (covering part of Riau, West Sumatra, Jambi and South Sumatra), Northern Sumatra interconnection (covering North Sumatra and Aceh). Other islands or parts of the country have not been fully covered by interconnection systems.
The Java-Bali interconnection is the largest system in the country connecting various power generating plants and load centers in Java, Madura and Bali. The system has a total capacity of 22,236 MW with transmission system of extra high voltage cable of 500 KV, high voltage cable of 150 KV and low voltage cable of 70 KV.
Transmission system of extra high cable of 500 KV has connected all power plants in Java. The transmission cables extend along the northern coastal areas of Java supported by ones in its southern areas. The interconnection system is managed by PLN Penyaluran dan Pusat Pengatur Beban (PLNP3B) of Java-Bali.
The power plants in Java are all under control of PLN's subsidiaries PT Indonesia Power and PT Pembangkit Jawa Bali (PT PJB).
PT. Indonesia Power controls 8 Units of Generating Business--Suryalaya (3,400 MW), Tanjung Priok (1,343.56 MW), Semarang (1,469.26 MW), Tanjung Perak (561.83 MW), Bali (324.82 MW), Kamojang (360 MW), Mrica (819 MW), and Saguling (797.36 MW).
The Suralaya business unit has 7 units of coal fired power plants (PLTU). The first four units each has a capacity of 400 MW and Units 5, 6 and 7 each has a capacity of 600 MW or a total of 3,400 MW.
PT Pembangkitan Tenaga Listrik Jawa-Bali II or now known as PT. PJB was established in 1995. PJB has 8 power plants with installed capacity of 6,526 MW with assets valued at Rp41.5 trillion. PJB with 2,203 workers has become a world class power producer. Six of its power plants--Gresik (2259 MW), Muara Karang (1208 MW), Paiton (800 MW), Muara Tawar (920 MW), PLTA of Cirata (1008 MW), PLTA of Brantas (281 MW) meet international standards in capacity, quality, effectiveness and service.
Sumatra electric power system already integrated
With the completion of the 102 kilometer 150 KV transmission system between Rantau Prapat-Kota Pinang-Bagan Batu in July 2007, the interconnections system in the northern part of Sumatra has been connected with the system in the southern-central part of that island.
The system in the southern-central part will supply 70MW of its excess in power supply to the northern part of that island. The southern-central system has an excess in capacity of 100 MW.
The two interconnections systems are connected with a 150 KV transmission cable from Bandar Lampung to Banda Aceh spanning a distance of 3,000 km. Power distribution in Sumatra, therefore, has improved. The integration, however, has not fully done away with the power deficit in the northern part of Sumatra. Most of power plants in that region are relatively small in capacity while power requirement is growing fast.
Electric Systems in Other Islands
In Kalimantan interconnections have been built between Central Kalimantan and South Kalimantan. Work is still underway to establish interconnections between South Kalimantan and East Kalimantan. In long term plan is interconnections will be built between West Kalimantan and Central Kalimantan. The system will allow shortage in one region to be covered with supply from other regions.
West Kalimantan is left behind in the development of electricity sector. Pontianak is building transmission in a loop system as a kind of interconnection in that city.
PLN in East Kalimantan has a number of major power systems. The largest is the Mahakam system supplying power to Samarinda, Balikpapan, and Tenggarong, the capital of Kutai Kartanegara. The Bontang-Sangatta system supplies power to northern part of East Kalimantan. The Melak and Kota Bangun system supply power for Kutai Barat and Kutai Kartanegara, and the Petung and Tanah Grogot systems for subscribers in southern part of East Kalimantan.
The Mahakam system has 330,000 subscribers using 171.5 MW of power. The PLTGU of Tanjung Batu is one of six power plants in the Mahakam system. Other five plants are diesel fired power plants.
Condition of Power Generating Systems
PLN had a generating capacity of 22,236 MW in Java-Bali in 2007 up from 19,514 MW in 2005. Early 2008, the capacity rose to 22.296 MW with addition of 200 MW from the PLTU of Tarahan in Lampung, PLTP of Darajat and PLTP of Kamojang.
Outside Java-Bali, PLN's generating capacity rose from 5,573 MW in 2005 to 8,284.28 MW in 2007. Among the new plants coming on stream in 2007 were PLTU of Perusda 50 MW and PLTG of Menamas 20 MW. in the Kalimantan systems.
Condition of Transmission Systems
Development of distribution transformer capacity and distribution facilities in the Java-Bali system is shown in the following table.
The transformer capacity of 70/20 KV hardly changed because if growing use of 150 KV transmission system replacing 70-KV transmission cables.
In the past five years, the length of 70 KV transmission cables has continued to be reduced with the upgrading to 150 KV transmission.
Balance in capacity between power plants and transformers in the past five years is shown in the following table.
Improvement in the power distribution system outside Java-Bali system has been significant notably in Sumatra, Kalimantan, and Sulawesi after the completion of a number of transmission systems. Nusa Tenggara, Maluku, and Papua have not transmission system yet.
Construction of main power relay stations grew 11.9% a year with total installed capacity 9,122 MVA in 2003 up to 12,381 MVA in 2006.
3. Growth of electricity sector
Number of subscribers
The number of PLN's subscribers grew slower as a result of the 1998 crisis. Before the crisis the number grew by more than 10% annually, but after that year the annual growth fell to 3%-4%.
The number of subscribers rose from 32.2 million in 2003 to 37.7 million in 2007 or an annual growth of 4%.
Household electrification ratio in the country is relatively low--around 60%. The ratio, however, has continued to increased from 56.4% in 2003 to 61.6% in 2007. In Java the ratio was 68.9% and in other regions it was 56.5%.
Sales of Electric Power up 6.4% per year
Sales of electric power by PLN grew 6.4% annually in 2003-007 period. In Java-Bali sales grew 5.9% and in Sumatra by 7.2%.
Coal main fuel
The soaring prices of crude oil force PLN to seek using substitute fuel such as coal, geothermal, gas, etc.
Use of coal by PLN rose in the past five years from 15.2 million tons in 2003 to 31.4 million tons in 2007. However, dependence on oil fuel (BBM) could not yet fully be done away. In 2003, BBM consumption totaled 7.6 million kilo liters, up to 90 million kilo liters in 2006, but down to 5.1 million kilo liters in 2007. The decline in 2007 was thanks to growing use of coal especially by PLN.
Crisis in electric energy
Ideally peak load does not exceed 70% of the capacity to keep a reserve of 30% any time to cope with possible trouble in one of large generators. The condition, however, is far from being ideal in the country. If one of the power plants is out of function or needs repair in Java, blackout is almost certain in some areas.
Although the capacity has continued to increase, the crisis remains a threat. In the Java-Bali system peak load already increased to 16,743 MW as against capacity of 20,000 MW in 2007.
The system is facing a crisis as the peak load if already 83.7% of the generating capacity.
In other regions or islands the installed capacity is 8,284 MW, with generating capacity of 5,029 MW as against peak load of 4,712 MW.
Depreciation of networks and load factor
In the past five years, PLN has succeeded in reducing depreciation of networks resulting in slower rate of network losses. In 2007, network depreciation was only 11.4% and in 2008, the rate is expected to be lower. Annual load factor is 71%-76% in the past five years.
4. Program of primary energy diversification
In the 2006-2015 RUPTL of PLN, 10 units of new power plants will be built in Java and 30 units outside Java-Bali. The 30 units will include 14 units in main program and 16 units to be built as a reserve in case power plants to be built by IPP are not implemented or completed as scheduled. Under the program BBM will account for not more than 5% of electric energy output in 2015.
The government wants diversification of sources of energy and phasing out BBM fired power plants by building more power plants fired with other fuels like coal, gas, etc.
PLN said the increase in the oil price will also cause an increase in the coal price as coal prices are linked to oil prices. Any increase of US$1 in the price of oil a barrel the production cost of PLN will rise Rp600 billion a year.
The coal price paid by PLN follow the trend in the price of Indonesian crude (ICP) of US$ 95 per barrel. Early, July, the ICP averaged US$ 109 per barrel. Therefore, PLN's production cost was estimated at Rp 8.4 trillion in July.
Non-BBM power plants to be built outside Java to be completed in 2009/2010 are shown in the following table.
5. Government subsidy
The electricity tariff set by the government generally is lower than PLN's operating cost and margin. Subsidy, therefore, is needed to keep the company in operation to carry out its PSO (Public Service Obligation). The amount of subsidy needs approval from the House of Representatives.
Subsidy has continued to increase from year to year. In 2005, PLN's subsidy paid by the government reached Rp12.51 trillion, up to Rp17 trillion in 2006, and to Rp32.4 trillion in 2007, up from Rp25.8 trillion set in the state budget before revision.
In 2008, PLN estimated that it will need a subsidy of Rp65 trillion with the soaring price of oil as against Rp55 trillion set in a revised draft state budget for the year.
This year, PLN hopes to be able to save Rp5 trillion through efficiency including Rp800 billion by using MFO instead of industrial diesel HSD, Rp1 trillion through gasification of PLTGU of Muara Tawar, Rp 500 billion through cut in network losses and Rp 2.7 trillion through imposition of non subsidized tariff and distribution of energy saving lamps.
According to PLN's calculation, the target of saving Rp 2.7 trillion from imposition of non subsidized tariff and distribution of energy saving lamps could be achieved of the non subsidy tariff program reaches 33%. Without efficiency PLN is expected to be able only to save only Rp1.4 trillion.
6. Private Power Generating Plants
Before the country was hit by the monetary crisis in 1997, PLN signed Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) and Energy Sales Contract (ESC) with a number of large private companies Independent Power Producer (IPP). After the crisis, PLN and a government team held renegotiations with the IPPs to revise the agreements and contracts especially on prices.
IPPs' plants already operational
In 2006, two large power plants of IPPs PLTU of Cilacap and PLTU of Tanjung Jati B both in Central Java came on line. The two plants helped overcome power shortage in the Java-Bali system.
The coal fired power plant (PLTU) of Cilacap came on line in February 2006 with a capacity of 2 x 300 MW. It was built by PT Sumber Segara Primadaya (S2P) and Chengda Enggineering of China. PT S2P is jointly owned by PT Pembangkit Jawa Bali (PJB) and PT Sumber Energi Sakti Prima. The plant was built at a cost of Rp4 trillion (US$ 510 million) or US$ 850 per kW. The cost is relatively cheap compared to the general price of more than US$1,000 per KW for power generated from coal. Its selling price is also competitive at 4.57 U.S. cents per kWh as against the general price of 4.6 cents to 4.93 cents for coal power.
Construction of the plant took only 24 months. Normally it takes 36 months to build a 300-MW coal fired power plant. The Cilacap coal fired power plant has been used as benchmark for PLN's other projects of coal fired power plants.
The PLTU of Tanjung Jati B was among the projects shelved in the wake of the 1997/1998 crisis. Construction of the project was resumed in July 2003 under President Megawati Soekarnoputri. The coal fired power plant came on stream in October, 2006 with a capacity of 2 X 660 MM. The new power plant serves as a replacement for PLTGU of Tambak Lorok Semarang and other PLTGU using BBM. The operation of the power plant help reduce the use of BBM as much as 1.45 million kiloliters per year or efficiency in fuel of Rp7 trillion a year.
1) Agreement effective as from the date of signing and the selling price valid for 19 to 30 years after commercial operation.
2) AF = Power suppliers factors to be absorbed by PLN.
3) On 31 December 2000, PLN and Pertamina and Magma Nusantara Ltd. (Wayang Windu project) held interim agreement on the use of price tariff for interim power purchase until the restructured ESC. In 2004, the project was acquired by Star Energy Investment. PLN still is awaiting instruction from the government about negotiation on ESC revision.
4) Formerly it was an IPP project of Himpurna California Energy Ltd. and Patuha Power Ltd. On May 2, 2001, the Indonesian government took over the project by paying US$ 260 million in insurance compensation to OPIC. In 2002, Pertamina and PLN established PT Geo Dipa Energi to resume construction of the project.
Private power generating projects not yet operational are shown in the following table.
7. Development of power plants
PLN has drawn plan for the types of power plant to be developed both in the Java Bali systems and outside Java-Bali
In the Java Bali system the types of power plants to be built include coal--fired power plants with a total capacity of 600MW PLTGU (combined cycle power plants) with a total capacity of 750MW, oil fueled gas power plant (PLTG) with a total capacity of 200MW and hydroelectric power plants (PLTA Pumped Storage unit) with a capacity of 500. See the following table.
8. Projection of power requirement, 2008-2015
The government draws plan for national electric power general plan (RUKN) as an integrated policy in the development of electric power sector covering estimate of electric power provision and requirement, investment policy, source of fund, etc.
Based on the 2006-2015 RUPTL, the country's power requirement will rise from 113.8 TWh in 2006 to 239.5 TWh in 2015 or up 8.5% per year. Peak load is predicted to reach 21,316 MW in 2006 up to 43,694 MW in 2015 or an annual growth of 8.1% per year.
The prediction is based on economic forecasts of the National Development Planning Board (Bappenas) as shown in the following table.
The number of PLN's subscribers is forecast to reach 39.9 million in 2008 up to 57.19 million in 2015 or an annual growth of 6.1% or 2.28 million subscribers. The household electrification ratio is forecast to rise from around 63.3% in 2008 to 77.3% in 2015. The country's population is predicted to rise from 221.6 million in 2006 to 246.8 million in 2015 as shown in the following table.
The target of electrification set by PLN is 76% in 2015 and 93% in 2025.
In 2008-2015, power requirement in the Java-Bali system is projected to rise from 104.2 TWh to 174.4 TWh or an annual growth of 9.6%. Outside Java-Bali the requirement is projected to rise from 29.4 TWh to 65.1 TWh or an annual growth of 17.3 % per year.
Estimates of load requirement are different between RUKN and RUPTL. Based on RUPTL 2008-2016, growth of load requirement will rise from 7.5% in 2008 to 8.7% in 2015. Based on RUKN, growth of load requirement will decline from 7.2% in 2008 to 6.9% in 2016.
Although the capacity of generating plants has increased to 22,236MW in 2007 from 19,514 MW in 2005 in the Java-Bali system and from 5,573 MW to 8,282 MW outside Java, the threat of electricity crisis is not yet over.
Currently many areas still have their turn of going through blackouts. Even in Java, the condition is not yet safe.
The government tried to cope with the problem by building more power plants such as through PLN's crash program to build coal-fired power plants with a total capacity of 10,000MW. The crash program is also designed to phase out BBM-fired power plants. The first crash program is scheduled to be completed in 2010. The government plans to launch the second crash program after the completion of the first.
The increase in the price of BBM, which is still used by some of PLNs' power plants will require larger subsidy for electricity as the government has no plan to raise the electricity tariff.
Table-1 Installed capacity of power plants in Java-Bali and other regions, 2007 Islands PLN unit Capacity (MW) Java-Bali 22,236 Sumatra NAD 225 North Sumatra 1,135 West Sumatra 311,8 Riau and Riau Islands 182 Batam 263 S2JB 83 Lampung 363 Kitlur Northern Sumatra 1,466 Kitlur Southern Sumatra 1,338 Kalimantan, West Kalimantan 244,29 NTB, NTT South and Central 420,03 Kalimantan East Kalimantan 486 West Nusa Tenggara (NTB) 198,24 East Nusa Tenggara (NTT) 121,4 Sulawesi, Maluku, North Papua Sulawesi, Central 471 Sulawesi, Gorontalo South Sulawesi, West Sulawesi Southeast 623 Sulawesi Maluku, North Maluku 182,8 Papua 168,7 Total 8,284.28 Source : RUPTL PLN 2007 Table-2 Capacity of distribution transformers in the Java-Bali system, 2003-2007 Description 2003 2005 * 2007 150/20 (MVA) 23,092 23,825 26,790 70/20 (MVA) 2,927 2,987 2,918 Total (MVA) 26,019 26,812 29,708 Peak load (MW) 14,282 15,113 16,743 (*) up to first quarter of 2005 Source: Statistics 2005 of PT PLN Table-3 Transmission systems of PT PLN P3B, 2003-2007 Description 2003 2005 * 2007 500 kV (kms) 3,532 4,068 3,763 150 kV (kms) 11,055 11,121 22,475 70 kV (kms) 3,757 3,603 3,425 (*) up to first quarter of 2005 Source: Statistic 2005 of PT PLN P3B Source: RUPTL 2007 Table-4 Capacity of power plants and transformers, 2003-2007 Description 2003 2004 2005 * 2007 Power plants of (MW) 10,793 11,651 11,651 system 500 Transformer. (MVA) 15,500 15,500 15,500 17,000 500/150 Power plant of (MW) 7,522 7,522 7,522 system 150 Transformer. 150/20 (MVA) 23,092 23,825 23,825 25,790 Transformer 150/70 (MVA) 3,439 3,399 3,399 3,610 Power plant of (MW) 293 293 293 system 70 Transformer. 70/20 (MVA) 2,927 2,987 2,987 2,916 (*) up to first quarter of 2005 Source: RUPTL 2007 Table-5 Number of PLN's subscribers by groups, 2003-2007 Year Households Industry Business Social 2003 29,997,554 46,818 1,310,686 659,034 2004 31,095,970 46,520 1,382,416 686,851 2005 32,174,922 56,475 1,455,797 716,194 2006 33,441,512 58,717 1,513,592 744,626 2007 35,069,525 61,570 1,587,152 780,814 Office Illumination buildings Public Year Government roads Total % 2003 83,810 53,514 32,151,416 -- 2004 87,187 67,502 33,366,446 3.78 2005 89,533 76,432 34,559,353 3.58 2006 93,087 79,466 35,931,000 3.97 2007 97,611 83,328 37,680,000 4.86 Source: Statistics of PLN, 2005 Table-6 Household electrification ratio in Indonesia, 2003-2007 Description 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Indonesia 56.4 58.3 59.0 60.1 61.6 Java Bali 61.4 63.0 63.9 68.9 68.9 Sumatra 49.6 53.5 54.2 56.6 56.5 Other regions 46.3 47.2 47.8 49.7 49.7 Source: Statistic of PLN, 2007 Table-7 Sales of electric power of PLN (TWh), 2003-2007 Description 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Growth * (%) Indonesia 90.4 99.8 106.5 109.8 118.3 Growth (%) 3.8 10.4 6.7 3.1 7.8 6.4 Java-Bali 72.2 79.8 85.4 87.1 93.1 Growth (%) 3.1 10.5 7.0 1.9 6.9 5.9 Sumatra 10.6 11.6 12.1 12.8 14.1 Growth (%) 6.1 9.8 4.3 5.8 10.2 7.2 Other regions 7.7 8.4 9.0 9.9 11.1 Growth (%) 7.7 9.8 7.1 10.0 12.1 9.3 Source: RUPTL 2006 PT PLN (Persero) Table-8 Consumption of fuels, 2003-2007 BBM (kilo liters) Year HSD IDO 2003 5,024,362 31,573 2004 6,299,706 36,935 2005 7,626,201 27,581 2006 6,967,428 34,504 2007 3,968,809 45,920 BBM (kilo liters) Year MFO Total 2003 2,557,546 7,613,481 2004 2,502,598 8,506,418 2005 2,258,776 9,912,558 2006 2,062,068 9,084,000 2007 1,146,271 5,161,000 Natural Coal Gas Year (Ton) (MMSCF) 2003 15,260,305 184,304 2004 15,412,738 176,436 2005 16,900,972 143,050 2006 25,963,000 227,000 2007 31,415,000 296,000 (*) Including PLTMG, starting 2004 Source: PT PLN (Persero) 2006 Table-9 Peak load in Java-Bali system, 2007 Java-Bali Outside Description system Java-Bali Installed cap. MW 23,236 8,284 Generating capacity MW 20,000 5,029 Peak load MW 16,743 4,712 Peak load to capacity ratio % 83.7 93.7 Source: PT PLN Table-10 Network losses and load factor of PLN, 2003-2007 (%) Description 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Load Factor 71.88 72.64 n.a 64.15 76.5 Losses 16.88 11.29 11.54 11.45 11.40 Source: Statistic of PLN 2008 Table-11 New non-BBM power plant in Java-Bali system Power plants Location Capacity (MW) COD Unit/ Total 2009 2010 capacity PLTU Banten 1x600 600 600 Suralaya PLTU Labuan Banten 2x300 600 300 300 PLTU Teluk Banten 3x300 900 600 300 Naga PLTU Jabar West Java 3x300 900 300 600 Selatan PLTU Jabar West Java 3x300 900 300 600 Utara PLTU Central Java 2x300 600 600 Rembang PLTU Tanjung Central Java 1x600 600 600 Jati Baru PLTU Jatim East Java 2x300 600 300 300 Selatan PLTU Paiton East Java 1x600 600 600 Baru PLTU Tj East Java 2x300 600 600 Awar-Awar Total 6,900 4,200 2,700 Source: RUPTL 2006 Table-12 New non-BBM power plants to be built outside Java-Bali: Power plants Location Capacity (MW) COD Unit/ Total 2008 2009 2010 capacity PLTU NAD 2x100 200 200 Meulaboh PLTU Pesisir West 2x100 200 100 100 Selatan Sumatra PLTU Bangka 2x10 20 20 Mantung Belitung PLTU Air Bangka 2x10 20 20 Anyer Belitung PLTU Riau 2x7 14 14 Bengkalis PLTU Selat Riau 2x5 10 10 Panjang PLTU West Pontianak Kalimantan 2x50 100 100 Baru PLTU Central 2x60 120 120 Palangkaraya Kalimantan PLTU Kendari Southeast 2x10 20 20 Sulawesi PLTU Bima NTB 2x7 14 14 PLTU Lombok NTB 2x25 50 25 25 Baru PLTU Ende NTT 2x7 14 14 PLTU Kupang NTT 2x15 30 15 15 Baru PLTU Ambon Maluku 2x15 30 15 15 Baru PLTU Ternate North 2x17 14 7 7 Maluku PLTU Timika Papua 2x7 14 7 7 PLTU Papua 2x10 20 10 10 Jayapura Baru PLTU North 2x25 50 25 25 Amurang Baru Sulawesi PLTU Sibolga North 2x100 200 100 100 Baru Sumatra PLTU Medan North 2x100 200 100 100 Baru Sumatra PLTU Bangka Bangka 2x10 20 10 10 Baru Belitung PLTU Belitung Bangka 2x15 30 30 Baru Belitung PLTU Tj Balai Riau 2x7 14 14 Karimun PLTU Tarahan Lampung 2x100 200 100 100 Baru PLTU West Singkawang Kalimantan 2x25 50 50 Baru PLTU Asam- South 2x65 130 130 Asam Baru Kalimantan PLTU Sampit Central 2x7 14 14 Baru Kalimantan PLTU Sulut North 2x25 50 25 25 Baru Sulawesi PLTU Gorontalo Gorontalo 2x25 50 50 Baru PLTU Bone South 2x50 100 100 Sulawesi Total 1,998 755 695 548 Source: RUPTL 2006 Table-13 Electricity subsidy, 2007 Description Value (Rp billion) Subsidy in 2007 29,411 Shortage in subsidy in 2006 4,262 Total subsidy 2007 33,675 Carry over to 2008 1,231 Total 32,444 Source : PLN 2008 Table-14 Private power plant already operational No. Companies Project/location Fuel Capacity 1 PT Cikarang Cikarang, Gas 150 Listrindo West Java 2 PT Energi Sengkang, South Gas 200 Sengkang Sulawesi 3 PT. (DSPL) Salak, Geo- 330 Dayabumi Salak West Java thermal Pratama. Ltd (d/h Unocal Geothermal Indonesia Ltd.) 4 PT Makasar Pare-pare, South MFO 60 Power Sulawesi 5 PT Paiton Paiton I, Coal 1,230 Energy East Java Company 6 PT Jawa Power Paiton II, Coal 1,220 East Java 7 Amoseas Drajat, Geo- 140 Indonesia West Java thermal (Pertamina, Chevron Drajat LTd., Texaco Drajat Ltd. Dan PT Drajat Geothermal Ind.) 8 Magna Wayang windu, Geo- 110 Nusantara Ltd West Java thermal (MNL) (3) 9 PT Geo Dipa Dieng, Energi (4) Central Java Geo- 60 thermal 10 PT Asrigita Palembang, Prasarana South Sulawesi Gas 150 11 PT Source Segara Cilacap, Coal 600 Primadaya Central Java 12 PT Central Java Tanjung Jati B, Coal 1,320 Power c) Central Java Total 5,570 Power AF (2) price Contract No. Companies % Cent$/ term (1) KWh) 1 PT Cikarang 72 4 1996-2016 Listrindo 2 PT Energi 85 4 1997-1998 Sengkang 3 PT. (DSPL) 90 4 2002-2040 Dayabumi Salak Pratama. Ltd (d/h Unocal Geothermal Indonesia Ltd.) 4 PT Makasar 80 6 1999-2016 Power 5 PT Paiton 85 5 1994-2040 Energy Company 6 PT Jawa Power 83 4.67 1995-2040 7 Amoseas 95 4 2000- Indonesia 2030/2040 (Pertamina, Chevron Drajat LTd., Texaco Drajat Ltd. Dan PT Drajat Geothermal Ind.) 8 Magna 90 4 1998/1999 Nusantara Ltd (MNL) (3) 9 PT Geo Dipa Energi (4) 85 4 2004-2046 10 PT Asrigita Prasarana 85 4.54 2002-2022 11 PT Source Segara 80 4.57 2004-2036 Primadaya 12 PT Central Java 80 4.93 2004-2026 Power c) Total Source: Directorate general of energy and mineral resources Note : (1) Agreement effective as from the date of signing and the selling price valid for 19 to 30 years after commercial operation. (2) AF = Power suppliers factors to be absorbed by PLN. (3) On 31 December 2000, PLN and Pertamina and Magma Nusantara Ltd. (Wayang Windu project) held interim agreement on the use of price tariff for interim power purchase until the restructured ESC. In 2004, the project was acquired by Star Energy Investment. PLN still is awaiting instruction from the government about negotiation on ESC revision. 4) Formerly it was an IPP project of Himpurna California Energy Ltd. and Patuha Power Ltd. On May 2, 2001, the Indonesian government took over the project by paying US$ 260 million in insurance compensation to OPIC. In 2002, Pertamina and PLN established PT Geo Dipa Energi to resume construction of the project. Table-15 Private power generating projects not yet operational No. Companies Name of project s Fuels 1 PT. Tenaga Listrik PLTU Sibolga Coal Sibolga PPA : 27/5/1995 2 PT. Tenaga Listrik PLTU Arnurang Coal Amurang PPA : 27/5/1995 COD Unit I : 27 Sept 97 to 2020 COD Unit II : 2003 to 2022 3 Patuha Power PLTP Patuha Geothermal Limited COD Unit I : 2002 COD Unit 2 : 2006 4 PT. Bajradaya PLTA Asahan Water Sentranusa ppA: 2311111 996 energy COD : 2007 to 2040 5 PT. Latoka Trimas PLTP Kamojang Geothermal Bina Energy COD: 2006 ESC : 2112/1994 6 Bali Energy Ltd. PLTP Bedugul Geothermal ESC : 17/11/1995 7 PT. Yala Teknosa PLTP Cibuni Geothermal Geothermal ESC : 17/11/1996 PLTP Sibayak 8 PT. Dizamatra COD 2006 Geothermal Powerindo ESC: 1511/1996 9 PLN (d/h Unocal PLTP Sarulla Geothermal North Sumatera Geothermal 10 Perum Jasa Tirta PLTA Ir. H. Juanda Water II energyr 11 PT. Power West PLTU Serang Coal Java PPA : 11/06/1997 Coal 12 PT. MEPPO GEN PLTG Gunung Natural gas Mean 13 "JV Muba" PLTG Muba Natural gas 14 PT. Bosowa PLTU Jeneponto Coal Energi COD: end of 2008 15 PT. Arthindo PI-TG Sengeti Natural gas Utama 16 PT. Cahaya Fajar Kaltim PLTU Embalut Coal 17 PT. Intidaya Prima PLTGU Anyer Natural gas Kencana Prices Term of No. Companies Capacity Cent$/ contract KWh (year) 1 PT. Tenaga Listrik 200 MW(2 x 100 4.60 30 Sibolga MW) 2 PT. Tenaga Listrik 110 MW 4.65 30 Amurang (2 x 55 MW) 3 Patuha Power 180 MW Limited (3 x 60 MW) 4.45 30 4 PT. Bajradaya 180 MW Sentranusa (2 x 90 MW) 4.60 30 5 PT. Latoka Trimas 60 MW Bina Energy (2 x 30 MW) 4.42 30 6 Bali Energy Ltd. unit 1 10 *) 30 MW (1 x 10 MW) **) Unit 2,3,4 165 MW (3 x 55 MW 7 PT. Yala Teknosa 10 MW 30 Geothermal (1 x 10 MW) 10 MW 8 PT. Dizamatra (1 x 10 MW) 4.70 30 Powerindo 9 PLN (d/h Unocal Unit 1 North Sumatera 100 MW Geothermal (1 x 100 MW) Unit 2,3,4 195 MW (3 x 65 MW) 10 Perum Jasa Tirta 150 MW Rp 20 II 115.51 /KWh 11 PT. Power West 450 MW 5.05 30 Java (1x 450 MW) 600 MW Rp 450/ (2000 MW) KWh 12 PT. MEPPO GEN 80 MW 4.35 20 (2 x 40 MW) 13 "JV Muba" 80 MW40 4.32 20 (2 x MW) 14 PT. Bosowa 200 MW Energi (2 x 100 4.71 30 MW) 15 PT. Arthindo 1 x 27,5 MW 440.93/KWh 12 Utama 16 PT. Cahaya Fajar 50 MW Rp. Kaltim (2 x 25 MW) 406.60/ 30 KM 17 PT. Intidaya Prima 1 x 380 MW 4.54 20 Kencana *) Unit 1 with tariff 70% of average power prices in Bali in last quarter of 2003 **) Unit 2, 3, 4 with tariffs 71.25% of average prices in Bali in last quarter of 2003 PPA : Power Purchase Agreement, ESC: Energy Sales Contract Source: Directorate general of energy and mineral resources Table-16 Types of power plants to be built in Java-Bali system Capital Duration of Heat rate Force Types of Cost construction (kcal/kWh) Outage No. power plants (USD/kW) (year) (%) 1 PLTU Coal 850 $4 2,324 10 2 PLTGU LNG 550 3 1,592 8 3 PLTG BBM 350 2 2,963 7 4 PLTA Pump 530 6 -- -- Source : RUPTL 2006-2015 Table-17 Economic growth, power requirement and peal load forecasts 2008-2016 Description Unit 2008 2009 2010 2015 Economy % 7.0 8.6 7.1 7.1 Demand TWh 133.6 146.2 158.6 239.5 Peak load MW 24,873 27,136 29,348 43,694 Source: PLN Table-18 Projection of population, number of PLN's subscribers and Household electrification ratio, 2008-2015 Description Unit 2008 2009 2010 2015 Population Million 227,2 230,0 232,8 246,8 Subscribers thousand 39,900 42,157 44,333 57,186 Electrification ratio % 63.3 65.4 67.2 77.3 Source: PLN Table-19 Estimate of electric power requirement, growth rate and Electrification ratio, 2008-2015 Description Unit 2008 2009 2015 Energy Demand Kwh Indonesia 133.6 146.2 239.5 Java-Bali 104.2 113.2 174.4 Outside Java-Bali 29.4 33.0 65.1 Growth Demand (%) Indonesia 8.7 9.4 8.7 Java-Bali 8.0 8.6 7.5 Outside Java-Bali 11.3 12.1 12.0 Electrification ratio (%) Indonesia 63.3 65.4 77.3 Java-Bali 67.5 69.5 80.4 Outside Java-Bali 56.3 58.4 72.2 Source: RUPTL 2008 Table-20 Estimate of load requirement in Indonesia, 2008-2016 Description 2008 2009 2010 Requirement GHW 132,274 141,737 151,762 Growth % 7.2 7.2 7.1 Production GWH 151,867 162,730 173,932 Peak load MW 23,163 24,826 26,512 Installed capacity (existing) MW 23,054 21,929 24,486 Total capacity of MW system Power needed MW 8,489 11,631 11,619 Additional power needed per year MW 3,441 3,392 -202 Description 2015 2016 Requirement GHW 213,225 228,036 Growth % 7.0 6.9 Production GWH 242,204 257,229 Peak load MW 36,874 39,095 Installed capacity (existing) MW 17,812 16,696 Total capacity of MW system Power needed MW 32,419 36,258 Additional power needed per year MW 4,164 3,848 Source: RUKN 2006.