Poultry drinking water used for avian influenza surveillance.Samples of drinking water drinking water
supply of water available to animals for drinking supplied via nipples, in troughs, dams, ponds and larger natural water sources; an insufficient supply leads to dehydration; it can be the source of infection, e.g. leptospirosis, salmonellosis, or of poisoning, e.g. from poultry cages, which can be collected conveniently and noninvasively, provide higher rates of influenza (H9N2) virus isolation than do samples of fecal droppings, Studies to confirm the usefulness of poultry drinking water for detecting influenza (H5N1) should be conducted in disease-endemic areas.
Pandemic pandemic /pan·dem·ic/ (pan-dem´ik)
1. a widespread epidemic of a disease.
2. widely epidemic.
Epidemic over a wide geographic area.
n. influenza originates from influenza viruses of birds (1). Live poultry markets play a crucial role in maintenance, amplification, and dissemination of avian influenza avian influenza: see influenza. viruses (2-4) and are a risk factor for zoonotic Zoonotic
A disease which can be spread from animals to humans.
Mentioned in: Zoonosis transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) viruses to humans (5, 6). Maintaining surveillance of live poultry markets for influenza viruses is therefore important. In routine surveillance of live poultry markets, handling birds for collecting tracheal tracheal
pertaining to or emanating from trachea.
see transtracheal aspiration.
tracheal band sign
on contrast radiography of a dilated esophagus, the impression made ventrally by the trachea. or cloacal cloacal
emanating from or pertaining to cloaca.
the contact which occurs during insemination in birds when the vent of the female is everted exposing the cloacal mucosa against which the phallus of the male is pressed. swabs is often unacceptable to the bird sellers. Because avian influenza viruses were believed to be transmitted primarily by the oral-fecal route (7), fecal droppings were therefore regarded as the noninvasive specimen of choice for surveillance purposes (8). However, emerging evidence from experimental studies indicates that H9N2 (9) and H5N1 (10) subtypes are shed in higher titers in the upper respiratory tract. We tested the hypothesis that sampling drinking water is a convenient, noninvasive, and sensitive method for conducting avian influenza surveillance in live poultry markets. Because vaccine-derived Newcastle disease virus Newcastle Disease virus,
n a paramyxovirus that causes a fatal disease in birds. Both the lytic and nonlytic strains of the virus are being used in NDV-based cancer therapy. (NDV NDV Newcastle Disease Virus
NDV NASP Derived Vehicle
NDV National Disabled Veterans
NDV No Delay of Vessel ) is also commonly isolated from poultry in Hong Kong, we used NDV isolation rates for comparison.
As part of our ongoing surveillance in live poultry markets in Hong Kong, 51-67 poultry stalls in 8 poultry markets were sampled monthly from August 2004 through July 2005. Typically, several poultry of the same type share a cage, and all birds in the same cage share a drinking water trough, which is intermittently filled from the municipal water supply. We collected paired samples: drinking water from the water trough supplying a cage and a flesh fecal dropping from the tray under that same cage. Because the numbers of minor poultry (poultry other than chickens) sampled during this period were smaller, we included additional data (413 paired specimens collected from August 2005 through November 2006) obtained from cages holding silkie Silkie
a bantam with white, curly feathers, a prominent crest of feathers, rose comb and a black skin and legs. chickens, guinea fowls, pigeons, chukars, and pheasants.
One fresh fecal swab and 0.5 mL of the drinking water were collected from each cage. The fecal dropping represents a sample from 1 bird, in contrast to the drinking water trough, which was shared by all the birds in the cage. A total of 2,503 specimen pairs were collected. The fecal sample swab and water sample were separately put into I mL of virus transport medium containing M199 (9.5 g/L), penicillin G (2 x [10.sup.6] U/L U/L Upload
U/L Units/Litre ), polymyxin B (10 x [10.sup.6] U/L), gentamicin gentamicin /gen·ta·mi·cin/ (jen?tah-mi´sin) an aminoglycoside antibiotic complex isolated from bacteria of the genus Micromonospora, (2,500 mg/L), nystatin nystatin /ny·sta·tin/ (ni-stat´in) an antifungal produced by growth of Streptomyces noursei; used in treatment of infections caused by Candida albicans and other Candida species. (0.5 x [10.sup.6] U/L), ofloxacin HCl (100 mg/L), and sulfamethoxazole sulfamethoxazole /sul·fa·meth·ox·a·zole/ (-meth-ok´sah-zol) a sulfonamideantibacterial and antiprotozoal, particularly used in acute urinary tract infections.
n. (1 g/L). A 200-[micro]L aliquot aliquot (al-ee-kwoh) adj. a definite fractional share, usually applied when dividing and distributing a dead person's estate or trust assets. (See: share) of each sample was inoculated into a 9- to 11-day-old embryonic egg and incubated at 37[degrees]C for 3 days. Harvested allantoic allantoic /al·lan·to·ic/ (al?an-to´ik) pertaining to the allantois.
pertaining to the allantois.
see fetal fluids. fluid was tested for hemagglutination hemagglutination /he·mag·glu·ti·na·tion/ (he?mah-gloo-ti-na´shun) agglutination of erythrocytes.
n. by using turkey erythrocytes Erythrocytes
Red blood cells.
Mentioned in: Bartonellosis
n.pl red blood cells. . Hemagglutination-positive isolates were subtyped by using hemagglutination inhibition and neuraminidase neuraminidase /neu·ra·min·i·dase/ (-ah-min´i-das) an enzyme of the surface coat of myxoviruses that destroys the neuraminic acid of the cell surface during attachment, thereby preventing hemagglutination. inhibition tests with reference antiserum antiserum /an·ti·se·rum/ (an´ti-se?rum) a serum containing antibody(ies), obtained from an animal immunized either by injection of antigen or by infection with microorganisms containing antigen. (11).
Of the 2,503 specimen pairs, influenza (H9N2) was isolated from 207 chickens (overall isolation rate 8.3%), 24 fecal samples alone (isolation rate 1.0%), 174 drinking water samples alone (7.0%), and 9 fecal and drinking water pairs (0.4%) (Table 1). The isolation rate for fecal samples was significantly lower than that for drinking water samples (p<0.001). The influenza (H9N2) isolation rates in drinking water and fecal droppings for silkie chickens were 5.8% and 0.6%, respectively (p = 0.005); for pigeons these rates were 3.8% and. 0%, respectively (p = 0.01). Isolation rates from pheasant gave a similar trend, although the results were not statistically significant (p = 0.11). The specimen numbers from guinea fowl and chukars were too small to be meaningfully analyzed.
In contrast, the isolation rate for NDV in chickens, silkie chickens, guinea fowl, and chukars did not show a comparable result (Table 2). In fact, for most of these species, the isolation rate from fecal samples was higher than that from drinking water samples, although these differences were not statistically significant.
To estimate survival of influenza (H9N2) in water troughs, we inoculated subtype (programming) subtype - If S is a subtype of T then an expression of type S may be used anywhere that one of type T can and an implicit type conversion will be applied to convert it to type T. H9N2 into a trough containing drinking water taken from a poultry cage (i.e., a trough containing some organic debris rather than chlorinated chlorinated /chlo·ri·nat·ed/ (klor´i-nat?ed) treated or charged with chlorine.
charged with chlorine.
some, e.g. water directly taken from the municipal supply). The virus titer soon after inoculation was [10.sup.3.3] 50% egg infectious doses/mL of water, which is comparable to the titer of virus in subtype H9N2-infected water troughs in the retail market setting (unpub. data). Virus could be isolated from the water trough at 8, 12, 24, and 48 h postinoculation but not at 56 or 72 h postinoculation. When the experiment was repeated with flesh tap water or distilled water, virus remained viable for 8 and 12 h, respectively. This finding suggests that virus may survive in drinking water troughs for 8-48 h, perhaps depending on level of chlorination chlorination Public health Addition of chlorinated compounds to drinking water as disinfectants. Cf Ozonation. and organic content of the water.
During our study, only subtype H9N2 viruses were isolated from Hong Kong's poultry markets. The results from these field epidemiologic studies are compatible with data from experimental infection of poultry with subtype H9N2 viruses (9). Because titers of subtype H5N1 virus were higher in tracheal swabs than in cloacal swabs from ducks and other birds (10,12), subtype H5N1 virus isolation rates will likely be higher in drinking water than in fecal swabs, but this needs to be confirmed in studies conducted in regions where influenza (H5N1) is endemic. In contrast, NDV-infected chickens are reported to have virus detectable by reverse transcription-PCR for a longer period in the feces rather than the lungs (13), a finding consistent with our findings in live poultry markets.
The endemicity of highly pathogenic influenza (H5N1) in poultry in many countries across Asia and the continued detection of zoonotic transmission to humans, sometimes in regions where poultry outbreaks have not been reported, highlight the importance of systematic surveillance in live poultry markets. Systematic surveillance is especially important in regions where use of subtype H5 poultry vaccine is widespread. Whenever such studies have been conducted, previously unsuspected levels of virus activity have been found (14). Therefore, conducting such studies more widely, especially in areas known to be affected by subtype H5N1, is crucial. Such studies are the only way to determine the extent of virus transmission. They will also suggest potential interventions in the live poultry market systems that may effectively interrupt virus transmission in poultry; such interventions have been implemented in Hong Kong (15).
Our results provide evidence that taking samples from poultry drinking water troughs is an efficient way to conduct avian influenza surveillance. However, some caveats need to be noted. Drinking water potentially samples all the birds in a cage, whereas a fecal swab represents a single bird. Although the possibility for cage-to-cage transmission by infected water remains, NDV serves as a useful comparison in this regard. Different subtypes of avian influenza may have different shedding patterns from the respiratory tract compared with feces, and this strategy may not be applicable to all subtypes. Therefore, fecal droppings (or cloacal swabs) should also be collected. With these caveats accepted, sampling water from the drinking water troughs in poultry cages at live poultry markets and also at farms is likely to be a convenient, noninvasive, and practical strategy for implementing avian influenza surveillance for sub-type H9N2 and perhaps also subtype H5N1; this approach should be evaluated in influenza-endemic regions.
This study was supported by the Welcome Trust (067072/ D02/Z).
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Zoonosis, also called zoonotic disease refers to diseases that can be passed from animals, whether wild or domesticated, to humans. ? Semin Respir Infect. 1992;7:11-25.
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JSM Just Shoot Me (sitcom)
JSM Journal of Sport Management
JSM Journal of Software Maintenance
JSM Jabber Session Manager
JSM John Sidney McCain
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Address for correspondence: J.S. Malik Peiris, Department of Microbiology, The University of Hong Kong The University of Hong Kong (commonly abbreviated as HKU, pronounced as "Hong Kong U") is the oldest tertiary institution in Hong Kong. Its motto is "Sapientia et Virtus" in Latin, and " , 4th Floor University of Pathology Building, Queen Mary Hospital There are several Queen Mary Hospitals in the world:
Y.H. Connie Leung, * Li-Juan Zhang, * Chun-Kin Chow, * Chun-Lok Tsang, * Chi-Fung Ng, * Chun-Kuen Wong, * Yi Guan, * (1) J.S. Malik Peiris * (1)
* The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, People's Republic of China
(1) These authors contributed equally to this article.
Dr Leung has a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine degree and is pursuing a PhD degree in the University of Hong Kong Department of Microbiology. Her research interest is avian influenza.
Table 1. Avian influenza (H9N2) virus in chickens (August 2004- July 2005) and minor poultry (August 2004-November 2006) * No. pos/no. tested (% pos) Overall Species isolation rate Feces only Chicken 207/2,503 (8.3) 24/2,503 (1.0) Minor poultry Silkie chicken 10/171 (5.8) 0/171 (0) Guinea fowl 1/13 (7.7) 1/13 (7.7) Pigeon 6/158 (3.8) 0/158 (0) Chukar 1/23 (4.3) 1/23 (4.3) Pheasant 10/48 (20.8) 2/48 (4.2) No. pos/no. tested (% pos) Drinking water Feces and Species only drinking water Chicken 174/2,503 (7.0) 9/2,503 (0.4) Minor poultry Silkie chicken 9/171 (5.3) 1/171 (0.6) Guinea fowl 0/13 (0) 0/13 (0) Pigeon 6/158 (3.8) 0/158 (0) Chukar 0/23 (0) 0/23 (0) Pheasant 7/48 (14.6) 1/48 (2.1) * Pos, positive for avian influenza (H9N2) virus. Table 2. Newcastle disease virus in chickens (August 2004-July 2005) and minor poultry (August 2004-November 2006) * No. pos/no. tested (% pos) Overall Species isolation rate Feces only Chicken 95/2,503 (3.8) 53/2,503 (2.1) Minor poultry Silkie chicken 8/171 (4.7) 6/171 (3.5) Guinea fowl 2/13 (15.4) 2/13 (15.4) Pigeon 4/158 (2.5) 2/158 (1.3) Chukar 1/23 (4.3) 1/23 (4.3) Pheasant 0/48 (0) 0/48 (0) No. pos/no. tested (% pos) Drinking Feces and Species water only drinking water Chicken 33/2,503 (1.3) 9/2,503 (0.4) Minor poultry Silkie chicken 2/171 (1.2) 0/171 (0) Guinea fowl 0/13 (0) 0/13 (0) Pigeon 2/158 (1.3) 0/158 (0) Chukar 0/23 (0) 0/23 (0) Pheasant 0/48 (0) 0/48 (0) * Pos, positive for Newcastle disease virus.