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Potassium and Phosphorus Nutrition in Rice.



Michael Aide [*]

Abstract: Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the world's premier food crops and is an important commodity in the Lower Mississippi River

Main article: Mississippi River
The Lower Mississippi River is the portion of the Mississippi River downstream of Cairo, Illinois. From the confluence of the Ohio River and Upper Mississippi River at Cairo, the Lower flows just under 1600
 Valley. Successful production requires a consideration of soil fertility, particularly N, P, and K. Potassium and P soil fertility investigations are relatively rare compared with those of N. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the P and K soil requirements for rice. The research was conducted at the Missouri Rice Research Farm in Dunklin County, Missouri Dunklin County is a county located in the U.S. state of Missouri. Its county seat is Kennett6. The county was organized in 1845 and is named for Daniel Dunklin, a former Governor of Missouri who had died the year before. Geography
According to the U.S.
. The experimental design consisted of four rates of K and two rates of P in a four replicated randomized ran·dom·ize  
tr.v. ran·dom·ized, ran·dom·iz·ing, ran·dom·iz·es
To make random in arrangement, especially in order to control the variables in an experiment.
 block design. The rice variety 'Lamont' was planted in 1996 and 1997 and fertilized fer·til·ize  
v. fer·til·ized, fer·til·iz·ing, fer·til·iz·es

v.tr.
1. To cause the fertilization of (an ovum, for example).

2.
 with potash at 0,1 2 and 3 times the soil test recommendations and superphosphate superphosphate or superphosphate of lime, Ca(H2PO4)2, is a compound produced by treating rock phosphate with sulfuric acid or phosphoric acid, or a mixture of the two.  at 0 and 1 times the soil test recommendations. The yield components (population, panicle density, spike development, and yield) and elemental concentrations of rice tissues were performed to assess agronomic a·gron·o·my  
n.
Application of the various soil and plant sciences to soil management and crop production; scientific agriculture.



ag
 performance. Phosphorus did not inf luence any of the yield components, including yield. Potassium at twice the recommended rate significantly increased the yield and was justified when compared to the cost of the additional potash. The yield advantage was attributed to increases in the tillering capacity of the rice plant and spikelet production. Based on these results, soil K recommendations in Missouri for rice may need to be adjusted upward.

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a freely tillering annual grass presenting a highly branched and shallow root system with a panicle inflorescence inflorescence

Cluster of flowers on one or a series of branches, which together make a large showy blossom. Categories depend on the arrangement of flowers on an elongated main axis (peduncle) or on sub-branches from the main axis, and on the timing and position of flowering.
. Extensive aerenchyma tissues in the cortex permit the rice plant to persist in Verb 1. persist in - do something repeatedly and showing no intention to stop; "We continued our research into the cause of the illness"; "The landlord persists in asking us to move"
continue
 very poorly drained soils. Ecotypes of rice include indica, japonica japonica (jəpŏn`əkə): see quince; camellia.  and javanica (Smith, 1995).

Potassium (K) has a critical role in plant physiology Plant physiology

That branch of plant sciences that aims to understand how plants live and function. Its ultimate objective is to explain all life processes of plants by a minimal number of comprehensive principles founded in chemistry, physics, and
. In rice, K provides regulatory control over such processes as transpiration transpiration, in botany, the loss of water by evaporation in terrestrial plants. Some evaporation occurs directly through the exposed walls of surface cells, but the greatest amount takes place through the stomates, or intercellular spaces (see leaf). , starch synthesis, sucrose translocation translocation /trans·lo·ca·tion/ (trans?lo-ka´shun) the attachment of a fragment of one chromosome to a nonhomologous chromosome. Abbreviated t. , respiration, and lipid synthesis (Tisdale et al., 1985). Proper K nutrition in rice promotes tillering, panicle development, spikelet fertility, plant uptake of N and P, leaf area and leaf longevity, disease resistance, root elongation and thickness, and culm (stem) thickness and strength (Fugiwara, 1965; Ishizuka and Tanaka,1960; Noguchi and Sugawara, 1966).

The effect of the K fertility status of soil on the agronomic performance of rice has been reviewed (DeDatta and Mikkelsen, 1985; Ishizuka, 1965; Mengel et al., 1976; Mengel and Kirkby, 1982; Patnaik and Abichandani, 1970). The interaction of K with N (Mengel et al., 1976), Mg (Mengel and Kirkby, 1982), and with Fe, Mg and Ca (Tanaka and Tadano, 1972) shows that K root uptake patterns are complex and not always easily predictable. Ishizuka (1965) showed that K uptake follows a sigmoidal sig·moid   also sig·moi·dal
adj.
1. Having the shape of the letter S.

2. Of or relating to the sigmoid colon.



[Greek s
 curve, with the uptake of K paralleling the accumulation of dry matter from emergence to anthesis; after which, K uptake slows dramatically. During seed development, transfers of K from leaf sheaths largely account for the K accumulation in the seed, explaining the often observed decline in K leaf tissue concentrations, particularly after anthesis. Yoshida (1981) and Mikkelsen (1983) provide estimates of critical K levels in rice leaf tissue as a function of plant growth and development.

Phosphorus (P) is of equal importance to plant physiology, being a necessary constituent of ATP ATP: see adenosine triphosphate.
ATP
 in full adenosine triphosphate

Organic compound, substrate in many enzyme-catalyzed reactions (see catalysis) in the cells of animals, plants, and microorganisms.
, nucleic acids Nucleic acids
The cellular molecules DNA and RNA that act as coded instructions for the production of proteins and are copied for transmission of inherited traits.
, phospholipids, phosphosugars, and many other important biochemical compounds (Tisdale et al., 1985). The effect of P fertility on the agronomic performance of rice has been reviewed (Davide, 1965; Ishizuka, 1971; Nelson, 1980; Olsen, 1958; Sims and Place, 1968; Terman and Allen, 1970; Thompson et al., 1962). Proper P nutrition in rice increases the leaf number and leaf blade length, increases the number of panicles per plant and the number of seeds per panicle (Nelson, 1980; Teo, Beyrouty et al., 1992). The reduced tillering capacity for rice planted in a P impoverished soil is usually the greatest factor responsible for reduced yields. Flooding rice soils generally moderates the pH towards a neutral condition, thus promoting the soil P availability (Nelson, 1980; Fageria, Zimmermann et al., 1995; Fageria and Baligar, 1999).

Materials and Methods

The study area is the Missouri Rice Research Farm in Dunklin County, Missouri. The region's climate is humid continental, with a mean daily summer temperature of 26[degrees]C (79[degrees]F). The soil is a member of the Crowley series (fine, montmorillonitic, thermic thermic /ther·mic/ (ther´mik) pertaining to heat.

thermic

pertaining to heat.
 Typic Albaqualfs) that has recently been land graded.

The experimental design was a replicated randomized block design with treatments involving K and P. The K treatment levels were 0 (control) 33 (30), 67 (60), and 100 (90) kg [K.sub.2]O/ha (lbs [K.sub.2]O/acre), whereas the P treatment levels were 0, and 56 (50) kg [P.sub.2][O.sub.5]/ha (lbs [P.sub.2][O.sub.5]/acre). All possible combinations of P and K were performed and each treatment was replicated four times. Plot dimensions were 3.07 by 6.15 m (10 by 20 ft). Soil testing was performed before planting by dividing the study area into two areas and randomly selecting cores, which were then blended to obtain a composite sample for each area. After harvest, each treatment plot was sampled by blending four cores.

The rice variety 'Lamont' was planted in late-May in 1996 and 1997. Phosphorus and K applications consisted of concentrated superphosphate (0-46-0) (monocalcium phosphate) and potash (0-0-60) (KCI KCI Kansas City International (airport)
KCI Kennel Club of India
KCI Key Club International
KCI Korea Concrete Institute
KCI Kitchener Collegiate Institute
KCI Kids Central, Inc.
KCI The Kitchen Collection, Inc.
KCI Kodak Canada Inc.
) applied surface broadcast immediately after planting. Nitrogen fertilization consisted of 134 kg N/ha (120 lbs. N/acre) of urea applied immediately prior to flood with two 34 kg N/ha (30 lbs N/acre) urea applications at mid-season. Weed control Weed control is the botanical component of pest control, stopping weeds from reaching a mature stage of growth when they could be harmful to domesticated plants and livestock by physical and chemical methods.  consisted of 7 liters of Stain (proponil)/ha followed by a second application prior to flood establishment.

Tissue analysis occurred in late-June and late-July (1996) and in mid-July and late-August (1997). Tissue samples consisted of 10 recently mature leaves selected from 10 randomly selected plants within each treatment plot. Nitrogen was determined by a C-N analyzer. Calcium, S, Mg, Al, P, K, Zn, B, Fe, Mn, Cu, Na were determined by inductively coupled plasma An inductively coupled plasma (ICP) is a type of plasma source in which the energy is supplied by electrical currents which are produced by electromagnetic induction, that is, by time-varying magnetic fields.  emission spectroscopy Emission spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique which examines the wavelengths of photons emitted by atoms or molecules during their transition from an excited state to a lower energy state.  after acid digestion of ground plant tissues. Nitrogen, 5, P, K, Ca, and Mg are expressed as percent of dry weight, whereas Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn are expressed as mg / kg-dry weight (ppm). Field measurements involved tiller counts, the number of panicles per row, the number of spikelets per panicle, the percentage of fertile spikelets, seed weight, dry matter accumulation, and yield. In-field counts (tiller counts, the number of panicles per row) consisted of two replications using a 3 meter transect tran·sect  
tr.v. tran·sect·ed, tran·sect·ing, tran·sects
To divide by cutting transversely.



[trans- + -sect.
 within the row, whereas the number of spikelets per panicle, the percentage of fertile spikelets, seed weight, dry matter accumulation were determined using 10 selected plants with counting-weighing. Tillering was estimated just prior to panicle initiation in 1996 and at harvest in 1997. Additionally, in 1997, the panicle density was estimated at harvest. Harvest (15 Oct 96 and 30 Oct 97) was by plot combine, followed by seed moisture determination. After harvest, each harvested area of each plot was independently measured for length and width. Data analysis involved analysis of variance and regression analysis In statistics, a mathematical method of modeling the relationships among three or more variables. It is used to predict the value of one variable given the values of the others. For example, a model might estimate sales based on age and gender.  using routines contained in Quatro-Pro.

Results and Discussion

Soil Analysis: Soil analysis revealed that the test area was strongly deficient in both P and K. Typical P levels were less than 11 kg [P.sub.2][O.sub.5]/ha (10 lbs [P.sub.2][O.sub.5]/acre), whereas K was generally much less than 67 kg [K.sub.2]O/ha (60 lbs K2O/acre), respectively. Normal P levels would be 45 lbs P/acre, whereas normal K levels are 220 + 5 CEC (Central Electronic Complex) The set of hardware that defines a mainframe, which includes the CPU(s), memory, channels, controllers and power supplies included in the box. Some CECs, such as IBM's Multiprise 2000 and 3000, include data storage devices as well. , having units of lbs K/acre (approximately 320 lbs K/acre). Soil [H.sub.p] was 4.9 in 0.5M Ca[Cl.sub.2] and 5.4 in water, each value indicating an acidic soil reaction.

Elemental Analysis Elemental analysis is a process where a sample of some material (e.g., soil, waste or drinking water, bodily fluids, minerals, chemical compounds) is analyzed for its elemental and sometimes isotopic composition.  of Rice Tissues: Elemental analysis of rice tissues consistently demonstrated that N, S, P, Mg, Ca, Al, B, Na and Mn concentrations were generally not significantly different because of either P or K fertilization in (Table 1). Average mid-July N, S, P, Mg and Ca levels for 1996 were: N (3.6%), S (0.23%), P (0.23%), Mg (0.28%) and Ca (0.38%), whereas average mid-July Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn levels were: Fe (98 mg * kg-1), Mn (860 mg * kg.-1), Cu (5.6 mg * kg-1) and Zn (20.8 mg * kg-1). Average mid-July N, S, P, K, Mg and Ca levels for 1997 were: N (3.5%), S (0.22%), P (0.27%), K (1.45%), Mg (0.26%) and Ca (0.40%), whereas average mid-July Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn levels were: Mn (1511 mg * [kg.sup.-1]) and Cu (12.5 mg * [kg.sup.-1]). In 1996, K fertilization did significantly enhance the mid-July K tissue concentration (Fig. 1). In 1997, Fe and Zn tissue levels were enhanced because of K fertilization (Fig. 2). The elemental concentrations of N, 5, P, K, Mg, and Ca are representative of nutritionally healthy rice (Tisda le et al., 1985). Manganese concentrations are excessive, whereas Zn concentrations are uniformly deficient.

Phosphorus fertilization did reduce Zn tissue concentrations during both sampling periods in 1997 (37.8 versus 31.1 mg [kg.sup.-1] in mid-July and 12.3 versus 9.6 mg [kg.sup.-1] in late-August). All other effects attributed to P were not significant. Because of the lack of P significance, the P treatments on rice yield will not be further discussed.

Agronomic Performance and Yield: Tillering and panicle development are complex responses to the environmental and nutritional status nutritional status,
n the assessment of the state of nourishment of a patient or subject.
 of the study area. The extent of tillering did increase with K fertilization in 1996, but the increase in tillering was not statistically relevant (Table 1). The panicle density in 1997 was significantly increased because of K fertilization (Table 1). Phosphorus fertilization did not significantly influence the panicle density.

Potassium fertilization increased the number of spikelets per panicle in each year (Table 1). Spikelet fertility paralleled total spikelet production and was proportionally greater in 1997, presumably pre·sum·a·ble  
adj.
That can be presumed or taken for granted; reasonable as a supposition: presumable causes of the disaster.
 because of more moderate temperatures during anthesis. Phosphorus did not significantly influence panicle development. The rough rice yield was significantly increased because of K fertilization. During both years the application of 67 kg [K.sub.2]O/ha significantly increased rice yields above that of the control and the 33 kg [K.sub.2]O/ha treatment. Phosphorus fertilization did not affect yield.

Regression analysis of exchangeable K (independent variable) with the panicle density or yield (dependent variables) was not meaningful. The coefficients of the independent variable, although positive, were not significantly different from zero. This suggests that the relationships between exchangeable K and either the panicle density or yield were randomly distributed. It is interesting to note that the exchangeable K expression of the K control plots which also received superphosphate were significantly greater than those control K plots which did not receive superphosphate. Zhou and Huang (1995) observed that monoammonium phosphate induced K release from selected Chinese soils. These authors proposed that acidity generation from fertilizer dissolution and the small hydrated hy·drat·ed  
adj.
Chemically combined with water, especially existing in the form of a hydrate.

Adj. 1. hydrated - containing combined water (especially water of crystallization as in a hydrate)
hydrous
 radius of the ammonium phosphate ammonium phosphate
n.
A phosphate of ammonium, especially (NH4)2HPO4, used as a fire retardant and in fertilizers.
 permitted the release of K from clay and feldspar feldspar (fĕl`spär, fĕld`–) or felspar (fĕl`spär), an abundant group of rock-forming minerals which constitute 60% of the earth's crust. . Whether these exchangeable K expressions are a consequence of superphosphate fertilization or simply a result of natural variation may be an important area of future research.

Conclusions and Future Research Needs

Potassium fertilization significantly increased the yield of rice. Yield data suggests that a rate of 67 kg [K.sub.2]O [ha.sup.-1] was superior to a rate of 33 kg [K.sub.2]O [ha.sup.-1]; while a rate of 100 kg [K.sub.2]O [ha.sup.-1] could not be justified. The yield advantage of the 67 kg [K.sub.2]O [ha.sup.-1] rate was attributed to an increase in tillering and spikelet production. Phosphorus fertilization did not significantly increase the rice yield, even though the soil test indicated a need for P.

Future research needs must focus on a reassessment of the K needs of rice and a reappraisal of the standard K soil test levels for rice. Currently, the K needs are adapted from Arkansas and these Arkansas levels were implemented before the dramatic growth of rice culture in the Lower Mississippi River Valley.

(*.) Department of Geosciences, Southeast Missouri State University Missouri State University is a state university located in Springfield, Missouri. It is the state's second largest university in student enrollment, second only to the University of Missouri. From 1972 to 2005, Missouri State was known as Southwest Missouri State University. . Cape Girardeau, MO, 63701. Corresponding author.

Literature Cited

Buchholz, D.D. 1987. Soil test interpretations and recommendations handbook. University of Missouri, College of Agriculture. Columbia, Missouri.

Coronel, R.E., and E.F. Wallihan. 1971. The effects of nutrient deficiencies of nitrogen, potassium and manganese in the critical phosphorus concentrations in the rice plant (Oryza sativa L.). Philipp. Agric. 55:83-96.

Davide, J.G. 1965. The time and methods of phosphate fertilizer applications. P. 255-268. In International Rice Research Institute. The mineral nutrition of the rice plant. John Hopkins Press, Baltimore, Md.

DeDatta, S.K., and D.S D.S Drainage Structure (flood protection) . Mikkelsen. 1985. Potassium nutrition in rice. p. 665-699. In R.D. Munson. Potassium in agriculture. American Society Agronomy agronomy (əgrŏn`əmē), branch of agriculture dealing with various physical and biological factors—including soil management, tillage, crop rotation, breeding, weed control, and climate—related to crop production. , Madison, WI.

Fageria, N.K., F.J.P. Zimmermann, and V.C. Baligar. 1995. Lime and phosphorus interactions on growth and nutrient uptake by upland rice, wheat, common bean abd corn in an oxisol Oxisols are an order in USA soil taxonomy, best known for their occurrence in tropical rain forest, 15-25 degrees north and south of the Equator. Some oxisols have been previously classified as laterite soils. . J. Plant Nutr. 18:2519-2532.

Fageria, N.K., and V.C. Baligar.1999. Growth and nutrient concentration of common bean, lowland rice, corn, soybean soybean, soya bean, or soy pea, leguminous plant (Glycine max, G. soja, or Soja max) of the family Leguminosae (pulse family), native to tropical and warm temperate regions of Asia, where it has been , and wheat at different soil pH on an inceptisol. J. Plant Nutr. 22:1495-1507.

Fujiwara, A. 1965. The specific role of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in the metabolism of the rice plant. P. 93-105. In International Rice Research Institute. The mineral nutrition of the rice plant. John Hopkins Press, Baltimore, Md.

Ishizuka, Y., and A. Tanaka. 1960. Inorganic nutrition of rice plants: 5. Physiological significance of the macro-elements. Nippon Dojo do·jo  
n. pl. do·jos
A school for training in Japanese arts of self-defense, such as judo and karate.



[Japanese d
 Hiryoyaku Zasshi. 31:491-494.

Ishizuka, Y, 1965. Nutrient uptake at different stages of growth. P. 199-217. In International Rice Research Institute. The mineral nutrition of the rice plant. John Hopkins Press, Baltimore, Md.

Ishizuka, Y. 1971. Physiology of the rice plant. Adv. Agron. 23:241-315.

Mengel, K., M. Viro, and G. Hehl. 1976. Effects of potassium on the uptake and incorporation of ammonium-nitrogen of rice plants. Plant soil 44:547-558.

Mengel, K., and E.A. Kirkby. 1982. Principles of plant nutrition. International Potash Institute, Berne, Switzerland. P. 462-464.

Mikkelsen, D.S. 1983. In Soil and plant tissue testing in California. Bull. 1879. Division of Agricultural Sciences, University of California, Berkeley The University of California, Berkeley is a public research university located in Berkeley, California, United States. Commonly referred to as UC Berkeley, Berkeley and Cal . P 30-43.

Nelson, L.E. 1980. Phosphorus nutrition in cotton, peanuts, rice, sugarcane, and tobacco. p. 693-736. In F.E. Khasawneh, E.C. Sample, and E.J. Kamprath. The role of phosphorus in agriculture.

Noguchi, Y, and T. Sugawara. 1966. Potassium and japonica rice: Summary of twenty-five years' research. International Potash Institute, Beme, Switzerland, p. 102.

Olsen, K.L. 1958. Mineral deficiency Mineral Deficiency Definition

The term mineral deficiency means a condition where the concentration of any one of the minerals essential to human health is abnormally low in the body.
 symptoms in rice. Arkansas Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull. 605.

Patnaik, S., and C.T. Abichandani. 1970. The uptake of nutrients in relation to growth in indica rice (Oryza sativa L.). Riso. 19:17-35.

Sims, J.L., and G.A. Place. 1968. Growth and nutrient uptake in rice at different growth stages and nitrogen levels. Agron. J. 60:692-696.

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New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
, NY.

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Teo, Y.H., C.A. Beyrouty, and E.E. Gbur. 1992. Evaluating a model for predicting nutrient uptake by rice during vegetative vegetative /veg·e·ta·tive/ (vej?e-ta?tiv)
1. of, pertaining to, or characteristic of plants.

2. concerned with growth and nutrition, as opposed to reproduction.

3.
 growth. Agronomy J. 84: 1064-1070.

Terman, G.L., and S.E. Allen. 1970. Fertilizer and soil P uptake by paddy rice, as affected by soil P level, source and date of application. J. Agric. Sci. (Cambridge) 75:547-552.

Tisdale, S.L., W.L. Nelson, and J.D. Beaton. 1985. Soil fertility and fertilizers. Macmillan, New York.

Yoshida, S. 1981. Fundamentals of rice crop science. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines.

Zhou, J.M., and P.M. Huang. 1995. Kinetics of monoammonium phosphate-induced potassium release from selected soils. Can. J. Soil Sci. 75:197-203.
                   Yield components for a K fertility
                         trial involving rice.
Treatment  Tillers  Spikelets / panicle           Yield
kg K2O/ha  Plant-1         total         fertile  lbs/a  kg/ha
1996
0           4.8a           99a           84a      6620    7410a
33          4.5a           100a          88a      6920    7750a
67          5.1a           104b          83a      7440    8330b
100         5.0a           108c          84a      7660    8580b
1997
Meter-1
0           110a           112a          102a     8398    9405a
33          136b           114b          104b     8522    9545a
67          146b           127b          113b     8911    9980b
100         144b           117b          110b     9041   10125b
[n] Within a column, different letters represent
significant differences (P=0.05%)
[pound] Each number is the mean of four plot samples.
(Treatments involving P fertilizer are omitted)


[Graph omitted]

[Graph omitted]
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Author:Skidmore, Ryan
Publication:Transactions of the Missouri Academy of Science
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Date:Jan 1, 1999
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