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Post-UME screening examination in Nigerian universities: the University of Education, Ikere-Ekiti (Tunedik) experience.

Introduction

Like other countries, Nigeria has a body that regulates educational qualifying examinations. Four prominent public examination bodies in Nigeria are the Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB), headed by Professor Dibu Ojerinde, the National Business and Technical Examination Board (NABTEB), headed by Professor David Awambor, the National Examination Council (NECO), headed by Professor Promise Okpala, and the West African Examination Council (WAEC), headed by Dr. Iyi Uwadiae (Idoko 2008). It is mandatory that candidates seeking admission to any of the university in Nigeria, whether federal, state, or private, take and pass the Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB) Examination before being considered for the Post-University Matriculation Examination screening, conducted by each university before the admission of these who qualify or pass.

TUNEDIK

The University of Education, Ikere-Ekiti (TUNEDIK) was established in 2007 by the administration of Governor (Engr) Adebayo Segun Oni of Ekiti State, Nigeria and approved by the National Universities Commission (NUC) on January 20, 2008 as the 31st state university and the 92nd university in Nigeria. (Ogunyemi 2008).

Universities in Nigeria

The Federal Military Government in Nigeria established six additional universities in 1976 in addition to the seven existing ones (Idoko (2008). The number of universities and degree-awarding institutions in Nigeria date has increased considerably. The list as contained in the 2008 JAMB Brochure includes:

* Federal Universities 16

* Universities of Agriculture 24

* Federal Universities of Technology 5

* State Universities 21

* Universities of Education 27

* State Universities of Technology 4

* Private Universities 41

* Other Degree Awarding Institutions 19

* Total 92

History of Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB)

Prior to the establishment of JAMB in 1978, each university was responsible for the conduct of its own concessional examination and admitted its own students. This system had serious limitations and was inefficient. The committee of Vice-Chancellors was concerned about this problem. Consequently, the government set up a National Committee on University Entrance Examination under the Chairmanship of Mr. M. S. Angulu and that Committee recommended setting up JAMB.

In 1987, the Board performed the exemplary feat of printing examination materials in Nigeria. Since then, the Board's question papers have always been produced and answer scripts processed in Nigeria (Idoko 2008). JAMB has introduced e-registration to reduce stress and replace the cumbersome process of registration, in which candidates have to travel to purchase and submit JAMB forms. Other problems included locating examination centers and accessing results.

Introduction of Post-UME Screening by Universities

Amatareotubo (2006) describes how the federal government of Nigeria introduced the policy of Post-JAMB screening by universities in 2005, through the Minister of Education, Mrs. Chinwe Obaji. This policy made it mandatory for all tertiary institutions to screen candidates after their JAMB results and before giving admission. Candidates with a score of 200 and above would be shortlisted by JAMB and their names and scores sent to their universities of choice which would screen again using aptitude tests, oral interviews, or even another examination. Obaji asserts that some candidates scored 280 and above in JAMB but could not score 20 percent in the post-JAMB examination, believing that those students must have cheated on their JAMB examinations and could not pass the Post-JAMB examination because there was no way to cheat.

Literature Review

Scholars have argued for and against the Post-Universities Matriculation Examination (UME) in Nigerian universities. Sobechi (2008) quotes the Vice-Chancellor of Ebonyi State University (EBSU), Professor Fidelis Ogah, as saying that he had refused to bow to pressure to conduct Post-UME tests because most institutions have turned it to a goldmine. Ogah alleged that most Nigerian universities that conduct Post-UME do so primarily to wring money from rich parents, whose children could not be admitted using JAMB results. Ogah stated that he had ignored pressure to conduct the test, pointing out that if he lacked confidence in the credibility of JAMB, he would lack confidence in a post-UME examination as well.

Similarly, during the 33rd and 34th convocation ceremony of the University of Benin, President Musa Yar'Adua of Nigeria, through the Director of Tertiary Education in the Federal Ministry of Education, Dr. Emmanuel Okon, remarked that the PUME may be cancelled if complaints against its conduct by students, parents, and guardians persist (Aliu 2008).

The Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB), the statutory body assigned to conduct admission examinations, and the National Universities Commission (NUC) have been directed to streamline Post-UME screening in order to avoid government intervention and the elimination of Post-UME screening. The JAMB Registrar, Professor Dibu Ojerinde, also lamented that universities have turned the UME screening into a money-making venture, as reported by Badmus and Idoko (2008). The House of Representatives Committee on Education in their oversight visits to educational agencies learned that universities had turned the screening of students seeking admission into a money-making venture. To stem the trend, the Chairman of the Committee, Honourable Farouk Lawan, suggested the need to call a stakeholders' meeting on the issue.

As the NUC began the accreditation of universities in 2009, Professor Peter Okebukola, the immediate past Executive Secretary of NUC and a member of the panel set to study university administration, said that institutional accreditation would precede course accreditation in Nigerian universities, noting that Nigeria, unlike the US, Europe, and Asia, only carried out course accreditation without accrediting the institutions offering these programmes (Makinde 2008).

Okebukola stated that this practice was one of the factors responsible for the quality of products turned out of the nation's tertiary institutions. He explained that institutional accreditation would consider the quality of students being admitted, staff, facilities, learning environment, and the university management. Okebukola stressed the need for graduates who are nationally relevant and globally competitive.

Some students employ unethical means to pass JAMB on their first attempt, while others do nothing of the kind. Clarence Peters states that, "when I finished Secondary School, I sat for JAMB because we had some financial difficulties and also to fulfill all righteousness, and, thankfully, I failed" Lawal (2008). Ogunleye (2008) reports that the Wesley University of Science and Technology (WUSTO), established by the Methodist Church Nigeria (MCN), licensed by the Federal Government in May 2007, has conducted its first UME screening. Oyedele (2008) quotes the University of Ado Ekiti Vice-Chancellor, Professor Dipo Kolawole, a well-known supporter of the post-UME test, as saying that "in the past a student will score 289, automatically he comes in, but with the Post-UME now, you find that such a student is scoring a very poor mark. They cannot even write. If we desire sanitation of our educational system ... it does not make sense for anybody to be against the post-UME. If there are other built in mechanisms to purify the admission process ... it should be a welcome idea.."

Makinde (2009) states that Professor Philip Abiodun, The Vice-Chancellor, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, has asserted that "two exams are not too many to sieve qualified candidates from those who cheated to pass." He observed that after comparing the results of the two exams one would be able to know who truly passed and who cheated. He noted that while some students scored very high marks in JAMB, they scored very low on the post-UME.

Post-UME Screening Examination at TUNEDIK

The University of Education Ikere-Ekiti (TUNEDIK) officially opened in May 2008. To allow prospective candidates to apply, those who earlier applied to JAMB, wrote the 2008 Universities Matriculation Examination, and attained the prescribed national minimum score were asked to apply to TUNEDIK, provided they met the minimum entry requirements.

TUNEDIK conducted two Post-UME screening examinations. The first was an objective text based on the subject/course areas of the candidates while the second examination was an essay test for those who passed the first examination.

The essay examination revealed the inadequacies of some of the candidates. Many who scored high in JAMB and in the first screening examination performed badly in the essay writing. The results of the two examinations were computed to determine eligible candidates for admission.

Analysis of Findings of the Post-UME Screening

A sample of five hundred candidates was drawn. One hundred were drawn each from the Faculty of Education, Department of Educational Management, Faculty of Arts, Department of English, Faculty of Social and Management Sciences, Department of Economics, Faculty of Science, Department of Pure Sciences (Biology), and Faculty of Science and Information Technology, Department of Applied Sciences (Computer and ICT).

(a) Department of Educational Management Table IA Shows Candidates (50) who scored 200 marks and above in JAMB
S/N   JAMB SCORES (400%)   POST-UME I         POST-UME II
                           (OBJECTIVE 100%)   (ESSAY 50%)

1.    235                  44                 05
2.    227                  44                 05
3.    252                  51                 05
4.    211                  44                 05
5.    202                  41                 05
6.    218                  42                 06
7.    206                  41                 06
8.    212                  44                 08
9.    203                  40                 08
10.   219                  45                 08
11.   205                  41                 08
12.   214                  44                 09
13.   240                  42                 10
14.   206                  44                 10
15.   212                  45                 10
16.   204                  41                 10
17.   207                  44                 12
18.   205                  47                 12
19.   207                  49                 12
20.   240                  48                 12
21.   207                  49                 12
22.   217                  42                 12
23.   220                  42                 13
24.   215                  51                 13
25.   215                  41                 13
26.   238                  44                 14
27.   203                  44                 14
28.   207                  43                 14
29.   208                  44                 14
30.   266                  62                 15
31.   202                  44                 15
32.   210                  44                 15
33.   208                  40                 16
34.   238                  46                 17
35.   202                  41                 17
36.   208                  45                 18
37.   218                  48                 18
38.   203                  43                 20
39.   203                  44                 20
40.   226                  49                 20
41.   230                  48                 20
42.   213                  41                 22
43.   208                  47                 22
44.   203                  48                 23
45.   229                  48                 24
46.   206                  47                 25
47.   240                  46                 28
48.   200                  44                 32
49.   255                  57                 32
50.   213                  51                 38


Only 13 of the 50 candidates who scored 200 and above in JAMB made 40 percent (20 marks) and above in the Post-UME essay screening test, representing 26 percent.

(b) Department of Educational Management: Table 1B Shows candidates (25) who scored 190-199 marks in JAMB
S/N   JAMB SCORES (400%)   POST-UME I            POST-UME II
                           (OBJECTIVE 100%)      (ESSAY 50%)

1.    198                  43                    02
2.    195                  40                    08
3.    190                  42                    08
4.    190                  41                    09
5.    196                  44                    10
6.    195                  44                    10
7.    195                  42                    10
8.    198                  40                    13
9.    190                  44                    14
10.   195                  44                    16
11.   191                  48                    17
12.   197                  41                    17
13.   197                  42                    18
14.   198                  44                    18
15.   193                  45                    18
16.   192                  42                    18
17.   199                  49                    18
18.   194                  45                    20
19.   196                  43                    22
20.   197                  45                    22
21.   196                  42                    24
22.   194                  45                    25
23.   198                  45                    25
24    194                  45                    25
25.   194                  41                    38


Eight of the twenty-five who scored between 190-199 in JAMB, made 40 percent (20 marks) and above in the Post-UME essay screening test, representing 32 percent.

(c) Department of Educational Management: Table 1C Shows candidates (25) who scored 180-189 marks in JAMB
S/N   JAMB SCORES (400%)   POST-UME I         POST-UME II
                           (OBJECTIVE 100%)   (ESSAY 50%)

1.    182                  42                 05
2.    181                  43                 06
3.    182                  45                 07
4.    184                  42                 07
5.    184                  43                 08
6.    184                  40                 08
7.    180                  44                 10
8.    188                  40                 10
9.    184                  42                 12
10.   181                  41                 13
11.   182                  43                 14
12.   182                  42                 14
13.   185                  43                 15
14.   187                  43                 15
15.   185                  42                 15
16.   183                  45                 16
17.   187                  42                 18
18.   187                  42                 16
19.   181                  44                 19
20.   180                  44                 19
21.   183                  45                 20
22.   186                  42                 22
23.   188                  44                 25
24    182                  42                 31
25.   184                  43                 33


Table 1c above shows that only 5 of the 25 candidates who score between 180-189 in JAMB, made 40 percent (20 marks) and above in the Post-UME essay screening test, representing 20 percent.

(d) Department of English: Table IIA Shows candidates (50) who scored 200 marks above in JAMB)
S/N   JAMB SCORES (400%)   POST-UME I         POST-UME II
                           (OBJECTIVE 100%)   (ESSAY 50%)

1.    214                  45                 01
2.    214                  51                 08
3.    241                  60                 09
4.    202                  56                 09
5.    264                  53                 09
6.    212                  50                 10
7.    214                  52                 10
8.    214                  52                 10
9.    210                  56                 12
10.   218                  48                 12
11.   213                  56                 12
12.   279                  64                 12
13.   220                  56                 13
14.   214                  59                 14
15.   205                  52                 14
16.   204                  51                 15
17.   237                  60                 15
18.   204                  52                 15
19.   205                  58                 16
20.   201                  56                 18
21.   209                  54                 18
22.   201                  51                 18
23.   207                  57                 18
24    238                  65                 19
25.   238                  65                 19
26.   230                  56                 19
27.   262                  58                 20
28.   202                  56                 20
29.   236                  59                 20
30.   254                  69                 20
31.   202                  55                 21
32.   202                  55                 22
33.   230                  63                 22
34.   232                  62                 22
35.   207                  54                 23
36.   210                  55                 24
37.   227                  56                 24
38.   202                  54                 24
39.   203                  53                 25
40.   209                  52                 26
41.   207                  59                 28
42.   248                  68                 29
43.   248                  68                 29
44.   206                  56                 30
45.   257                  62                 31
46.   203                  53                 32
47    226                  58                 32
48.   234                  61                 32
49.   214                  57                 33
50.   219                  60                 33


Table IIA above shows a better performance as 24 of the 50 candidates who scored 200 marks and above in JAMB, made 40 (20 marks) and above in the Post-UME essay screening test, representing 48 percent.

(e) Department of Educational Management: Table IIB Shows candidates (25) who scored 190-199 marks in JAMB
S/N   JAMB SCORES (400%)   POST-UME I         POST-UME II
                           (OBJECTIVE 100%)   (ESSAY 50%)

1.    197                  46                 05
2.    194                  52                 08
3.    195                  49                 12
4.    193                  52                 13
5.    196                  56                 14
6.    198                  53                 14
7.    193                  50                 15
8.    197                  52                 15
9.    195                  48                 16
10.   195                  48                 16
11.   199                  45                 17
12.   193                  53                 17
13.   199                  51                 18
14.   193                  51                 18
15.   198                  53                 18
16.   190                  54                 18
17.   194                  45                 20
18.   195                  56                 22
19.   198                  30                 23
20.   192                  50                 24
21.   190                  53                 24
22.   192                  50                 24
23.   199                  56                 25
24.   194                  46                 28
25.   194                  53                 32


In table IIB above, 9 of the 25 candidates who scored between 190-199 in JAMB made 40 percent (20 marks) and above in the Post-UME essay screening test, representing 36 percent.

(f) Department of English: Table IIC Shows candidates (25) who scored 180-189 marks in JAMB.
S/N   JAMB SCORES (40%)   POST UME 1         POST-UME II
                          (OBJECTIVE 100%)   (ESSAY 50%)

1.    188                 52                 13
2.    186                 45                 14
3.    184                 53                 15
4.    186                 47                 16
5.    180                 49                 16
6.    184                 50                 18
7.    180                 52                 18
8.    188                 50                 18
9.    180                 51                 18
10.   181                 50                 19
11.   181                 50                 19
12.   188                 53                 20
13.   181                 49                 20
14.   184                 43                 20
15.   181                 45                 21
16.   181                 44                 21
17.   181                 59                 22
18.   181                 48                 22
19.   185                 52                 22
20.   185                 48                 23
21.   185                 47                 23
22.   182                 47                 24
23.   185                 45                 32
24.   189                 55                 34
25.   189                 56                 34


Table IIc above shows that 14 of the 25 candidates, who scored between 180-189 in JAMB, made 40 percent (20 marks) and above in the Post-UME essay screening test, representing 56 percent.

(g) Department of Economics: Table IIIA Shows candidates (50) who scored 200 marks and above in JAMB.
S/N   JAMB SCORES (40%)   POST UME 1         POST-UME II
                          (OBJECTIVE 100%)   (ESSAY 50%)

1.    248                 47                 01
2.    212                 47                 09
3.    244                 46                 09
4.    221                 49                 10
5.    231                 49                 10
6.    227                 47                 12
7.    251                 57                 12
8.    244                 49                 12
9.    249                 50                 13
10.   203                 47                 13
11    214                 48                 13
12.   220                 50                 14
13.   202                 46                 15
14.   266                 57                 16
15.   274                 51                 16
16.   203                 53                 16
17.   203                 53                 16
18.   206                 48                 17
19.   227                 46                 18
20.   259                 52                 18
21.   240                 49                 19
22.   233                 50                 19
23.   217                 47                 19
24.   237                 59                 20
25.   249                 56                 20
26.   225                 49                 22
27.   216                 48                 23
28.   210                 50                 23
29.   227                 53                 24
30.   213                 46                 24
31.   213                 46                 24
32.   204                 46                 25
33.   243                 56                 25
34.   203                 46                 25
35.   222                 48                 25
36.   214                 48                 25
37.   212                 47                 25
38.   208                 47                 25
39.   230                 51                 25
40.   249                 52                 26
41.   253                 53                 28
42.   200                 46                 29
43.   223                 51                 29
44.   217                 49                 30
45.   218                 51                 30
46.   205                 50                 31
47.   219                 53                 32
48.   217                 50                 33
49.   247                 51                 34
50.   253                 56                 36


Table IIIA also shows that 27 of the 50 candidates who scored 200 marks and above in JAMB made 40 percent (20 marks) and above in the Post-UME essay screening test, representing 54 percent.

(h) Department of Economics: Table IIIB Shows candidates (25) who scored 190-199 marks in JAMB
S/N   JAMB SCORES (40%)   POST UME 1         POST-UME II
                          (OBJECTIVE 100%)   (ESSAY 50%)

1.    198                 50                 06
2.    190                 43                 06
3.    198                 48                 10
4.    194                 47                 11
5.    198                 47                 12
6.    196                 47                 14
7.    194                 48                 15
8.    191                 44                 16
9.    196                 46                 19
10.   198                 47                 20
11.   190                 47                 20
12.   198                 50                 21
13.   192                 46                 21
14.   191                 46                 21
15.   192                 46                 21
16.   197                 47                 21
17.   194                 48                 21
18.   195                 45                 23
19.   191                 49                 23
20.   197                 46                 24
21.   194                 46                 24
22.   199                 50                 27
23.   191                 49                 28
24.   197                 49                 32
25.   196                 49                 37


In table IIIB, 16 of the 25 candidates who scored 190-199 in JAMB, made 40 percent (20 marks) and above in the Post-UME essay screening test, representing 64 percent.

(i) Department of Economics: Table IIIC Shows candidates (25) who scored 180-189 marks in JAMB
S/N   JAMB SCORES (40%)   POST UME 1         POST-UME II
                          (OBJECTIVE 100%)   (ESSAY 50%)

1.    188                 42                 06
2.    189                 45                 08
3.    182                 45                 08
4.    187                 40                 10
5.    184                 49                 10
6.    185                 48                 15
7.    188                 48                 15
8.    185                 47                 15
9.    188                 46                 16
10.   189                 49                 17
11.   183                 49                 17
12.   183                 50                 17
13.   187                 46                 18
14.   187                 48                 18
15.   186                 46                 20
16.   181                 49                 20
17.   187                 46                 23
18.   184                 46                 24
19.   182                 47                 24
20.   183                 47                 25
21.   1888                45                 25
22.   181                 47                 26
23.   188                 43                 28
24.   180                 41                 28
25.   188                 50                 28


Table IIIC indicates that 11 of the 25 candidates who scored between 180-189 in JAMB, made 40 percent (20 marks) and above in the Post-UME essay screening test, representing 44 percent.

(J) Department of Pure Sciences (Biology): Table IVA Shows candidates (25) who scored 200 marks and above in JAMB
S/N   JAMB SCORES (40%)   POST UME 1         POST-UME II
                          (OBJECTIVE 100%)   (ESSAY 50%)

1.    203                 48                 08
2.    202                 44                 10
3.    212                 44                 12
4.    218                 46                 12
5.    205                 46                 12
6.    209                 54                 15
7.    221                 48                 16
8.    203                 46                 16
9.    244                 48                 18
10.   227                 47                 18
11.   264                 50                 18
12.   231                 45                 20
13.   209                 52                 20
14.   232                 51                 20
15.   200                 50                 22
16.   266                 58                 24
17.   267                 54                 25
18.   213                 50                 25
19.   243                 52                 25
20.   208                 47                 26
21.   209                 45                 27
22.   264                 53                 28
23.   281                 58                 29
24.   217                 51                 29
25.   224                 56                 36


Table IVA above shows that 14 of the 25 candidates who scored 200 marks and above in JAMB, made 40 percent (20 marks) and above in the Post-UME essay screening test, representing 56 percent.

(k) Department of Pure Sciences (Biology): Table IVB Shows candidates (25) who scored 190-199 marks in JAMB.
S/N   JAMB SCORES (40%)   POST UME 1         POST-UME II
                          (OBJECTIVE 100%)   (ESSAY 50%)

1.    191                 43                 02
2.    190                 41                 07
3.    195                 43                 10
4.    198                 48                 11
5.    196                 48                 12
6.    196                 43                 12
7.    192                 50                 13
8.    197                 48                 15
9.    193                 44                 15
10.   192                 50                 16
11.   196                 45                 18
12.   196                 45                 18
13.   192                 50                 18
14.   193                 49                 19
15.   199                 46                 19
16.   196                 47                 19
17.   190                 49                 20
18.   192                 44                 21
19.   199                 49                 22
20.   191                 43                 25
21.   190                 47                 26
22.   196                 45                 27
23.   192                 48                 30
24.   199                 48                 31
25.   198                 46                 36


In table IVB above, 9 of the 25 candidates who scored between 190-199 in JAMB, made 40 percent (20 marks) and above in the Post-UME essay screening test, representing 36 percent.

(L) Department of Pure science (Biology): Table IVC Shows candidates (25) who scored 180-189 marks in JAMB
S/N   JAMB SCORES (40%)   POST UME 1         POST-UME II
                          (OBJECTIVE 100%)   (ESSAY 50%)

1.    182                 41                 4
2.    184                 41                 5
3.    181                 42                 8
4.    184                 43                 8
5.    186                 49                 10
6.    182                 48                 10
7.    188                 49                 13
8.    186                 45                 13
9.    187                 46                 14
10.   181                 46                 14
11.   184                 45                 14
12.   188                 46                 14
13.   182                 46                 15
14.   181                 43                 15
15.   185                 47                 18
16.   182                 44                 18
17.   187                 43                 20
18.   187                 46                 20
19.   187                 43                 20
20.   186                 46                 20
21.   183                 43                 20
22.   188                 47                 20
23.   180                 44                 24
24.   189                 45                 24
25.   188                 50                 28


In table IVC above, 9 of the 25 candidates, who scored between 180-189 in JAMB, made 40 percent (20 marks) and above in the Post-UME essay screening test, representing 36 percent.

(M) Department of Pure Science (Biology): Table IVD Shows candidates (25) who scored 170-179 marks in JAMB
S/N   JAMB SCORES (40%)   POST UME 1         POST-UME II
                          (OBJECTIVE 100%)   (ESSAY 50%)

1.    170                 41                 01
2.    174                 41                 07
3.    173                 43                 08
4.    176                 41                 09
5.    179                 41                 10
6.    173                 44                 10
7.    176                 40                 11
8.    175                 43                 12
9.    178                 47                 13
10.   178                 41                 13
11.   177                 43                 14
12.   171                 43                 14
13.   175                 40                 14
14.   176                 40                 15
15.   175                 45                 15
16.   171                 40                 16
17.   176                 43                 17
18.   171                 43                 17
19.   177                 42                 17
20.   176                 41                 17
21.   172                 44                 18
22.   170                 42                 18
23.   177                 47                 18
24.   173                 40                 21
25.   179                 42                 24


Table IVD shows that only 2 of the 25 candidates who scored between 170-179 in JAMB, amde 40 percent (20 marks) and above in the Post-UME essay screening test, representing 8 percent.

(N) Department of Applied Sciences (Computer & ICT) Shows candidates (25) who scored 200 marks and above in JAMB
S/N   JAMB SCORES (40%)   POST UME 1         POST-UME II
                          (OBJECTIVE 100%)   (ESSAY 50%)

1.    245                 48                 08
2.    223                 43                 08
3.    272                 52                 10
4.    208                 44                 12
5.    238                 45                 14
6.    272                 52                 17
7.    262                 53                 17
8.    219                 51                 17
9.    259                 52                 17
10.   256                 48                 18
11.   215                 46                 18
12.   231                 47                 18
13.   201                 44                 18
14.   240                 49                 19
15.   233                 46                 19
16.   204                 41                 19
17.   209                 46                 20
18.   232                 47                 20
19.   225                 51                 20
20.   211                 50                 20
21.   211                 47                 23
22.   218                 48                 25
23.   244                 51                 26
24.   212                 47                 27
25.   200                 51                 35


Table VA shows that 9 of the 25 candidates who scored 200 marks and above in JAMB, amde 40 percent (20 marks) and above in the Post-UME essay screening test, respresenting 36 percent.

(O) Department of Applied Sciences (Computer & ICT) Table VB Shows candidates (25) who scored 190-199 marks in JAMB
S/N   JAMB SCORES (40%)   POST UME 1         POST-UME II
                          (OBJECTIVE 100%)   (ESSAY 50%)

1.    196                 41                 04
2.    193                 47                 06
3.    194                 41                 07
4.    193                 55                 12
5.    199                 44                 12
6.    191                 43                 13
7.    194                 43                 15
8.    197                 45                 15
9.    190                 43                 16
10.   199                 51                 16
11.   196                 42                 17
12.   193                 44                 17
13.   192                 46                 17
14.   191                 44                 17
15.   190                 43                 18
16.   192                 46                 19
17.   197                 40                 20
18.   194                 47                 20
19.   196                 45                 21
20.   192                 46                 21
21.   190                 44                 21
22.   194                 45                 25
23.   194                 46                 25
24.   194                 46                 25
25.   192                 48                 28


In table VB above, 9 of the 25 candidates who scored between 190-199 in JAMB, made 40 percent (20 marks) and above in the Post-UME essay screening test, representing 36 percent.

(P) Department of Applied Sciences (Computer & ICT): Table VC Shows candidates (25) who scored 180-189 marks in JAMB
S/N   JAMB SCORES (40%)   POST UME 1         POST-UME II
                          (OBJECTIVE 100%)   (ESSAY 50%)

1.    187                 42                 12
2.    183                 45                 13
3.    184                 42                 14
4.    186                 44                 15
5.    183                 44                 15
6.    180                 41                 15
7.    182                 43                 16
8.    180                 41                 16
9.    183                 42                 18
10.   181                 45                 18
11.   186                 47                 18
12.   188                 43                 19
13.   183                 45                 21
14.   187                 43                 22
15.   188                 53                 22
16.   181                 42                 23
17.   187                 46                 24
18.   183                 42                 24
19.   186                 50                 24
20.   188                 44                 25
21.   187                 47                 25
22.   185                 43                 26
23.   182                 41                 26
24.   187                 47                 26
25.   185                 44                 30


Table VC above shows that 13 of the 25 candidates who scored between 180-189 in JAMB, made 40 percent (20 marks) and above in the Post-UME essay Screening test, representing 52 percent.

(Q) Department of Applied Sciences (Computer & ICT): Table VD Shows candidates (25) who scored 170-179 marks in JAMB
S/N   JAMB SCORES (40%)   POST UME 1         POST-UME II
                          (OBJECTIVE 100%)   (ESSAY 50%)

1.    175                 44                 09
2.    178                 46                 09
3.    178                 44                 10
4.    179                 43                 12
5.    175                 41                 12
6.    178                 45                 15
7.    175                 42                 16
8.    177                 41                 16
9.    173                 41                 18
10.   177                 41                 19
11.   178                 40                 19
12.   174                 42                 19
13.   177                 44                 20
14.   174                 43                 20
15.   174                 43                 20
16.   174                 47                 20
17.   176                 43                 21
18.   173                 44                 21
19.   173                 41                 22
20.   175                 43                 22
21.   177                 41                 24
22.   179                 41                 25
23.   174                 41                 27
24.   171                 40                 29
25.   176                 46                 30


Table VD shows that 13 of the 25 candidates who scored between 170-179 in JAMB made 40 percent (20 marks) and above in the Post-UME essay screening test, representing 52 percent.

Summary of Tables I-V showing candidates who passed (scored 40 percent and above) in the Post-UME (essay) screening test.
     Score Range   No of Candidates        Percentage (%)

1.   200 & above   87 passed out of 200    43.5
2.   190-199       51 passed out of 125    40.8
3.   180-189       52 passed out of 125    41.6
4.   170-179       15 passed out of 50     30
     Total         205 passed out of 500   155.9


The above shows that 87 of the sampled 200 candidates representing 43.5 percent did well in the PostUME (essay) screening.

Summary of Tables I-V showing candidates who failed (scored below 40 percent) in the Post-UME (essay) screening Test.
     Score Range   No of Candidates        Percentage (%)

1.   200 & above   113 failed out of 200   56.5
2.   190-199       74 failed out of 125    59.2
3.   180-189       73 failed out of 125    58.4
4.   170-179       35 failed out of 50     70
     Total         295 failed out of 500   244.1


From the above summary, 113 of the sampled 200 candidates representing 56.5 percent who failed the Post-UME screening would have been admitted automatically, were it not for the Post-UME screening that exposed their lapses.

Justification for Post-UME Screening

The Post-UME screening, especially the essay exam, has helped expose the inadequacies of some candidates. Many who scored 200 marks and above in JAMB performed below expectation in the essay test, and showed a lack of basic writing skills. Before the introduction of post-UME screening, virtually all candidates who scored 200 and above secured admission almost automatically to the university of their choice. With post-UME screening, deficiencies of the candidates are exposed, especially when they are asked to write.

In the study conducted, only 87 of the sampled 200 candidates who scored 200 marks and above in JAMB, representing 43.5 percent, passed the post-UME screening test, while the remaining 113, representing 56.5 percent, performed poorly, scoring less than 40 percent) in the Post-UME screening. This set of candidates would have been admitted on merit to their first or second choice university if there was no post-UME screening. Hence, post-UME screening should not be discarded, but should be strengthened.

Recommendations and Conclusion

This study has shown clearly that post-UME screening is a necessity for determining the suitability of candidates for admission to tertiary institutions in Nigeria. The following recommendations are made to further strengthen post-UME screening by the universities in Nigeria.

Post-UME screening should include both objective and essay questions to determine the competence of candidates in both areas.

* Candidates who scored 180 marks and above in JAMB did very well in post-UME screening and, in some cases, better than some who scored 200 marks and above in JAMB; hence, the minimum cut-off mark for eligibility for post-UME screening should be 180 marks and above in JAMB.

* Candidates for post-UME screening should be screened for the exam and supervised during the exam to guard against cheating.

* Post-UME screening should not be a money-making activity for univerisites, but for finding the best students to boost the standard of education in Nigeria.

Admission of candidates should be based on the JAMB and post-UME performance, and not on being the highest bidder as alleged by some.

In conclusion, merit should be the sole criterion for university admission in Nigeria, the influence of parents or guardinas notwithstanding. This would motivate young people seeking university admission to work harder. Likewise, the law governing examination malpractice should be enforced and culprits sanctioned to serve as a deterrent to others. These measures would make the unviersity admission system trustworthy and strengthn the credibility of higher education in Nigeria.

References

Aliu, A.O. (2008). FG may scrap Post-UME tests by universities. The Guardian (November): 3.

Amatareotubo, M. (2006). Post-UME screening: Matters arising. Posted to the Web: 8/30/2006 5:49:17pm: amasmozimo@yahoo.co.uk.

Badmus, B. (2008). Rep's fact-finding tour on education. Nigerian Tribune (December 4): 42.

Badmus, B., & Idoko, C. (2008). Varsities conduct Post-UME test for money-JAMB Boss. Nigerian Tribune (November 19): 5.

Idoko, C. (2008). JAMB celebrates 30th anniversary. Nigerian Tribune (December 4): 26.

JAMB Brochure (2008). List of universities and degree awarding institutions in Nigeria. Chapter 4: 15-19.

Lawal, K. (2008). I sat for JAMB and thankfully, I failed - Clarence Peters. Sunday Punch (November 23): 44.

Makinde, F. (2008). NUC begins universities accreditation in 2009. The Punch (November 5): 9.

Makinde, F. (2009). Why Nigerian varsities don't have enough PhD holders-VC. The Punch (April 14): 59.

Ogunleye, O. (2008). WUSTO conducts Post-UME screening. Nigerian Tribune (November 6): 49.

Ogunyemi, E.A. (2008). The University of Education, Ikere-Ekiti: A hand- bill/release.

Ogunyemi, E.A. (2008). The University of Education, Ikere-Ekiti: Application for admission to degree programmes (2008/2009). Nigerian Tribune (Thursday 31 July): 51.

Oyedele, A. (2008). Post-UME should not be scrapped-UNAD VC. The Punch (December 30): 41.

Isaac Oluwadare Busayo

Nimbe Adedipe Library

University Of Agriculture

P.M.B.2240, Abeokuta

Ogun State, Nigeria
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Title Annotation:Universities Matriculation Examination
Author:Busayo, Isaac Oluwadare
Publication:Library Philosophy and Practice
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:6NIGR
Date:Apr 1, 2010
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