Policy Capturing Methodology in Sexuality Research.Although many research questions in sexual science have to do with behavior, some sexuality research is focused on people's judgments or decisions. In these cases, there is frequently an emphasis on why people make the choices that they do or the factors influencing those decisions. Examples might include studies of mate selection criteria, the conditions under which a condom 1. condom - The protective plastic bag that accompanies 3.5-inch microfloppy diskettes. Rarely, also used of (paper) disk envelopes. Unlike the write protect tab, the condom (when left on) not only impedes the practice of SEX but has also been shown to have a high failure would be used, decisions as to whether sexual activity would likely take place within a particular context, or the contextual factors influencing likelihood of engaging in extramarital sex Noun 1. extramarital sex - sexual intercourse between individuals who are not married to one another
criminal congress, unlawful carnal knowledge - forbidden or tabu sexual intercourse between individuals . Note that although each of these examples involves behavior, the focus of study in each is decision making. Similar to studies focused on sexual behavior sexual behavior A person's sexual practices–ie, whether he/she engages in heterosexual or homosexual activity. See Sex life, Sexual life. , the norm in these cases is to directly ask respondents about motives or the stimuli influencing their decisions, and the resulting responses are taken at face value.
Unfortunately, several problems exist with asking individuals to report on the factors that affect their own decisions and judgments. Researchers have convincingly shown that humans typically do not have good insight (or, many times, any insight at all) into the various influences involved in their decision-making processes Presented below is a list of topics on decision-making and decision-making processes:
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It appears that, when asked to comment on their own mental processes, which are humanly hu·man·ly
1. In a human way.
2. Within the scope of human means, capabilities, or powers: not humanly possible.
3. impossible to observe, respondents typically generate reports of motives and cognitive influences based on a sort of "folk psychology folk psychology
Ways of conceptualizing mind and the mental that are implicit in our ordinary, everyday attributions of mental states to ourselves and others. Philosophers have adopted different positions about the extent to which folk psychology and its generalizations (e.g. " as to what motives and factors are most plausibly at work. For example, self-reports on preferences and influences regarding intimate relationships An intimate relationship is a particularly close interpersonal relationship. It is a relationship in which the participants know or trust one another very well or are confidants of one another, or a relationship in which there is physical or emotional intimacy. may be tapping into individuals' relationship schemas Schemas
Fundamental core beliefs or assumptions that are part of the perceptual filter people use to view the world. Cognitive-behavioral therapy seeks to change maladaptive schemas. (Baldwin, 1992), or beliefs about relationship development and processes (Fletcher & Kininmonth, 1992), rather than actual influences on relationship decisions. In other words Adv. 1. in other words - otherwise stated; "in other words, we are broke"
put differently , what researchers end up measuring are people's beliefs about what influenced their judgment or decision. Sometimes these beliefs will coincidently co·in·ci·den·tal
1. Occurring as or resulting from coincidence.
2. Happening or existing at the same time.
co·in correspond to the actual influences, whereas other times they will not.
From a research standpoint, ideally the investigator would have the power to manipulate stimuli or conditions in people's lives and observe the resulting effects on their decisions and judgments. If I send a man with red hair to approach a particular female for sex, how does she respond? If I take the same male and change only his hair color (now blonde), how does the woman respond to his request? Assuming that only hair color changed from Trial 1 to Trial 2, any difference in the woman's response could be attributed to the man's hair color. Obviously, researchers do not have the ability to perform such experiments, especially when one wants to consider multiple variables and their possible interaction. Hence, researchers would more typically ask women, "To what extent does a man's hair color influence your decision to have sex with him?" Respondents will provide an answer, but the accuracy of those answers is dependent on, among other things, the degree of insight about the stimuli that influence their decision to have sex with particular men.
Is there a way researchers can possibly circumvent cir·cum·vent
tr.v. cir·cum·vent·ed, cir·cum·vent·ing, cir·cum·vents
1. To surround (an enemy, for example); enclose or entrap.
2. To go around; bypass: circumvented the city. some of the inherent problems with introspection introspection /in·tro·spec·tion/ (in?trah-spek´shun) contemplation or observation of one's own thoughts and feelings; self-analysis.introspec´tive
n. when studying the stimuli influencing people's sexual judgments and decisions? One can answer in the affirmative AFFIRMATIVE. Averring a fact to be true; that which is opposed to negative. (q.v.)
2. It is a general rule of evidence that the affirmative of the issue must be proved. Bull. N. P. 298 ; Peake, Ev. 2.
3. if one finds analogue (electronics) analogue - (US: "analog") A description of a continuously variable signal or a circuit or device designed to handle such signals. The opposite is "discrete" or "digital". laboratory conditions an acceptable research methodology. For example, given a specified judgment or decision-making task, one could manipulate or measure particular variables of interest and evaluate how variation in these variables is related to corresponding variation in the respondents' actual judgments or decisions. One such method for doing this is referred to as policy capturing.
The term "policy" has come to be used in the field of human judgment and decision making to refer to "the factors used in making a judgment and the relative weighting thereof" (Ullman & Doherty, 1984, p. 179). Within that context, the term "policy capturing" (PC) refers to "studies that analyze judgments made on the basis of multidimensional mul·ti·di·men·sion·al
Of, relating to, or having several dimensions.
multi·di·men stimuli by means of a linear model" (Brehmer & Brehmer, 1988, p. 78).
In a PC study the respondent In Equity practice, the party who answers a bill or other proceeding in equity. The party against whom an appeal or motion, an application for a court order, is instituted and who is required to answer in order to protect his or her interests. is given a relatively large set of scenarios, each of which is composed of several stimuli, and the respondent is asked to make a judgment in response to each scenario (Stewart, 1988). The numeric numeric
see ten-key pad. values corresponding to each level of each stimulus (cue) within each scenario are then entered into a multiple regression Multiple regression
The estimated relationship between a dependent variable and more than one explanatory variable. equation to "predict" the respondent's judgments. In this way, the relative importance of each cue in the respondent's judgments can be quantified. The regression equation Regression equation
An equation that describes the average relationship between a dependent variable and a set of explanatory variables. , with its indices of the relative weight given to each variable (e.g., Beta weights), represents the individual's judgment policy, although alternative measures of the relative importance of the cues do exist (Stewart, 1988).
To be more specific, the analysis of individual policies involves treating each respondent's judgments as a separate sample. This is why a relatively large number of scenarios must be presented to each respondent, as such a number must be large enough to permit multiple regression analysis of the individual's judgments by regressing the judgments on the cues (Brehmer & Brehmer, 1988; Stewart, 1988).
For the sake of illustration, consider a task in which the respondent makes a series of judgments in response to 60 different scenarios, each of which consists of five cues (and each cue has several levels with corresponding numeric values). Let us represent the respondent's judgment in response to any given scenario by [Y.sub.s]. The 60 [Y.sub.s] values are regressed on the 60 sets of five cues. The multiple correlation Noun 1. multiple correlation - a statistical technique that predicts values of one variable on the basis of two or more other variables
multiple regression between the cues and the [Y.sub.s] is a measure of how predictable (consistent) the respondent's judgments are given the cues provided. Linear relationships, nonlinear A system in which the output is not a uniform relationship to the input.
nonlinear - (Scientific computation) A property of a system whose output is not proportional to its input. relationships, and interactions among cues can be tested, as would be the case in other types of multiple regression analyses (Stewart, 1988).
Although this approach is inherently ideographic id·e·o·graph
ide·o·graphic adj. in nature, it is possible to aggregate individual policies to characterize the policies for a group of respondents (nomothetic nom·o·thet·ic or nom·o·thet·ic·al
1. Of or relating to lawmaking; legislative.
2. Based on a system of law.
3. Of or relating to the philosophy of law.
4. approach), such as comparing men's and women's policies. However, the aggregation should occur only after the individual policies have been generated (see Hammond, McClelland, & Mumpower, 1980; Stewart, 1988).
How many scenarios should be used? Although there is not an answer set in stone (Brehmer & Brehmer, 1988), a general "rule of thumb" to ensure statistical stability is at least 10 scenarios per cue. So, if a researcher is asking participants to make judgments in response to scenarios comprised of five different stimuli, at least 50 scenarios should be used (see Stewart, 1988, p. 50). Greater numbers of scenarios should be used if the researcher (a) expects relatively unreliable judgments by respondents, (b) uses cues that are intercorrelated, or (c) will be analyzing hypothesized interactions among cues. Frequently, a greater number of scenarios is used to allow for assessment of reliability (consistency) of respondents' judgments by including some "duplicate" scenarios. That is, including a relatively small subset A group of commands or functions that do not include all the capabilities of the original specification. Software or hardware components designed for the subset will also work with the original. of duplicate scenarios embedded Inserted into. See embedded system. within the larger set allows one to correlate judgments across identical scenarios (sort of a test-retest reliability test-retest reliability Psychology A measure of the ability of a psychologic testing instrument to yield the same result for a single Pt at 2 different test periods, which are closely spaced so that any variation detected reflects reliability of the instrument check).
Aside from including duplicate scenarios, the overall R value does give some indication of the reliability of the judgments. Multiple correlations of .7 to .9 are common in PC studies (Stewart, 1988), and a relatively high value (e.g., .8 or greater) is indicative of reliable judgments. A relatively low R value is open to several different interpretations.
It may be that the respondent was inconsistent in responding due to carelessness Carelessness
See also Forgetfulness, Irresponsibility, Laziness.
sings through summer, overlooking winter preparations. [Gk. Lit. or a rushed approach to the task. However, if the stimuli presented to respondents for judgments contain information not controlled or measured by the experimenter (e.g., the use of photos as stimuli when not all characteristics of the photographed object have been quantified by the researcher), it is possible that the R value is relatively low because the respondent was basing his or her judgments on some quality not assessed by the researcher (and hence not included in the regression equation). This is less of a concern when the stimuli consist of written scenarios created by the researcher in which each aspect has been either measured (as one of the relevant cues) or held constant across scenarios. Another possible, though less likely, reason for a relatively low R value involves the respondent using a nonlinear configuration of the variables (cues) in arriving at judgments (Stewart, 1988).
Recent PC studies by Boon Boon
A general term that refers to a benefit or improvement for investors. This can include such things as increased dividends, a stock market rally and stock buybacks.
Notes: and Sulsky (1997), Finkelstein and Brannick (1997), and Wiederman and Dubois (1998) are examples of how the methodology can be applied to research topics having to do with sexually intimate relationships. I will consider the latter study in greater detail to illustrate use of the methodology in sexuality research.
Wiederman and Dubois (1998) were interested in testing evolutionary hypotheses regarding gender differences in preferred characteristics for short-term sexual partners. Specifically, would men and women place differential value on the characteristics of physical attractiveness Physical attractiveness is the perception of the physical traits of an individual human person as pleasing or beautiful. It can include various implications, such as sexual attractiveness, cuteness, and physique. , financial resources, generosity, prior sexual experience, current relationship status, and desired relationship status when evaluating potential short-term sexual partners? These authors constructed written descriptions of 50 hypothetical short-term sexual partners, each of which contained information about the six variables (cues) listed above. Each of these variables, or cues, had five levels, with a corresponding numeric value (1 to 5) associated with each level. Note that the numbers 1 to 5 were used to correspond with the ordinal (mathematics) ordinal - An isomorphism class of well-ordered sets. nature of the five levels of each cue. However, the authors might have been more precise had they asked a group of the respondents' peers to rate the degree to which each level of the cue represented the construct. Then, those ratings could have been used as the values corresponding to each level of each particular cue.
To begin, Wiederman and Dubois constructed a "shell" for the scenarios, into which the corresponding level of the cue could be interjected. Below is the shell these authors used for male respondents (an analogous version was used for female respondents).
When it comes to physical attractiveness, this woman is --. Financially speaking, she --. Regardless of her financial situation, this woman --. With regard to sexual experience, this woman has had sex --. Right now she is --. Regardless of her current relationship status, this woman --.
After constructing five verbal descriptions for each cue, each corresponding to increasing levels or degrees of the characteristic, the authors randomly generated a value (1 to 5) for each cue for each description (scenario). In other words, scenario #37 might consist of a hypothetical short-term sexual partner who is described as having level 3 physical attractiveness, level 5 financial resources, level 1 generosity, and so forth. By randomly generating the level of each cue for each scenario, the cues were not significantly correlated cor·re·late
v. cor·re·lat·ed, cor·re·lat·ing, cor·re·lates
1. To put or bring into causal, complementary, parallel, or reciprocal relation.
2. , thus eliminating the potential problem of multicolinearity among the predictor variables Noun 1. predictor variable - a variable that can be used to predict the value of another variable (as in statistical regression)
variable quantity, variable - a quantity that can assume any of a set of values (cues) in the regression analyses (Brehmer & Brehmer, 1988). Of course, sometimes a researcher might want the cues to be correlated to mirror real-world conditions (Brehmer & Brehmer, 1988; Stewart, 1988). Below is a single example of the 50 scenarios presented to respondents, in this case describing a potential female partner.
When it comes to physical attractiveness, this woman is above average; appealing to look at. Financially speaking, she is rather poor and does not have money for things beyond the bare necessities. Regardless of her financial situation, this woman is reluctant to share and does not frequently spend money on a dating partner. With regard to sexual experience, this woman has had sex with a total of 5 different partners and finds sex moderately enjoyable. Right now she is "going steady" with one man for whom she cares. Regardless of her current relationship status, this woman is looking for a potential spouse and hopes to get married before long.
College student respondents rated the desirability of each depicted de·pict
tr.v. de·pict·ed, de·pict·ing, de·picts
1. To represent in a picture or sculpture.
2. To represent in words; describe. See Synonyms at represent. short-term sexual partner using a 7-point scale. These ratings were then regressed onto the values for the 50 sets of six cues to derive a cognitive policy for each respondent. When the subsequent policies were aggregated across individuals, only two of the six hypothesized gender differences emerged with regard to PC preferences for short-term sexual partners. That is, men and women differed in the relative value placed on only two of the six cues when making judgments about the desirability of short-term sexual partners. However, when asked at the end of the task to rate how important the respondent believed each of the six characteristics were in determining his or her judgments, there were gender differences with regard to five out of the six.
Having data on both the PC value placed on each of the cues as well as the self-reported value placed on each of the cues allowed Wiederman and Dubois (1998) to assess the degree of insight respondents had into their own cognitive policies. Interestingly, only with regard to physical attractiveness was there a statistically significant relationship between the PC and self-reported importance placed on the characteristic (cue). In other words, respondents who placed the most importance on the physical attractiveness of potential short-term sexual partners did report placing the greatest value on physical attractiveness, but otherwise respondents displayed a complete lack of insight overall into the partner characteristics that influenced their judged desirability.
Wiederman and Dubois (1998) concluded that, had they only used the typical self-report methodology, the evolutionary hypotheses would have been supported, as had been the case in previous studies using such methodology. However, the findings from the PC methodology resulted in different conclusions. It may be that direct questioning regarding the characteristics most valued in short-term mates results in responses based on gender stereotypes.
Strengths and Weaknesses
As mentioned above, the primary strength of PC methodology is the ability for the researcher to directly assess the relative effects of various stimuli (cues) on individual's judgments. Accordingly, the researcher is not relying on respondent insight regarding which stimuli were most impactful, but rather is measuring the impact each stimulus had on the respondent's judgments. Respondents can still be asked for such introspection, which would then allow the researcher to compare the individual's PC cognitive policy with that reported by the individual respondent (i.e., one can assess how much insight the individual has into his or her own policy).
That the methodology allows for ideographic analysis is another strength. Rather than simply assessing general differences between groups, one can examine each research participant's cognitive policy. So, true investigation of individual differences, and possible correlates of those individual differences, is possible (see Wiederman & Dubois, 1998). Rather than simply concluding that one group differs from another, variables that may determine who among the two groups is responsible for the apparent group difference can be examined.
Relying on introspection regarding motives for past behavior limits one's effective sample to those individuals who have engaged in the behavior. However, it may be of theoretical interest to compare the cognitive policies of experienced individuals with those who have not engaged in the behavior. An advantage of policy capturing is that one need not have experienced the depicted situation to be able to make a decision or judgment. For example, if one were studying potential influences in people's decisions to use a condom during vaginal vag·i·nal
1. Of or relating to the vagina.
2. Relating to or resembling a sheath.
pertaining to the vagina, the tunica vaginalis testis, or to any sheath. intercourse, traditional methodology might result in asking respondents who have had coitus coitus /co·i·tus/ (ko´it-us) sexual connection per vaginam between male and female.co´ital
coitus incomple´tus , coitus interrup´tus to recall the most recent experience and to report why or why not a condom was used. Policy capturing allows the researcher to compare virgins and nonvirgins with regard to the impact of the variables contained in the scenarios, and any differences to emerge may have important implications for promoting condom use during first coitus.
An additional advantage of the PC methodology is that it allows the researcher a relatively high degree of control over the stimuli presented to respondents (especially when written scenarios are used). This strength is also one of the primary weaknesses of the methodology. It is possible that the stimuli presented to respondents are not representative of "real-world" stimuli encountered in the described situation, or that the researcher has failed to present the most relevant stimuli (Brehmer & Brehmer, 1988). If an important cue is not included in the study, its value in making judgments will go undiscovered.
To avoid such a possibility, researchers using a PC methodology frequently survey or interview the group from which respondents will be sampled first, to inquire in·quire also en·quire
v. in·quired, in·quir·ing, in·quires
1. To seek information by asking a question: inquired about prices.
2. about the most salient cues in the judgment task (Stewart, 1988). The researcher could also observe people actually engaged in making the judgments in their real lives in an attempt to determine the stimuli that are most important. Classic literature, mass media depictions, and clinical experience all provide possible sources of information for generating ideas about the most relevant factors involved in the particular judgment or decision-making task. So, a researcher interested in using policy capturing to assess the decision to end a marriage might first survey therapists who work with distressed couples, interview recently divorced individuals, and study accounts of divorce in magazines, television, and novels with regard to the factors that appear to be most important in the decision to divorce. The resulting stimuli could then be included in scenarios presented to respondents.
A related weakness of PC methodology involves the potential artificial nature of the stimuli presented to research participants. The stimuli may be representative of those encountered in the real world, but the mode of presentation may deviate significantly from that encountered in naturalistic nat·u·ral·is·tic
1. Imitating or producing the effect or appearance of nature.
2. Of or in accordance with the doctrines of naturalism. settings (Brehmer & Brehmer, 1988). In this case, the judgment task is artificial and may result in judgments potentially not representative of those made in actual situations. How well do the stimuli presented to respondents, which typically involve a written description and/or photograph, compare to the actual sensory stimuli encountered in the "real-life" analogue? How well do "paper people" compare to real people as stimuli upon which to base a judgment? These are important questions and concerns to consider when conducting PC research (Brehmer & Brehmer, 1988).
All of this is not to say, however, that PC studies must involve written scenarios. For example, college students have reported in focus groups that extraneous ex·tra·ne·ous
1. Not constituting a vital element or part.
2. Inessential or unrelated to the topic or matter at hand; irrelevant. See Synonyms at irrelevant.
3. stimuli such as the age, physical attractiveness, and dress of potential sex partners influenced whether the respondent judged that person a risk for HIV HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), either of two closely related retroviruses that invade T-helper lymphocytes and are responsible for AIDS. There are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is responsible for the vast majority of AIDS in the United States. infection (Williams et al., 1992). One could test this possibility by having college students rate the physical attractiveness, perceived age, degree of provocative dress, and so forth of a series of photographed individuals. A subsequent sample of college students then could rate each photographed individual with regard to perceived risk for HIV infection. Substantial correlations between the two ratings would support the idea that college students rely on particular extraneous cues for safety from HIV.
Another weakness of the methodology involves the very nature of the research task. Respondents are typically presented with 50, and sometimes upward of more than; above.
See also: Upward 100, scenarios, photos, or other depicted cases and asked to make a decision or judgment about each. The task can become tedious or boring, and maintaining respondent interest may be a concern. One possible solution is to break the task into more than one session (Stewart, 1988). I have had students express concern that using a PC methodology might result in respondents eventually "skimming Skimming
An electronic method of capturing a victim's personal information used by identity thieves. The skimmer is a small device that scans a credit card and stores the information contained in the magnetic strip. " cases looking for Looking for
In the context of general equities, this describing a buy interest in which a dealer is asked to offer stock, often involving a capital commitment. Antithesis of in touch with. the information that is most relevant to them rather than carefully reading each scenario or examining each photo. One can hope that research participants would be invested in the study and read every word or notice every detail; however, such is not always the case. When presented with standard questions regarding personal attitudes and behavior, hurried responding is liable to result in unreliable and potentially inaccurate responses. However, in responding to scenarios in a PC study, if the respondent has identified the one or two cues that are salient for determining his or her judgments, then focusing only on that information is not as problematic and is liable to result in reliable judgments across scenarios.
Policy capturing methodology is far from perfect, and there are several inherent weaknesses. Of course, it is applicable only when the focus of study is the why underlying judgment and decision making (or, more appropriately, the stimuli influencing judgments or decisions). When this is the case, it allows a direct assessment of the external factors that influence individuals' judgments, a quality that is particularly attractive given that humans apparently have little insight into their own mental processes (Gibbons Famous people named Gibbons include:
Baldwin, M. W. (1992). Relational schemas and the processing of social information. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 461-484.
Boon, S. D., & Sulsky, L. M. (1997). Attributions of blame and forgiveness in romantic relationships: A policy-capturing study. Journal of Social Behavior In biology, psychology and sociology social behavior is behavior directed towards, or taking place between, members of the same species. Behavior such as predation which involves members of different species is not social. and Personality, 12, 19-44.
Brehmer, A., & Brehmer, B. (1988). What have we learned about human judgment from thirty years of policy capturing? In B. Brehmer & C. R. B. Joyce (Eds.), Human judgment: The SJT SJT Stephen Joseph Theatre (UK)
SJT Syndicat des Journalistes Tunisiens (Tunisian Journalists' Union)
SJT Serjeant (archaic British 1900-1945) view (pp. 75-114). New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : Elsevier.
Finkelstein, M. A., & Brannick, M. T. (1997). Making decisions about sexual intercourse sexual intercourse
or coitus or copulation
Act in which the male reproductive organ enters the female reproductive tract (see reproductive system). : Capturing college students' policies. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 19, 101-120.
Fletcher, G. J. O., & Kininmonth, L. A. (1992). Measuring relationship beliefs: An individual differences scale. Journal of Research in Personality, 26, 371-397.
Gibbons, F. X. (1983). Self-attention and self-report: The "veridicality" hypothesis. Journal of Personality, 51, 517-542.
Hammond, K. R., McClelland, G. H., & Mumpower, J. (1980). Human judgment and decision making: Theories, methods, and procedures. New York: Praeger.
Nisbett, R. E., & Ross, L. (1980). Human inference (logic) inference - The logical process by which new facts are derived from known facts by the application of inference rules.
See also symbolic inference, type inference. : Strategies and shortcomings A shortcoming is a character flaw.
Shortcomings may also be:
Nisbett, R. E., & Wilson, T. D. (1977). Telling more than we can know: Verbal reports on mental processes. Psychological Review, 84, 231-259.
Stewart, T. R. (1988). Judgment analysis: Procedures. In B. Brehmer & C. R. B. Joyce (Eds.), Human judgment: The SJT view (pp. 41-74). New York: Elsevier.
Ullman, D. G., & Doherty, M. E. (1984). Two determinants of the diagnosis of hyperactivity hyperactivity, excessive physical activity of emotional or physiological origin, usually seen in young children; one of the components of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. : The child and clinician clinician /cli·ni·cian/ (kli-nish´in) an expert clinical physician and teacher.
n. . In M. Wolraich & D. K. Routh (Eds.), Advances in behavioral pediatrics, Vol. 5 (pp. 167-219). Greenwich, CT: JAI JAI Java Advanced Imaging
JAI Justice et Affaires Interiéures (French: Justice and Home Affairs)
JAI Journal of ASTM International
JAI Just An Idea
JAI Jazz Alliance International
JAI Joint Africa Institute Press.
Wiederman, M. W., & Dubois, S. L. (1998). Evolution and sex differences in preferences for short-term mates: Results from a policy capturing study. Evolution and Human Behavior Evolution and Human Behavior is an interdisciplinary journal, presenting research reports and theory in which evolutionary perspectives are brought to bear on the study of human behavior. , 19, 153-170.
Williams, S. S., Kimble, D. L., Covell, N. H., Weiss, L. H., Newton, K. J., Fisher, J. D., & Fisher, W. A. (1992). College students use implicit personality theory Implicit personality theory (IPA) concerns the general expectations that we build about a person after we know something of their central traits. For example when we believe that a happy person is also friendly, or that quiet people are timid. instead of safer sex. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 22, 921-933.
Manuscript accepted July 13, 1998
Address correspondence to Michael Wiederman, Ph.D., Department of Psychological Science, Ball State University, Muncie, IN, 47306-0520; e-mail: email@example.com