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Police Fatigue: an accident waiting to happen.



After working almost 35 hours straight on a case that involved high-stress surveillance, the controlled delivery of nearly 2 tons of marijuana, and the arrest of 5 suspects, a detective on a narcotics narcotics n. 1) techinically, drugs which dull the senses. 2) a popular generic term for drugs which cannot be legally possessed, sold, or transported except for medicinal uses for which a physician or dentist's prescription is required.  task force was driving over 350 miles back home. The judge in the case advised the prosecuting attorney that if the detective was not in court that day by 2 p.m., the case would be dismissed without prejudice Without any loss or waiver of rights or privileges.

When a lawsuit is dismissed, the court may enter a judgment against the plaintiff with or without prejudice. When a lawsuit is dismissed without prejudice
. As the detective approached the midway point on his route home, his vehicle, according to according to
prep.
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

3.
 witnesses, swerved left, traveled through the median strip, crossed the oncoming on·com·ing  
adj.
Coming nearer; approaching: an oncoming storm.

n.
An approach; an advance.
 traffic lanes, flipped several times, and ultimately came to rest on the opposite side of the interstate. The detective was severely injured and out of work for over a year.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Accounts of tragedies associated with law enforcement fatigue are not new. In fact, such stories become more commonplace each year. Convincing federal, state, and local law enforcement organizations of the seriousness of fatigue as an occupational health, commercial, public safety, and legal issue ultimately will require law enforcement managers to have a paradigm shift A dramatic change in methodology or practice. It often refers to a major change in thinking and planning, which ultimately changes the way projects are implemented. For example, accessing applications and data from the Web instead of from local servers is a paradigm shift. See paradigm.  to address this concern. Agencies must acknowledge this problem to improve working conditions for their personnel and to protect them from the scientifically documented consequences that fatigue can cause. For example, researchers assessed neurobehavioral functions after 17 hours of wakefulness wakefulness

believed to occur when the tonic flow of impulses from the reticular activating system exceeds the critical level for sustaining consciousness; reduction of reticular activating system activity is the basis of the pharmacological induction of sedation.
 and reported performance impairment on a range of tasks. (1) Impairments after 20 hours of wakefulness equaled that of an individual with a blood-alcohol concentration of 0.10, twice the presumptive pre·sump·tive  
adj.
1. Providing a reasonable basis for belief or acceptance.

2. Founded on probability or presumption.



pre·sump
 level of intoxication intoxication, condition of body tissue affected by a poisonous substance. Poisonous materials, or toxins, are to be found in heavy metals such as lead and mercury, in drugs, in chemicals such as alcohol and carbon tetrachloride, in gases such as carbon monoxide, and  in most states. (2) Further, the ability to maintain speed and road position on a driving simulator Driving Simulators are used for entertainment as well as in training of driver's education courses taught in educational institutions and private businesses. They are also used for research purposes in the area of human factors and medical research, to monitor driver behavior,  is significantly reduced when the awake period is prolonged by 3 hours. (3) The magnitudes of the decrements were similar to those found at and above the legal limits of alcohol consumption (0.05). (4) All of these studies indicated that moderate levels of sleepiness can substantially impair the ability to drive safely even before an individual actually falls asleep.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Exhaustion due to shift work, voluntary and mandatory overtime assignments, seemingly endless hours waiting to testify in court, physical and emotional demands of dealing with the public, and management expectations of doing more with less, combined with family responsibilities, puts the modern law enforcement professional at serious emotional and physical risk. Law enforcement fatigue and sleep deprivation sleep deprivation Sleep disorders A prolonged period without the usual amount of sleep. See Driver fatigue, Poor sleeping hygiene, Sleep disorders, Sleep-onset insomnia.  also are becoming serious political and legal liabilities for police managers. What department can sustain multimillion dollar lawsuits or afford to lose a veteran officer for years?

The cumulative work hours for many professionals, such as pilots, locomotive engineers, ship captains, public transportation and commercial truck drivers, firefighters, and emergency room doctors, are standardized and regulated through federal or state regulatory commissions (e.g., U.S. Department of Transportation or Federal Aviation Administration Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), component of the U.S. Department of Transportation that sets standards for the air-worthiness of all civilian aircraft, inspects and licenses them, and regulates civilian and military air traffic through its air traffic control ). Unfortunately, no such regulations exist for the majority of federal, state, and local law enforcement employees. "Police work is the one profession in which we would want all practitioners to have adequate and healthful health·ful
adj.
1. Conducive to good health; salutary.

2. Healthy.



healthful·ness n.
 sleep to perform their duties at peak levels. Not only is fatigue associated with individual misery, but it also can lead to counterproductive behavior. It is well-known that impulsiveness im·pul·sive  
adj.
1. Inclined to act on impulse rather than thought.

2. Motivated by or resulting from impulse: such impulsive acts as hugging strangers; impulsive generosity.
, aggression, irritability irritability /ir·ri·ta·bil·i·ty/ (ir?i-tah-bil´i-te) the quality of being irritable.

myotatic irritability  the ability of a muscle to contract in response to stretching.
, and angry outbursts are associated with sleep deprivation. It is totally reprehensible rep·re·hen·si·ble  
adj.
Deserving rebuke or censure; blameworthy. See Synonyms at blameworthy.



[Middle English, from Old French, from Late Latin repreh
 that the cops we expect to protect us, come to our aid, and respond to our needs when victimized should be allowed to have the worst fatigue and sleep conditions of any profession in our society." (5)

Throughout the last century, the standard work week was 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, designed to not intrude on Verb 1. intrude on - to intrude upon, infringe, encroach on, violate; "This new colleague invades my territory"; "The neighbors intrude on your privacy"
encroach upon, obtrude upon, invade
 workers' premium social time, such as evenings and weekends. As such, the 8-hour workday evolved from the widely held belief that the 24-hour day should be split evenly between work, recreation/relaxation, and sleep. While many people take the 8-hour day for granted as a part of normal life, such working conditions are a relatively recent industrial development. Traditionally, law enforcement personnel work long hours for four main reasons. First, they seek monetary gain--the more they work, the more money they make. Traditionally, wages for law enforcement personnel have been low; therefore, the dependence on overtime, night-shift premiums, and moonlighting (working other jobs) has been necessary. Second, they encounter organizational or occupational expectations (we have to do more with less). "Many companies (law enforcement agencies A law enforcement agency (LEA) is a term used to describe any agency which enforces the law. This may be a local or state police, federal agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) or the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). ) foster workaholism and actively seek out and reward workaholics." (6) Third, employees want personal satisfaction. The majority of law enforcement professionals could make substantially more money doing something else, but the job is fun, stimulating, exciting, challenging, unpredictable, and dangerous. It attracts risk-aggressive individuals who have chosen not to passively sit behind a desk. Finally, they belong to an exclusive fraternity. Law enforcement gives a person a sense of self-identity, belonging, and self-worth.

Not surprisingly, as long hours, shift work, and irregular hours of work increase, the hours, quality, and quantity of sleep decrease, causing a sleep debt. Conversely, fatigue levels rise, leading to detrimental effects on both health and on-the-job performance.

Fatigue

What is fatigue? How does it relate to sleep? Although there is no universally accepted definition of fatigue, several exist. Fatigue is a "tiredness concerning the inability of disinclination dis·in·cli·na·tion  
n.
A lack of inclination; a mild aversion or reluctance.

Noun 1. disinclination - that toward which you are inclined to feel dislike; "his disinclination for modesty is well known"
 to continue an activity, generally because the activity has been going on too long" (7) or "a feeling of weariness, tiredness, or lack of energy." (8)

People often use drowsiness drows·i·ness
n.
A state of impaired awareness associated with a desire or inclination to sleep. Also called hypnesthesia.


drowsiness Medtalk Semiconsciousness; grogginess, sleepiness
 and fatigue interchangeably, but they are not the same. Drowsiness is a feeling of the need to sleep or the state in which the body is ready to fall asleep. Fatigue is a lack of energy and motivation. Apathy, a feeling of indifference or not caring about what happens, and drowsiness can be symptoms of fatigue. It should be noted that fatigue can be a normal, healthy, and important response to physical exertion exertion,
n vigorous action, a great effort, a strong influence.
, emotional stress, boredom, or lack of sleep. However, it also can signify a more serious psychological or physical disorder A physical disorder (as a medical term) is often used as a term in contrast to a mental disorder, in an attempt to differentiate medical disorders which have an available objective mechanical test (such as chemical tests or brain scans), from those disorders which have no . Because fatigue is such a common complaint, sometimes a potentially serious cause may be overlooked.

In the last 25 years, the Years, The

the seven decades of Eleanor Pargiter’s life. [Br. Lit.: Benét, 1109]

See : Time
 job of enforcing the law has become increasingly complex from a cognitive perspective. Further, policing the community is creating tasks that require much higher levels of attentiveness than in the past. Long work hours are widely accepted as a major contributing factor to fatigue. (9) As hours of work increase, sleep is reduced with a concomitant elevation in fatigue and reduced levels of alertness. (10)

Sleep

Humans typically have four to six sleep cycles that each last 70 to 90 minutes. At the end of each cycle, they are nearly awake. In light sleep, body movement decreases and spontaneous awakening may occur. People spend most of the night in intermediate sleep, which helps refresh the body. Deep sleep, the most restorative re·stor·a·tive
adj.
1. Of or relating to restoration.

2. Tending or having the power to restore.

n.
A medicine or other agent that helps to restore health, strength, or consciousness.
 stage, lasts 30 to 40 minutes in the first few cycles and less in later ones. In this stage, people are the most difficult to arouse. Dreaming occurs in REM [Latin, In the thing itself.] A lawsuit against an item of property, not against a person (in personam).

An action in rem is a proceeding that takes no notice of the owner of the property but determines rights in the property that are conclusive against all the
 (rapid eye movement rapid eye movement
n.
Abbr. REM The rapid periodic jerky movement of the eyes during certain stages of the sleep cycle when dreaming takes place.
) and heart rate increases. This stage lasts about 10 minutes in the first cycle and 20 to 30 minutes in later ones. During a full night's sleep, these sleep cycles are repeated four to six times, moving from one stage of sleep to another. (11)

Several functions occur during sleep. These include--

* consolidation and optimization of memories;

* conservation of energy;

* promotion of physiological processes that rejuvenate re·ju·ve·nate  
tr.v. re·ju·ve·nat·ed, re·ju·ve·nat·ing, re·ju·ve·nates
1. To restore to youthful vigor or appearance; make young again.

2.
 the body and mind (some studies suggest that sleep restores neurons Neurons
Nerve cells in the brain, brain stem, and spinal cord that connect the nervous system and the muscles.

Mentioned in: Speech Disorders
 and increases the production of brain proteins and certain hormones);

* the process of unlearning that prevents the brain from becoming overloaded with knowledge; and

* avoidance of danger (prehistoric people adapted the pattern of sleeping in caves at night because it protected humans from species physiologically suited to function well in the dark, such as saber-toothed tigers saber-toothed tiger

wild cat that died out about 12,000 years ago. [Ecology: Hammond, 290]

See : Extinction
).

Lack of sleep is considered one of the primary causes of fatigue. Humans need to sleep--it is not a matter of choice but essential and inevitable. The longer a person remains awake, the greater the need to sleep and the more difficult to resist falling asleep. Sleep will inevitably overpower o·ver·pow·er  
tr.v. o·ver·pow·ered, o·ver·pow·er·ing, o·ver·pow·ers
1. To overcome or vanquish by superior force; subdue.

2. To affect so strongly as to make helpless or ineffective; overwhelm.

3.
 the strongest intentions and efforts to stay awake. (12)

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Little is known about the physiological role of sleep and ways in which it restores the brain to its full function, but the effects of fatigue on the brain can be measured. Studies have shown that after 24 hours of sustained wakefulness, the brain's metabolic activity can decrease by up to 65 percent in total and by up to 11 percent in specific areas of the brain, particularly those that play a role in judgment, attention, and visual functions. One study highlights nine dimensions of workplace performance susceptible to the effects of fatigue, including the inability to--

1) comprehend complex situations, such as processing substantial amounts of data within a short time frame, without distractions (the lack of focused attention associated with sleep deprivation is likely to reduce efficiency of such processing);

2) manage events and improve strategies;

3) perform risk assessment and accurately predict consequences;

4) think latterly and be innovative;

5) take personal interest in the outcome;

6) control mood and behavior;

7) monitor personal performance;

8) recollect rec·ol·lect  
v. rec·ol·lect·ed, rec·ol·lect·ing, rec·ol·lects

v.tr.
To recall to mind. See Synonyms at remember.

v.intr.
To remember something; have a recollection.
 timing of events; and

9) communicate effectively. (13) People know when they feel tired--their eyes become a little glassy, they tend to have less eye movement, and yawning yawning

a deep, involuntary inspiration with the mouth open, often accompanied by the act of stretching. Repeated yawning in the presence of other signs, may accompany signs of chronic abdominal pain or hepatic disease.
 is more pronounced. As they try to fight through periods of fatigue, the human body, in an effort to rest, goes into microsleeps where a person literally falls asleep anywhere from 2 to 10 seconds at a time. It is difficult to predict when a person, once fatigued, might slip into a microsleep mi·cro·sleep
n.
A period of sleep that lasts up to a few seconds, usually experienced by narcoleptics or by severely sleep-deprived people.


microsleep 
. Additionally, research has found that as little as 2 hours of sleep loss on one occasion can result in degraded reaction time, cognitive functioning cognitive function Neurology Any mental process that involves symbolic operations–eg, perception, memory, creation of imagery, and thinking; CFs encompasses awareness and capacity for judgment , memory, mood, and alertness.

Accident Risk

Research suggests that fatigue-related errors are common well before the point at which an individual no longer can stay awake. Inattention in·at·ten·tion  
n.
Lack of attention, notice, or regard.

Noun 1. inattention - lack of attention
basic cognitive process - cognitive processes involved in obtaining and storing knowledge
 may get much of the blame, but fatigue often is the culprit. Thus, fatigue studies likely are a conservative estimate of the overall incidence of reported fatigue-related accidents. "Human fatigue is now recognized around the world as being the main cause of accidents in the transportation industry." (14)

In addition to studying the direct link between accidents and fatigue, experts also have thoroughly researched the cognitive impairment thought to mediate the relationship. Major findings show that mood, attitude, and cognitive performance (judgment and competence) deteriorate with sleep deprivation. (15) Moreover, research shows that fatigue is four times more likely to cause workplace impairment than alcohol and other drugs. (16) Ironically, alcohol and drug abuse normally are addressed immediately by management. However, the lack of sleep, probably the most common condition adversely affecting personnel performance, often is ignored.

Fatigue in and of itself is not the key problem. Rather, the risks associated with fatigue impairment include poor judgment, accidents, and injuries. As such, fatigue is a context-dependent safety hazard, an important distinction because it can carry a significant risk in some situations and little or none in others. In some cases, fatigue-induced impairment and accidents may be inconsequential in·con·se·quen·tial  
adj.
1. Lacking importance.

2. Not following from premises or evidence; illogical.

n.
A triviality.
, creating only minor delays in completing a task, or may be detected by checks and balances (e.g., search warrants and fact patterns for probable cause Apparent facts discovered through logical inquiry that would lead a reasonably intelligent and prudent person to believe that an accused person has committed a crime, thereby warranting his or her prosecution, or that a Cause of Action has accrued, justifying a civil lawsuit.  court hearings are reviewed, checked, and proofread for accuracy before submission to judicial systems). In other situations, however, the risks of equipment damage, personal injury, and public safety can be far greater.

Reduced Social Time

The primary effect for law enforcement professionals working long hours is reduced social interactions and isolation from traditional community and social support systems, resulting in the "us against them" point of view. Furthermore, studies have shown that long work hours negatively impact an individual's family relations. (17)

Health Consequences

Fatigue is a symptom common to many diseases directly related to irregularity A defect, failure, or mistake in a legal proceeding or lawsuit; a departure from a prescribed rule or regulation.

An irregularity is not an unlawful act, however, in certain instances, it is sufficiently serious to render a lawsuit invalid.
 of daily life. Higher consumption of alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco; reduced physical exercise; stress; depression; social isolation; unbalanced diet and nutrition; and irregularity of daily meals all are hallmarks of law enforcement personnel around the world and can lead to an unhealthy increase in weight gain. (18) In fact, literature has indirectly linked long and irregular work hours with negative health issues to include disruptions of the body's biological rhythms, which may--

* change eating and sleeping habits; (19)

* raise blood pressure; (20)

* affect psychological well-being psychological well-being Research A nebulous legislative term intended to ensure that certain categories of lab animals, especially primates, don't 'go nuts' as a result of experimental design or conditions ; (21)

* cause negative effects for pregnant women and fertility rates; (22) and

* result in gastrointestinal disorders, (23) stress-related disability claims, decreased productivity, and increased absenteeism. (24)

Recommendations

Law enforcement agencies should make a concerted effort to provide a strong and coherent research base for the development of sound policies. Equating fatigue-related impairment to blood-alcohol equivalent gives policy makers, employees, and community leaders a clear index of the extent of impairment associated with fatigue. Agencies should develop preventative strategies to implement within the diverse range of political, economic, and social environments in which the law enforcement community functions and ensure cooperation with federal, state, and local court systems.

Departments should establish strict policies and implement effective enforcement regarding employee moonlighting. Administrators should review the policies, procedures, and practices that affect shift scheduling, overtime, rotation, the number of work hours allowed, and the way the organization deals with overly tired employees. Administrators should review recruit, supervisor in-service, and roll-call training, as well as executive retreats, to determine if personnel receive adequate information about the importance of good sleep habits, the hazards associated with fatigue and shift work, and strategies for managing them. Are personnel taught to view fatigue as a safety issue? Agencies should consider either implementing and enforcing regulations regarding a strict time-based work/rest policy, placing responsibility on the organization, or an education-based policy that focuses responsibility on the individual.

Finally, agencies should consider several different work/rest rules. The most common policy is the 16/8 formula. For every 16 hours of work, departments must provide 8 hours of rest time. Work/rest policies are most appropriate for agencies that have sufficient manpower to work in shifts. If resources are limited, managers may have to choose between using volunteers/reserves, implementing mutual aid agreements, or declaring an emergency and breaking the work/rest policy; therefore, any policy must include flexibility. Also, officers should not consider vacations just as missed days of work. They should turn off their cell phones and advise courts of scheduled leave. They always should take the time off that their departments provide and use it, remembering that no one is irreplaceable.

Conclusion

Modern law enforcement practices have developed well-entrenched unwritten LAW, UNWRITTEN, or lex non scripta. All the laws which do not come under the definition of written law; it is composed, principally, of the law of nature, the law of nations, the common law, and customs.  rules that treat sleep in utmost disregard and disdain. Agencies often encourage and reward workaholics. A recent news report covering a large party proudly declared: "Four hours into his second 12-hour shift, [the officer] has been busy answering questions, giving directions, listening to drunken declarations of love, and drunken jokes amid the endless roar of the crowd."

When a person is deprived of sleep, actual changes occur in the brain that cannot be overcome with willpower, caffeine, or nicotine. The decline in vigilance, judgment, and safety in relation to the increase in hours on the job cannot be trivialized. Community perceptions of fatigue-related risk have changed and now are viewed as absolutely unacceptable, as well as preventable. As a consequence, law enforcement professionals face a greater reactive pressure both politically and legally to rethink and implement proactive strategies to reduce fatigue-related incidents.

Fatigue is a serious, challenging problem that requires informed, forward-thinking managers to take action sooner, rather than later. Police leaders and sleep research experts need to work in concert to assess each individual agency to minimize the threat that fatigue poses to the community and the individual law enforcement professional. Fatigue is not just an industrial issue to negotiate between employers, unions, and employees but an occupational health, commercial, and public safety concern. Local, state, and federal law enforcement organizations that fail to sensibly manage fatigue today certainly will face a broad range of damaging and enduring legal, ethical, physiological, and personal consequences in the future.

Endnotes

(1) N. Lamond and D. Dawson, "Quantifying the Performance Impairment Associated with Fatigue," Journal of Sleep Research 8 (1999): 255-262.

(2) Ibid.

(3) J. Arendt, G. Wilde, P. Munt, and A. McLean, "How Do Prolonged Wakefulness and Alcohol Compare in the Decrements They Produce on a Simulated Driving Task?" Accident Analysis and Prevention 33, no. 3 (2001): 337-344.

(4) Similar levels of decrement To subtract a number from another number. Decrementing a counter means to subtract 1 or some other number from its current value.  in driving performance have been reported; see N. Powell, K. Schnecchtman, R. Riley, K. Li, R. Troell, and C. Guillcminault, "The Road to Danger: The Comparative Risks of Driving When Sleepy," Laryngoscope la·ryn·go·scope
n.
A tubular endoscope that is inserted through the mouth and into the larynx and that is used for examining the interior of the larynx.



la·ryn
 111, no. 5 (2001): 887-893.

(5) William C. Dement Dr. William C. DeMent, M.D., Ph.D., is an American sleep researcher. He is the founder and director of the Stanford University Sleep Research Center.

In the 1950s as a medical student, he was the first to intensively study the connection between rapid eye movement and
, M.D., Ph.D., in Brian Vila, Tired Cops: The Importance of Managing Police Fatigue (Washington, DC: Police Executive Research Forum. 2000): xiv.

(6) Lawson Savery, "Long Hours at Work: Are They Dangerous and Do People Consent to Them?" (Curtin University, Australia).

(7) European Transport Safety Council.

(8) U.S. National Library of Medicine Noun 1. U.S. National Library of Medicine - the world's largest medical library
National Library of Medicine, United States National Library of Medicine
 and the National Institutes of Health.

(9) The author bases this conclusion on his extensive research on this topic.

(10) J.C. Carey and J.I. Fishburne, "A Method to Limit Working Hours and Reduce Sleep Deprivation in an Obstetrics and Gynecology obstetrics and gynecology

Medical and surgical specialty concerned with the management of pregnancy and childbirth and with the health of the female reproductive system.
 Residency Program," Obstetrics and Gynecology 74, no. 4 (1989): 668-672.

(11) Information in this paragraph is derived from "Sleep: Your Body's Means of Rejuvenation Rejuvenation
Aeson

in extreme old age, restored to youth by Medea. [Rom. Myth.: LLEI, I: 322]

apples of perpetual youth

by tasting the golden apples kept by Idhunn, the gods preserved their youth. [Scand. Myth.
"; retrieved on November 28, 2006, from http://health.yahoo.com/topic/sleep/overview/article/mayoclinic/F422495-751C-4684-A0A50B88AB19B576.

(12) Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents This article or section needs sources or references that appear in reliable, third-party publications. Alone, primary sources and sources affiliated with the subject of this article are not sufficient for an accurate encyclopedia article. , "Driver Fatigue and Road Accidents: A Literature Review and Position Paper," February 2001; retrieved on December 5, 2006, from http://www.rospa.com/roadsafety/info/fatigue.pdf.

(13) Y. Harrison and J.A. Home, "The Impact of Sleep Deprivation on Decision Making: A Review," Journal of Experimental Psychology Applied 6 (April 2000): 236-249.

(14) http://www.aph.gov.au/house/committee/cita/manfatigue/mfcontents.htm

(15) A. Nocera and D.S D.S Drainage Structure (flood protection) . Khursandi, "Doctors' Working Hours: Can the Medical Profession Afford to Let the Courts Decide What Is Reasonable?" Medical Journal of Australia 168 (1998): 616-618.

(16) T. Akerstedt, "Consensus Statement: Fatigue and Accidents in Transportation Operations," Journal of Sleep Research 9 (2000): 395.

(17) D.L. Bosworth and P.J. Dawkins, "Private and Social Costs and Benefits of Shift and Nightwork," in Night and Shiftwork Biological and Social Aspects: Advances in the Biosciences 30, eds. A. Reinberg, N. Vieux, and P. Andlauer (Paris, France: Pergamon Press, 1980), 207-213.

(18) M. Shields, "Long Working Hours and Health," Health Rep 11, no. 2 (1999): 33-48.

(19) G. Costa, "The Impact of Shift and Night Work on Health," Applied Ergonomics ergonomics, the engineering science concerned with the physical and psychological relationship between machines and the people who use them. The ergonomicist takes an empirical approach to the study of human-machine interactions.  27, (1996): 9-16.

(20) T. Uehata, "Long Work Hours and Occupational Stress-Related Cardiovascular Attacks Among Middle-Aged Workers in Japan," J. Hum Ergol 20, no. 2 (1991): 147-153.

(21) S. Babbar and D. Aspelin, "The Overtime Rebellion: Symptom of a Bigger Problem? (Implications of Forced Overtime)," The Academy of Management Executive 12, (1998): 68-77.

(22) C.W. Henderson, "Study Links Long Hours, Job Stress to Miscarriages," Women's Health Women's Health Definition

Women's health is the effect of gender on disease and health that encompasses a broad range of biological and psychosocial issues.
 Weekly, June 9-16, 1997, 9-10.

(23) G. Costa, "Shift Work and Health," Med Lav 90, no. 6 (1997): 739-751.

(24) C. Mulcany, "Workplace Stress Reaches Epidemic Proportion," National Underwriter 95, no. 4 (1991): 20-21.
The woods are lovely, dark and deep.
But I have promises to keep,
And miles to go before I sleep,
And miles to go before I sleep.
--Robert Frost


By DENNIS LINDSEY, M.Ed.

RELATED ARTICLE: Results of Lack of Sleep
 1. Irritability with coworkers, family, or friends
 2. Inability to remain alert to respond to the demands of work
 3. Memory impairment
 4. Lack of concentration
 5. Lower frustration tolerance
 6. Accidents on the job or in the home
 7. Stress-related illness caused, in part, by a compromised immune
    system
 8. Inattention
 9. Obesity
10. Hypertension
11. Changes in metabolic functions
12. Alteration of hormonal functions in ways that mimic aging
COPYRIGHT 2007 Federal Bureau of Investigation
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2007, Gale Group. All rights reserved.

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Author:Lindsey, Dennis
Publication:The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin
Date:Aug 1, 2007
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