Play therapy practices among elementary school counselors.This study surveyed elementary school elementary school: see school. counselors who were members of the American School Counselor A school counselor is a counselor and educator who works in schools, and have historically been referred to as "guidance counselors" or "educational counselors," although "Professional School Counselor" is now the preferred term. Association regarding play therapy practices in the schools. Participants (N = 381) were surveyed regarding their training in play therapy, their use of play therapy, their belief system regarding play therapy, and their perceived limitations to the use of play therapy in the schools. Although school counselors appear to believe in the utility of play therapy in the schools, certain barriers were found to exist that were detrimental det·ri·men·tal
Causing damage or harm; injurious.
detri·men to its implementation. Counselors identified lack of time available with students and lack of training in play therapy as the primary limitations to its use in the schools.
Recent literature encourages the use of play therapy as a counseling medium for elementary school counselors (Baker & Gerler, 2004; Newsome & Gladding, 2003; Schmidt, 2003; White & Flynt, 1999). In addition, play therapy helps school counselors in the implementation of the National Standards developed by the American School Counselor Association (ASCA ASCA American School Counselor Association
ASCA Australian Shepherd Club of America
ASCA Arab Society of Certified Accountants
ASCA American Swimming Coaches Association
ASCA American Society of Consulting Arborists
ASCA Association of State Correctional Administrators ). These standards guide counselors to help students "acquire the attitudes, knowledge and interpersonal skills "Interpersonal skills" refers to mental and communicative algorithms applied during social communications and interactions in order to reach certain effects or results. The term "interpersonal skills" is used often in business contexts to refer to the measure of a person's ability to help them understand and respect self and others" (ASCA, 2003, p. 2). When responsive services are required of the elementary school counselor, play therapy appears to be one of the developmentally appropriate methods of intervention A procedure used in a lawsuit by which the court allows a third person who was not originally a party to the suit to become a party, by joining with either the plaintiff or the defendant. .
Responsive services address the immediate concerns of students. Individual counseling and group counseling are integral to responsive services. Counselors use these remedial REMEDIAL. That which affords a remedy; as, a remedial statute, or one which is made to supply some defects or abridge some superfluities of the common law. 1 131. Com. 86. The term remedial statute is also applied to those acts which give a new remedy. Esp. Pen. Act. 1. interventions with students who have difficulty making healthy choices and for those who need assistance in coping with difficult situations (Cobia cobia
Swift-moving, slim marine game fish (Rachycentron canadum), the only member of the family Rachycentridae. Found in most warm oceans, this voracious predator may grow as long as 6 ft (1.8 m) and weigh 150 lbs (70 kg) or more. & Henderson, 2003). In the elementary school, responsive services cover a broad range of interventions, from providing counseling groups for children of divorce to assist with their emotional struggles, to offering individual counseling for an abused child not functioning in school, to providing crisis intervention crisis intervention Psychiatry The counseling of a person suffering from a stressful life event–eg, AIDS, cancer, death, divorce, by providing mental and moral support. See Hotline. for a child who has lost control. Play therapy can be a way to help elementary school students deal with these issues.
RATIONALE rationale (rash´nal´),
n the fundamental reasons used as the basis for a decision or action. FOR PLAY THERAPY
The use of play therapy is based on a developmental understanding of children. Piaget's (1962) theory of cognitive development The Theory of Cognitive Development, one of the most historically influential theories was developed by Jean Piaget, a Swiss psychologist (1896–1980). His theory provided many central concepts in the field of developmental psychology and concerned the growth of intelligence, recognizes the differences between the way that children understand and process information and the way that adults function. Most children at the elementary level function at two stages: the "Preoperational Stage" (2-7 years) and the "Concrete Operations Stage" (8-11 years). These stages are approximately identified with chronological ages chron·o·log·i·cal age
n. Abbr. CA
The number of years a person has lived, used especially in psychometrics as a standard against which certain variables, such as behavior and intelligence, are measured. but there are significant variations among children.
At the Preoperational Stage, a child is acquiring the skill of language in which symbols are used to mentally represent objects. Also, in this stage, a child's thinking is rigid and limited to how things appear at the time. This is the stage of magical thinking magical thinking Psychology Dereitic thinking, similar to a normal stage of childhood development, in which thoughts, words or actions assume a magical power, and are able to prevent or cause events to happen without a physical action occurring; a conviction that in which children create implausible im·plau·si·ble
Difficult to believe; not plausible.
im·plausi·bil explanations for things that they do not understand. Regarding play, a child's play child's play
1. Something very easy to do.
2. A trivial matter.
Informal something that is easy to do
Noun 1. behaviors become increasingly imaginary Imaginary can refer to:
During the Concrete Operations Stage, the child grows in personal ability to reason logically and organize thoughts coherently. Children are able to manipulate manipulate
To cause a security to sell at an artificial price. Although investment bankers are permitted to manipulate temporarily the stock they underwrite, most other forms of manipulation are illegal. ideas and accept logical societal so·ci·e·tal
Of or relating to the structure, organization, or functioning of society.
Adj. rules. However, they can only think about actual physical objects. They are limited in their ability to engage in abstract reasoning. In this stage, children are unable to express certain complicated emotions, such as guilt or resentment Resentment is an emotion of anger felt as a result of a real or imagined wrong done. Etymologically from "ressentir", French re-, intensive prefix, and sentir "to feel"; from the latin "sentire". The English word has become synonymous with anger and bitterness. , because of the need for abstract thought to understand such emotions. For those children operating in the Concrete Operations Stage, play helps to bridge the gap between concrete experience and abstract thought.
Building on a developmental understanding of children, Axline (1969) and Landreth (2002) both identified basic principles that guide the therapist in play therapy. These basic principles are consistent with a child-centered philosophy of working with children (Landreth). They include, but are not limited to, the following:
1. Children's natural language is play. Play is a developmentally appropriate way that children express themselves.
2. Children have an inherent tendency toward growth and maturity.
3. Children are themselves capable of positive self-direction. Children possess the capacity to act responsibly.
In summary, play is an important medium for children for several reasons. Play is a natural language from which children express themselves (Landreth, 2002). Developmentally, play bridges the gap between concrete experience and abstract thought. Play offers children the opportunity to organize their real-life experiences that are often complicated and abstract in nature. Children gain a sense of control through play and also learn coping skills A coping skill is a behavioral tool which may be used by individuals to offset or overcome adversity, disadvantage, or disability without correcting or eliminating the underlying condition. Virtually all living beings routinely utilize coping skills in daily life. . Play therapy utilizes this understanding of children by offering children a therapeutic environment for their play. Play therapy is defined as a dynamic interpersonal relationship This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims.
Please help Wikipedia by adding references. See the for details.
This article has been tagged since September 2007. between a child and a therapist. The therapist, trained in play therapy procedures, provides selected play materials and facilitates the development of a safe relationship for the child to fully express and explore self. This process occurs through the child's natural medium of expression, play (Landreth).
THE USE OF PLAY THERAPY IN SCHOOLS
When elementary school counselors have a solid developmental understanding of children, play therapy might be one counseling intervention that they use with their students. Landreth (2002) has promoted the use of play therapy in schools by explaining that its objective is to help children get ready to profit from what teachers have to offer. Play therapy is an approach that may help school counselors to effectively assist children in their developmental growth.
In a meta-analysis meta-analysis /meta-anal·y·sis/ (met?ah-ah-nal´i-sis) a systematic method that takes data from a number of independent studies and integrates them using statistical analysis. of play therapy outcome research, Ray, Bratton, Rhine, and Jones (2001) found that play therapy was an effective treatment for children's problems. Treatment groups receiving play therapy performed .80 standard deviations In statistics, the average amount a number varies from the average number in a series of numbers.
(statistics) standard deviation - (SD) A measure of the range of values in a set of numbers. better than nontreatment groups. This is considered to be in the large effect size category (Cohen cohen
(Hebrew: “priest”) Jewish priest descended from Zadok (a descendant of Aaron), priest at the First Temple of Jerusalem. The biblical priesthood was hereditary and male. , 1977). This research included 94 studies spanning 6 decades, with 36 of the studies conducted in school settings. Fall, Balvanz, Johnson, and Nelson (1999) compared 31 children, who received six play therapy sessions facilitated by school counselors, to 31 children in a control group not receiving services. They found that self-efficacy self-efficacy (selfˈ-eˑ·fi·k was significantly increased for those children participating in play therapy. Additionally, Johnson, McLeod, and Fall (1997) and Post (1999) investigated the effectiveness of play therapy in schools. Both studies found that play therapy had a positive impact on student participants as compared to nonparticipants.
PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY
Play therapy appears to be a developmentally appropriate and effective means of counseling for elementary school students. However, to date, there has been little research conducted on the use and practice of play therapy by elementary school counselors. Because of this lack of knowledge, the authors surveyed elementary school counselors on such issues as training in and use of play therapy. The following research questions were posed:
1. What is the relationship between counselors' level of play therapy training and the use of play therapy in the schools?
2. What is the relationship between counselors' beliefs about play therapy and the use of play therapy in the schools?
3. What is the relationship between counselors' perceived barriers to using play therapy in the schools and the use of play therapy in the schools?
Participants in this study were 381 ASCA members employed as elementary school counselors. Counselors from all states except Alaska were represented in addition to counselors located in Germany, Austria, Korea, and Puerto Rico Puerto Rico (pwār`tō rē`kō), island (2005 est. pop. 3,917,000), 3,508 sq mi (9,086 sq km), West Indies, c.1,000 mi (1,610 km) SE of Miami, Fla. . The sample consisted of 348 females (91.6%) and 32 males (8.4%), with a mean age of 47 years (SD = 11; range = 25-73). Degrees held by respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. included 355 (93.2%) master's degrees master's degree
An academic degree conferred by a college or university upon those who complete at least one year of prescribed study beyond the bachelor's degree.
Noun 1. , 15 (3.9%) doctoral degrees, and 2 (.5%) bachelor's degrees. Participants' mean number of years of experience in school counseling was 8.85 (SD = 7; range = 1-35). Participants' school locations consisted of 180 (48.8%) suburban, 114 (31.1%) rural, and 74 (20.2%) urban schools. Participants' membership in other professional organizations included 167 (43.9%) in American Counseling Association The American Counseling Association (ACA) is a non-profit, professional organization that is dedicated to the counseling profession. ACA is the world's second largest association exclusively representing professional counselors. , 28 (7.4%) in Association for Play Therapy, 10 (2.6%) in American Psychological Association The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. Description and history
The association has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. , and 2 (.5%) in National Association for Social Workers. One hundred and forty (36.8%) participants reported membership in other professional organizations that largely included state and local associations.
A survey was developed based upon Axline's (1969) underlying beliefs about children when implementing person-centered play therapy and McLeod's (2000) research on the use of play therapy in public schools. The survey included demographic questions including gender, birth year, highest degree earned, years as a school counselor, location of the school (rural, suburban, or urban), number of students served, number of university-level courses in play therapy, number of workshops in play therapy, years of practical experience in play therapy, and membership in professional organizations. Participants then responded to some statements addressing beliefs regarding children using the following 5-point scale: 1 = strongly agree, 2 = agree, 3 = no opinion, 4 = disagree, 5 = strongly disagree. The three statements were the following: (a) Children have an inherent tendency toward growth and maturity. (b) Children's natural language is play. (c) Children are themselves capable of positive self-direction.
Three questions then addressed the use of play therapy, including (a) the number of hours spent engaged in counseling with students, (b) personal identification as a play therapist, and (c) the hours per week spent in play therapy with students. Participants then were asked to rate the effectiveness of play therapy for elementary school counseling on a 5-point Likert scale Likert scale A subjective scoring system that allows a person being surveyed to quantify likes and preferences on a 5-point scale, with 1 being the least important, relevant, interesting, most ho-hum, or other, and 5 being most excellent, yeehah important, etc . The final section of the survey addressed factors that might limit the use of play therapy, including the following: lack of facilities or space at the school, lack of supplies in the school, lack of administrative support, lack of time available with students, lack of training/education in play therapy, or disbelief Disbelief
See also Skepticism.
Trojan who mistrusted Trojan Horse; cautioned against bringing it into the city. [Gk. Myth.: Zimmerman, 50]
no one gave credence to her accurate prophecies of doom. [Gk. Myth. in play therapy effectiveness. At the conclusion of the survey, participants were provided an opportunity to write any comments regarding limitations to the use of play therapy. The survey was pilot-tested via administration to a sample of local master's-level school counselors in order to clarify any ambiguous items.
ASCA provided the researchers with 2,000 names randomly selected from its elementary school counseling membership. The researchers randomly selected 800 participants from this sample to participate in the survey. Gall, Borg, and Gall (1996) and Rea and Parker (1997) both cited low response rates as a major limitation of mail surveys. In efforts to improve the return rate of this survey, respondents were entered in a drawing for a DVD player A stand-alone device that plays DVDs. It contains a DVD drive and the electronics to decode the digital video. The device may play only manufactured DVDs, or it may be able to play DVD-R, DVD-RW and DVD+RW discs. DVD players are cabled to a TV or home theater system for display. .
The 800 individuals in the sample initially were precontacted via e-mail to inform them of the study and that the surveys would be arriving via mail. Surveys then were sent with a cover letter and a postage-paid return envelope. A total of 330 surveys were returned within 28 days of the initial mailing. After 28 days, a follow-up follow-up,
n the process of monitoring the progress of a patient after a period of active treatment.
follow-up plan notification was submitted via e-mail to those who had not responded. This follow-up included an electronic version of the survey that could be returned via e-mail. After this follow-up, 7 surveys were retrieved via e-mail and 44 surveys were retrieved via the postal service postal service, arrangements made by a government for the transmission of letters, packages, and periodicals, and for related services. Early courier systems for government use were organized in the Persian Empire under Cyrus, in the Roman Empire, and in medieval . Data collection ended on the 60th day after the initial mailing. The final return consisted of 381 surveys representing a 48% return rate. All 381 surveys were included in the final sample for this study.
Training and Use of Play Therapy
When participants were asked how much training in play therapy they had received, 67% indicated that they had not taken a university-level play therapy course. About 21% of participants indicated that they had taken one university play therapy course and 12% reported that they had taken two or more play therapy courses. As shown in Table 1, the level of training in play therapy was significantly related to its use in elementary schools. Mantel-Haenszel chi-square tests chi-square test: see statistics. revealed that the relationship between formal training in play therapy and use of play therapy was significant, [chi square chi square (kī),
n a nonparametric statistic used with discrete data in the form of frequency count (nominal data) or percentages or proportions that can be reduced to frequencies. ] (N= 300) = 11.56, p = .0007.
The majority of the respondents, 62%, indicated that they used play therapy 3 hours or less per week in their schools. Another 19% indicated that they used play therapy 4 to 6 hours a week. Apparently one of the factors related to the use of play therapy is the number of hours participants spent counseling students in general. About 93% of participants who indicated that they counseled students 5 hours or less per week reported that they used play therapy 3 hours or less per week. By contrast, about 38% of the participants who counseled students 6 hours or more per week used play therapy 4 hours or more per week.
Child-Centered Beliefs and Use of Play Therapy
Ninety-four percent of respondents strongly agreed or agreed that children have an inherent tendency toward growth and maturity. About 97% of the participants strongly agreed or agreed that children's natural language is play. Also, 78% of the participants strongly agreed or agreed that children are capable of positive self-direction. Even though the vast majority of participants indicated that they held beliefs about children that are consistent with child-centered play therapy, the only belief that was significantly related to the use of play therapy was the principle that the natural language of children is play, as indicated by Table 1, [chi square] (N= 376) = 11.92, p = .0006.
Barriers to the Use of Play Therapy
Chi-square tests were used to analyze the relationship between various barriers in schools and the use of play therapy. The belief that play therapy is ineffective was listed as a barrier by fewer than 2% of participants. Participants did indicate that a lack of time and training were the most important factors that limited their use of play therapy in elementary schools. Even though 70% of participants reported that a lack of time limited their use of play therapy in schools, the relationship between a lack of time and the number of hours using play therapy was not statistically significant. However, the relationship between a lack of training and the number of hours using play therapy was statistically significant, [chi square] (N = 376) = 14.19, p = .0002. Results from additionally listed survey barriers did not reach statistical significance. These included lack of facilities or space, lack of supplies, lack of administrative support, and time consumed con·sume
v. con·sumed, con·sum·ing, con·sumes
1. To take in as food; eat or drink up. See Synonyms at eat.
a. with noncounseling duties.
Despite the increasing support for using play therapy in elementary schools (Baker & Gerler, 2004; Newsome & Gladding, 2003; Schmidt, 2003; White & Flynt, 1999), researchers have not investigated the level of implementation of play therapy by elementary school counselors. The present study explored the practices of elementary school counselors concerning play therapy. In addition, this study surveyed the beliefs that counselors hold regarding the effectiveness of play therapy and the philosophy of child-centered play therapy.
Overall, participants demonstrated strong support for play therapy in elementary schools. More than 73% of respondents indicated that they believed that play therapy is an effective or highly effective tool for elementary school counselors, even though most participants had not been trained in play therapy. Only 1.6% identified the ineffectiveness in·ef·fec·tive
1. Not producing an intended effect; ineffectual: an ineffective plea.
2. Inadequate; incompetent: an ineffective teacher. of play therapy as a limiting factor A factor or condition that, either temporarily or permanently, impedes mission accomplishment. Illustrative examples are transportation network deficiencies, lack of in-place facilities, malpositioned forces or materiel, extreme climatic conditions, distance, transit or overflight rights, to its use in schools.
The belief in the effectiveness of play therapy could possibly be tied to basic beliefs about children. These basic principles are integral to the child-centered play therapy philosophy. Such beliefs were included in the survey so that researchers could investigate the relationship between barriers to play therapy and basic beliefs about children. Although more than 53% of participants had never been formally trained in play therapy, and another 20% declined to answer this question (possibly indicating that more than 73% of participants had never received formal training), the participants appeared to embrace several of these core beliefs. On the whole, it appeared that participants held beliefs that are consistent or somewhat consistent with child-centered play therapy. Counselors' beliefs in the strength of play and children's capabilities could explain their belief that play therapy is an effective medium for the elementary school counselor.
Results indicated that the majority of the surveyed elementary school counselors maintained a positive impression regarding the use of play therapy. In addition, their belief systems seemed aligned, or at least not opposed, to the belief system of child-centered play therapy. On the final question of the survey, counselors identified specific factors that limited their use of play therapy in the schools. The counselors recognized that their lack of time available to spend with counseling students and their lack of training were the main barriers to using play therapy. It is not surprising that counselors identified their lack of time to counsel students as their primary limitation to using play therapy. Counselors have becoming increasingly responsible for other duties in the schools, including testing and administrative tasks. This may limit their ability to provide any responsive services, including play therapy.
Results also reflected the positive effect of receiving training, because the amount of training that one received seemed to dictate TO DICTATE. To pronounce word for word what is destined to be at the same time written by another. Merlin Rep. mot Suggestion, p. 5 00; Toull. Dr. Civ. Fr. liv. 3, t. 2, c. 5, n. 410. the level at which one saw play therapy as effective. The researchers were most concerned with the finding that counselors identified a lack of training in play therapy as their second highest barrier to the use of play therapy. Close to 63% indicated a lack of training as a limitation. This finding was consistent with the previous finding that very few school counselors have actually received formal training in play therapy. In fact, several returned surveys included requests for training or training materials from the researchers. Participants in the survey appeared to hold play therapy in high regard and desired training in the use of play therapy.
One surprising finding regarding the specific limitations to play therapy in the schools was that counselors did not largely identify administrator support as a problem. The counselors seemed to be much more impaired by job duties, training, and facilities/materials than opposition from administrators. This seems to bode bode 1
v. bod·ed, bod·ing, bodes
1. To be an omen of: heavy seas that boded trouble for small craft.
2. well for future implementation of play therapy in elementary schools. Ostensibly os·ten·si·ble
Represented or appearing as such; ostensive: His ostensible purpose was charity, but his real goal was popularity. , if the counselor could concentrate on counseling duties and receive training, administrators would be in support of play therapy.
LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH
This study was encumbered Encumbered
A property owned by one party on which a second party reserves the right to make a valid claim, e.g., a bank's holding of a home mortgage encumbers property. by several research limitations. Although ASCA provided a randomized ran·dom·ize
tr.v. ran·dom·ized, ran·dom·iz·ing, ran·dom·iz·es
To make random in arrangement, especially in order to control the variables in an experiment. sample of elementary school counselors and an additional random sample was taken from the original sample, participants may not fully represent elementary school counselors. ASCA membership does not represent all elementary school counselors. It may be that there are differences in those professionals who choose to join their professional associations and those who are not affiliated with such organizations.
Possible future studies on the use of play therapy in the schools seem warranted. A future study might involve surveying school counselors who practice play therapy on the specifics of how they deliver play therapy in their schools. Research also is needed on how counselors make play therapy work in their schools. In addition, more information on what type of training is available to school counselors and what specific areas are severely lacking in training availability would be useful. As identified by Ray et al. (2001), researchers need to continue investigating the effects of play therapy in schools. The more we can demonstrate the effectiveness of play therapy, the more likely school counselors will be able to break down the identified barriers to play therapy.
The findings of the present study describe current play therapy practices of elementary school counselors. Although school counselors who participated in this study appeared to believe in the utility of play therapy in schools, certain barriers were identified that may limit its implementation. Lack of time available to work directly with students and lack of training in play therapy were the primary limitations identified in this study. These findings indicate that many elementary school counselors believe that play therapy is a developmentally appropriate way to provide counseling to young children. This study supports the need to address the barriers identified and to provide more pre-service training to future school counselors.
Table 1. Relationship of Training and Child-Centered Beliefs to Utilization of Play Therapy Utilization of Play Therapy (hours per week) 0 to 3 hrs 4 to 6 hrs 7 to 9 hrs Training in play therapy--courses (n = 300) * No courses 145 (72%) 25 (12%) 15 (7%) 1 or more 45 (46%) 28 (29%) 11 (11%) Belief #1: Children have a tendency toward growth and maturity (n = 376) Agree 223 (63%) 68 (19%) 30 (8%) Disagree 13 (62%) 3 (14%) 1 (4%) Belief #2: Children's natural language is play (n = 376) * Agree 227 (62%) 70 (19%) 31 (8%) Disagree 9 (90%) 1 (10%) 0 Belief #3: Children are capable of self-direction (n = 376) Agree 182 (62%) 56 (19%) 22 (8%) Disagree 54 (65%) 15 (18%) 9 (11%) Utilization of Play Therapy (hours per week) 10 to 12 hrs 13 + hrs Total Training in play therapy--courses (n = 300) * No courses 12 (6%) 5 (2%) 202 1 or more 6 (6%) 8 (8%) 98 Belief #1: Children have a tendency toward growth and maturity (n = 376) Agree 20 (6%) 14 (4%) 355 Disagree 2 (10%) 2 (10%) 21 Belief #2: Children's natural language is play (n = 376) * Agree 22 (6%) 16 (4%) 366 Disagree 0 0 10 Belief #3: Children are capable of self-direction (n = 376) Agree 20 (7%) 13 (4%) 293 Disagree 2 (2%) 3 (4%) 83 Note. Mantel-Haenszel chi-square is significant. * p < .001.
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New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : Ballantine.
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In 1913, law professor Dr. .
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This article is about reference works. For the subnotebook computer, see .
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n.pl those sciences devoted to the study of human and animal behavior. (Rev. ed rev.
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A lengthy, formal treatise, especially one written by a candidate for the doctoral degree at a university; a thesis.
1. , University of Iowa Not to be confused with Iowa State University.
The first faculty offered instruction at the University in March 1855 to students in the Old Mechanics Building, situated where Seashore Hall is now. In September 1855, the student body numbered 124, of which, 41 were women. , 1999). Dissertation Abstracts International, 60, 4332.
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A theoretical construct designed to assess a person's perceived control over his or her own behavior. The classification internal locus indicates that the person feels in control of events; external locus , and anxiety of at-risk 4th, 5th, and 6th grade students. International. Journal of Play Therapy, 8, 1-18.
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Dee C. Ray is director of the Child and Family Resource Clinic and assistant professor in the Counseling Program, University of North Texas, Denton.
Stephen A. Armstrong is assistant professor in the Department of Counseling, Texas A&M University-Commerce.
E. Scott Warren Scott Warren is the current keyboardist for heavy metal band Dio and Heaven and Hell. Prior to joining Dio, Scott Warren was a member of the groups Warrant, Keel and Berlin among others. He is a self taught keysman who began playing at age 6. is a doctoral student in the Counseling Program, University of North Texas.
Richard S Ri·chard , Joseph Henri Maurice Known as "Rocket." 1921-2000.
Canadian hockey player. A right wing for the Montreal Canadiens (1942-1960), he led his team to eight Stanley Cup championships and was the first player to score 50 goals in a . Balkin is assistant professor in the Department of Counseling, Texas A&M University-Commerce. E-mail: email@example.com