Printer Friendly
The Free Library
22,725,466 articles and books

Plants traditionally used in treating malaria, typhoid fever and piles in the Wa Municipality and Wa East (Funsi) District of the Upper West Region of Ghana.

Introduction

Plants have been used for various purposes since prehistoric times [6,8,5]. Indian Ayurveda medicine used herbs as early as 1900 BC describing about 700 medicinal plants [3]. Herbal medicine was also important from early days in Europe. Dioscorides who became popular with natural remedies about 60 AD described over 600 plants and plant extracts [5]. Sir William Osler (1849-1919) a physician, born in Ontario, Canada described morphine as "God's own Medicine" [7].

In Ghana, the knowledge about medicinal plant uses has been passed on mainly through folklore. Recently, however, a few have been documented in many emerging publications including Ghana herbal Pharmacoepoeia and Floristic Studies of Ghana [11,9]. However, many more plants needs to be documented for immediate research and use and for posterity, even more so when plant use varies highly from place to place. In a situation where it has become a common knowledge that majority of the Ghanaian population estimated at 65% live in rural areas and are highly dependent on traditional herbal medicine, documentation as a prelude to research and standardization of the medicinal plant s in use for various ailments is a necessity to safeguard their rational and safe use. The World Health Organization estimates that there are between 300 and 500 million new cases of malaria worldwide, every year, mostly in Africa, Asia, South Pacific Islands and South America, which causes, at least, 3 million deaths. The main drugs developed for malaria and used up to now were discovered based on traditional use and ethno medical data. Therefore new efforts to search for novel drugs for treating malaria are very important in countries like Ghana, where many endemic areas still exist [12,2]. In 2000, it was estimated that over 2.16 million episodes of typhoid occurred worldwide, resulting in 216,000 deaths [10]. This study therefore aimed at obtaining and identifying plants traditionally used in the treatment of malaria, typhoid fever and piles in the Wa municipality and Wa East District of Ghana with the hope that potential sources of treatments can be unearthed from medicinal plants. Malaria, typhoid fever and piles are the most prevalent diseases in these areas.

Materials and methods

Area of Study:

The area of study is Wa Municipality and Wa East (Funsi) Districts of the Uppr West Region. The Upper West Region of Ghana is located in the north-western corner of the country and is bordered by Burkina Faso to the north and La Cote D'Ivoire to the west. The capital and largest town is Wa. Other major towns include Nandom, Daffiema, Jirapa, Kaleo, Nadowli, Lawra, Tumu and Funsi. The major ethnic groups are the Dagaba, Sisaala and Wala. The Dagaba live in the western part of the district, the Sisaala live in the eastern areas, and the Wala live in South-western part of the district. The Sisaala and Dagaba are mostly Christians and animist, while most Wala are Muslims. Waali, the language of the Wala, and Dagaare, the language of the Dagaaba are mutually intelligible.

The major economic activity of the region is agriculture. Crops grown include corn, millet, groundnuts, okro, and rice. Mainly Sheep, goats, fowls and guinea fowls are raised for meat and eggs. The region has two main seasons-the wet season which is short covering May to September and the dry season extending roughly from October to May. The vegetation is Guinea savannah. Using the 2000 population census figures, Wa Town ship has a population of 576,583. About 7 out of every 10 males can be said to be literate but only about 4 out of every 10 females are literates (Ghana population census, 200).

Sampling Technique:

Semi-random sampling (Burns, 2000) was employed. Each of the healers using various plants was met by chance in the selected area. Fifty one traditional healers were interviewed. All 51 healers were visited within from July 10th to July 24th 2010. Upon arrival at the house of each of the traditional healer, introductions were done and the purpose of the visit stated. After each interview, the healer was thanked and a packet of sugar given out to him/her as a sign of appreciation. Each traditional healer was made to answer a set of questions. Since most of the traditional healers were not formally educated, the questions had to be translated into the local dialect. The answers provided were used to complete the questionnaire. Wherever necessary, collected specimens were coded in the field for identification later.

Data rationalization:

The plants collected were identified by their vernacular names and their scientific equivalent found and documented.

Analysis of data:

The data collected were analyzed using Microsoft Exel.

Results and analysis:

The information obtained through the interview was grouped into two broad areas: a) Botanical source and part of the plant used in treatments and b) all other related information. The names of plants appearing in the survey are summarized in table1. In table 2, the methods of preparing the medicines from the plants have been summarized.

Disease frequency of occurrence and treatment:

Table three summarizes the frequency of malaria treatment by healers. Twenty-six healers claimed to treat between six to fifteen cases of malaria a week. Eleven healers claim to treat sixteen to twenty-five cases of malaria a week. These values are high and it could therefore be said that malaria is predominant in the area. The time used to treat malaria, typhoid fever and piles are also summarized in tables 4, 5 and 6. Of the fifty-one healers interviewed, forty-six of them treat typhoid fever. Five did not handle the disease at all (Table 7).

Thirty-eight of the fifty-one healers interviewed claimed to treat piles (Table 8).

Discussion:

This study was conducted to collect and identify plants traditionally used to treat malaria, typhoid and piles in the Funsi District and Wa Municipality.

The anus is surrounded by many blood vessels including the very weak '2,7,9 haemorrhoidal veins' If these become dilated and swollen, they project into the anal canal or out of the back passage to form visible swellings. The traditional healers interviewed generally described piles as a haemorrhoidal growth in the anus which is usually characterized by severe pain during defecation. Feces of patient normally contain mucous and blood. This description fits allopathic concept of piles very well however, the healers notion that piles may also affect the eyes of the patient causing them to itch is questionable.

Malaria was described by healers as a disease that causes fever, headache, loss of appetite, malaise sometimes accompanied by vomiting and dizziness. However these symptoms described by the healers are not peculiar to malaria alone since many other disease states such as typhoid may present with similar symptoms. Typhoid itself was diagnosed by symptoms such as fever, malaise, headache, vomiting, diarrhea and constipation. Though the symptoms given by healers tallies with allopathic descriptions, the healers need to refer patients to laboratory for confirmation diagnosis.

The study has provided information about the species of plants used in the treatment of malaria, typhoid fever and piles in the Wa and Funsi districts.

The species used in the treatment of malaria represents 37.3% of the total species reported whilst that of typhoid fever represents 32.2% and that of piles, 30.5% of the total species reported.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Most of the species used to treat malaria in the two areas are known to be anti-malarial plants and thus corroborate data from among other sources including Abbiw [1] and Mshana et al [9], but the study has also identified and documented the anti-malarial use probably for the first in Ghana of three species namely Haematostaphisbarteri, Monathotaxissp and Strychnosinnocua. Also for the first time, the use of Khayasenegalensis, Haemastostaphisbarteri, Mitragynainermis, Monanthotaxissp, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Cochlospermumtinctorium and Acanthospermushispidum for the treatment of typhoid fever was recorded. First time usage of Piptoporusbetulinusand Vignea subterranean for management of piles was also recorded. Interestingly, there was some overlap in the species used in the treatment of malaria and typhoid fever. This could be either because some healers probably did not know the difference between malaria and typhoid fever and so treated the two diseases as the same illness or it could be just that the species used had both anti-malaria and anti-typhoid fever properties.

Thirty-three percent of the healers claim they se one week to treat typhoid. This information is particularly important since the condition is treated in a minimum of 10-14 days with conventional treatment methods. The data provided could thus provide more effective and easier methods of treating the condition. Generally the healers use at least three days to treat malaria and a maximum of a week (7 days) to treat the condition despite the differences in recipe. This data is therefore a prelude for standardization of preparations for wider use.

The frequency of treatment of the diseases (malaria, typhoid fever and piles) and the ability of herbalists encountered in the course of the study, in giving at least one herbal prescription for the diseases show the prevalence of the diseases in the area and how they have been tackled over time. Therefore these findings suggest that medicinal plants for the therapy of these conditions in the two districts are potential sources for the development of new drugs from indigenous plants from these two areas.

Conclusion:

Twenty-two species from nineteen families have been identified for the treatment of malaria in the Wa Municipality and Wa East (Funsi) District Upper West Region of Ghana. Twenty-one species from ten families have been identified for the treatment of typhoid fever and eighteen species from fifteen families have been identified for management of piles in the two districts.

Cochlospermumtinctorium, Khayasenegalensis, Haemastostaphisbarteri, Mitragynainermis and Acanthospermushispidum have been identified as being used to treat both malaria and typhoid fever by some healers in the two districts. The study has also identified and documented the anti-malarial use, probably, for the first in Ghana of three species namely Haematostaphisbarteri, Monathotaxissp and Strychnosinnocuaand. Also for the first time, the use of Khayasenegalensis, Haemastostaphisbarteri, Mitragynainermis, Monanthotaxissp, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Cochlospermumtinctorium and Acanthospermushispidum for the treatment of typhoid fever was recorded. First time usage of Piptoporusbetulinus and Vigneasubterranean for the treatment of piles was also recorded.

Acknowledgment

The authors would like to acknowledge the technical staff of Pharmacognosy department, all herbalists interviewed in the study area, the ranger, Mr. Bahass who offered to guide the tour and to the forestry department (Wa, Ghana) who helped with the identification.

References

[1.] Abbiw, D., 1990. Useful plants of Ghana. Intermediate technology limited/Royal Botanic Garden, London, pp: 413.

[2.] Acharya, M., K. Deepak, A. Shrivastava, 2008. Indigenous herbal Medicine: Tribal formulations and Traditional herbal practices. Aavishkar publishers, pp: 440.

[3.] Aggarwal, B.B., C. Sundaram, N. Malani and H. Ichikawa, 2007. Curcumin, the Indian Solid Gold" Adv. Exp. Med. Biol., 595: 1-75.

[4.] Burns, R.B., 2000. Introduction to Research Methods. SAGE publications, pp: 613.

[5.] Carr, I., 1997. The far beginnings, a brief history of medicine. Health Sciences Library, University of Manitoba [serial on the Internet] 1997 August [cited 2009 Aug30]. [http://umanitoba.ca/faculties/medicine/history/salerno/index.htm].

[6.] Evans, W.C., 1989. Trease and Evan's Pharmacognocy 13th Edition. ELBS/Baillere Tindall, pp: 832.

[7.] Katzung, B.G., 1982. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. 5th Ed Lange Med. Pbs. Calif, pp: 1017.

[8.] Lawrence, D.R. and P.N. Bennett, 1995. Clinical Pharmacology ELBS with Churchill Livingston, Edinburgh, pp: 686.

[9.] Mshana, R.N., D.K. Abbiw, I. Addae-Mensah, E. Adjanouhoun, M.R.A. Ahyi, J.A. Ekpere, E.G. Enow-Rock, Z.O. Gbile, G.K. Noamesi, M.A. Odei, A. Odunlami, A.A. Oteng-Yeboah, K. Sarpong, A. Sofowora, Tackie, 2001. Traditional Medicine and Pharmacopoeia; Contribution to the Revision of Ethno botanical and Floristic Studies in Ghana. Science and Technology Press, CSIR, pp: 920.

[10.] Ochiai, R.L., C.J. Acosta, M.C. Danovaro-Holliday, B. Dong, S.K. Bhattacharya, M.D. Agtini, A.B. Zulfiqar, D.G Canh,. M. Ali, S. Seonghye, J. Wain, P. Anne-Laure, J. Farrar, R. Abu-Elyazeed, T. Pang, C.M. Galindo, S. Lorenz von and J.D. Clemens, 2011. A study of typhoid fever in five Asian countries: disease burden and implications for controls. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 89(7): 469-544.

[11.] Policy Research and Strategic Planning Institute, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, CSIR, Ghana, 1992. Ghana Herbal Pharmacopoeia, pp: 295.

[12.] Symth, J.D., 1994. Animal Parasitology, 3rd edition. Cambridge University Press, pp: 549.

(1) Sam, G.H., (2) Mensah, M.L.K., (3) Annan, Kofi and (4) Sena Zahree

(1,2,3) Department of Herbal Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana.

(4) Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Health Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana.

Sam, G.H., Mensah, M.L.K., Annan, Kofi and Sena Zahree; Plants Traditionally Used in Treating Malaria, Typhoid Fever and Piles in the Wa Municipality and Wa East (Funsi) District of the Upper West Region of Ghana

Corresponding Author

Sam, G.H., Department of Herbal Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana.

E-mail: ghenrysam@gmail.com.

Table 1: Plantscited in the study area.

Vernacular name (1, 2) (Waale-Sissali)      Scientific name

1. Naahoonyeko[??]biri                      Paulina pinnata
2. Gbalenbili                               Cochlospermumtinctorium
3. Kogo                                     Khayasenegalensis
4. Sunsugree                                Aradirachtaindica
5. Dondoleeyeelee                           Mitragynainermis
6. Nansaalesunsugree                        Cassia sieberiana
7. Guava                                    Psidiumgnavaja
8. Bedawsaalong                             Sidaacuta
9. Nyegimaalee                              Hoslundiaopposita
10. Bogovaare                               Acanthospermushispidum
11. Magengeri                               Carica papaya
12. Vape[??]laa                             Strychnosinnocua
13. Puhae                                   Tamarindusindica
14. Kambasagha                              Lippiaadoensis
15. Kyuuna                                  Combretumghasalense
16. Kpela                                   Pseudocedrelakotschyi
17. Gbentori                                Lanneaacida
18. Haarielel                               Alchorneacordifolia
19. Gimberi                                 Haematostaphisbarteri
20. Myanbeine                               Monanthotaxissp
21. Lumbumiihuu                             Citrus aurantifolia
22. Simbiri                                 Vigneasubterranea
23. Bawye[??]lee                            Phyllanthusdiscoideus
24. Mongo                                   Mangiferaindica
25. Bilenbi                                 Plumbagozeylanica

26. Shiwaaka                                Veroniaamygdalina
27. Jumburi                                 Kigeliaafricana
28. Misi                                    Xylopiaaethiopica
29. Nyegimaalee                             Hoslundiaopposita
30. Satutulee                               Monadoramyristica
31. Bedawsaalong                            Sidaacuta
32. Duosingbuo                              Piptoporusbetulinus
33. Kogo                                    Khayasenegalensis
34.   Moose sunsugree                       Dialiumguineense
35.   Kooka bark                            Harunganamadagascariensis
36. Kwagiri                                 Corchorusolitorius
37. Maakyehaa                               Blighiasapida
38. Guongae                                 Nauclealatifolia
39. kpakpaga                                Emilia sonchifolia
40. Shiwaaka                                Veroniaamygdalina
41. Kogo                                    Khayasenegalensis
42. Gimberi                                 Haemastostaphisbarteri
43. Dondoliyelee                            Mitragynainermis
44. Myanbeine                               Monanthotaxissp
45. Baabili                                 Eucalyptus camaldulensis
46. Odubrafo(Twi)                           Mareyam icrantha
47.   Gyama (Twi)                           Alchorneacordifolia
48. Gbalenbile                              Cochlospermumtinctorium
49. Bogovaare                               Acanthospermushispidum
50. Kongo[??]
51.   Pootei (Twi)
52. Logone[??]he
53. Kponkpolo
54.   Gronongtikpa (Gonja)
55. Baabean
56. Simago[??]
57. Logone[??]he
58. Lawkperi
59 Konbarisaaka(Gonja)

Vernacular name (1, 2) (Waale-Sissali)      Family

1. Naahoonyeko[??]biri                      Sapindaceae
2. Gbalenbili                               Bixaceae
3. Kogo                                     Meliaceae
4. Sunsugree                                Meliaceae
5. Dondoleeyeelee                           Rubiaceae
6. Nansaalesunsugree                        Leguminosae
7. Guava                                    Myrtaceae
8. Bedawsaalong                             Malvaceae
9. Nyegimaalee                              Labiatae
10. Bogovaare                               Compositae
11. Magengeri                               Caricaceae
12. Vape[??]laa                             Logoniaceae
13. Puhae                                   Caesalpinadeae
14. Kambasagha                              Verbenaceae
15. Kyuuna                                  Combretaceae
16. Kpela                                   Meliaceae
17. Gbentori                                Anacardiaceae
18. Haarielel                               Euphorbiaceae
19. Gimberi                                 Anacardiaceae
20. Myanbeine                               Annonaceae
21. Lumbumiihuu                             Rutaceae
22. Simbiri                                 Fabaceae
23. Bawye[??]lee                            Euphorbiaceae
24. Mongo                                   Anacardiaceae
25. Bilenbi                                 Plumbaginaceae
26. Shiwaaka                                Asteraceae
27. Jumburi                                 Bignoniaceae
28. Misi                                    Annonaceae
29. Nyegimaalee                             Lamiaceae
30. Satutulee                               Annonaceae
31. Bedawsaalong                            Malvaceae
32. Duosingbuo                              Fomitopsidaceae
33. Kogo                                    Meliaceae
34.   Moose sunsugree                       Leguminosae
35.   Kooka bark                            Hypericaceae
36. Kwagiri                                 Tiliaceae
37. Maakyehaa                               Sapindaceae
38. Guongae                                 Rubiacaea
39. kpakpaga                                Asteraceae
40. Shiwaaka                                Asteraceae
41. Kogo                                    Meliaceae
42. Gimberi                                 Anacardiaceae
43. Dondoliyelee                            Rubiaceae
44. Myanbeine                               Annonaceae
45. Baabili                                 Myrtaceae
46. Odubrafo(Twi)                           Euphorbiaceae
47.   Gyama (Twi)                           Euphorbiaceae
48. Gbalenbile                              Bixaceae
49. Bogovaare                               Compositae/ Asteraceae
50. Kongo[??]
51.   Pootei (Twi)
52. Logone[??]he
53. Kponkpolo
54.   Gronongtikpa (Gonja)
55. Baabean
56. Simago[??]
57. Logone[??]he
58. Lawkperi
59 Konbarisaaka(Gonja)

Vernacular name (1, 2) (Waale-Sissali)      Use/S

1. Naahoonyeko[??]biri                      Malaria
2. Gbalenbili                               Malaria
3. Kogo                                     Malaria
4. Sunsugree                                Malaria
5. Dondoleeyeelee                           Malaria
6. Nansaalesunsugree                        Malaria
7. Guava                                    Malaria
8. Bedawsaalong                             Malaria
9. Nyegimaalee                              Malaria
10. Bogovaare                               Malaria
11. Magengeri                               Malaria
12. Vape[??]laa                             Malaria
13. Puhae                                   Malaria
14. Kambasagha                              Malaria
15. Kyuuna                                  Malaria
16. Kpela                                   Malaria
17. Gbentori                                Malaria
18. Haarielel                               Malaria
19. Gimberi                                 Malaria
20. Myanbeine                               Malaria
21. Lumbumiihuu                             Malaria
22. Simbiri                                 Piles
23. Bawye[??]lee                            Piles
24. Mongo                                   Piles
25. Bilenbi                                 Piles
26. Shiwaaka                                Piles
27. Jumburi                                 Piles
28. Misi                                    Piles
29. Nyegimaalee                             Piles
30. Satutulee                               Piles
31. Bedawsaalong                            Piles
32. Duosingbuo                              Piles
33. Kogo                                    Piles
34.   Moose sunsugree                       Piles
35.   Kooka bark                            Piles
36. Kwagiri                                 Piles
37. Maakyehaa                               Piles
38. Guongae                                 Piles
39. kpakpaga                                Typhoid fever
40. Shiwaaka                                Typhoid fever
41. Kogo                                    Typhoid fever
42. Gimberi                                 Typhoid fever
43. Dondoliyelee                            Typhoid fever
44. Myanbeine                               Typhoid fever
45. Baabili                                 Typhoid fever
46. Odubrafo(Twi)                           Typhoid fever
47.   Gyama (Twi)                           Typhoid fever
48. Gbalenbile                              Typhoid fever
49. Bogovaare                               Typhoid fever
50. Kongo[??]                               Typhoid fever
51.   Pootei (Twi)                          Typhoid fever
52. Logone[??]he                            Typhoid fever
53. Kponkpolo                               Malaria
54.   Gronongtikpa (Gonja)                  Typhoid fever
55. Baabean                                 Typhoid fever
56. Simago[??]                              Typhoid fever
57. Logone[??]he                            Typhoid fever
58. Lawkperi                                Typhoid fever
59 Konbarisaaka(Gonja)                      Piles

Table summary: Plant species for Malaria, 22;
typhoid, 19; piles, 18 (1) Unless otherwise
stated, the vernacular names are Waale- Sissali.
(2) Plants numbered 50 to 59 have not been
identified by their scientific names.

Table 2: Plants and methods of preparation for
use in the study area.

Plant Species                 Local Name          Indication
                              (Waale-Sissali)

Paulina pinnata               Naahoonyekobiri     Malaria:

Cochlospermumtinctorium       Gbalenbili          Malaria
Khayasenegalensis             Kogo                Malaria
Aradirachtaindica             Sunsugree           Malaria

Mitragynainermis              Dondoleeyeelee      Malaria

Psidiumguavaja                Guava               Malaria
Sidaacuta                     Bedawsaalong        Malaria
Hoslundia opposite            Nyegimaalee         Malaria
Cassia sieberiana             Nansaalesunsugree   Malaria

Acanthosperm ushispidum       Bogovaare           Malaria

Citrus aurantifolia           Lumbimiihuu         Malaria

Carica papaya                 Magengeri           Malaria

Strychnosinnocua              Vapelaa             Malaria
Tamarindusindica              Puhae               Malaria

Lippiaadoensis                kambasagha          Malaria

Com bretumghasalense          Kyuuna              Malaria
Lanneaacida                   Gbentori            Malaria

Alchorneacordifolia           Haarielel           Malaria
Haematostaphisbarteri         Gimberi             Malaria

Monanthotaxissp               Myanbeine           Malaria

Vigneasubterranea             Simbiri             Piles

Phyllanthusdiscoideus         Bawyelee            Piles

Mangiferaindica               Mongo               Piles

Plum bagozeylanica            Bilenbi             Piles
Kigeliaafricana               Jumburi             Piles

Xylopiaaethiopica             Misi                Piles

Hoslundiaopposita             Nyegimaalee         Piles

Monadoramyristica             Satutulee           Piles

Veroniaamygdalina             Shiwaaka            Piles

Sidaacuta                     Bedawsaalong        Piles

Piptoporusbetulinus           Duosingbuo          Piles

Khayasenegalensis             Kogo                Piles

Khayasenegalensis             Kogo                Piles

Dialiumguineense              Moose sunsugree     Piles

Harunganamatdagascariens is   Kooka bark          Piles

Corchorusolitorius            Kwagiri             Piles
Blighiasapida                 Maakyehaa           Piles

Emilia sonchifolia            Kpakpaga            Typhoid fever

Veroniaamygdalina             Shiwaaka            Typhoid fever

Khayasenegalensis             Kogo                Typhoid fever
Mitragynainermis              Dondoliyelee        Typhoid fever

Chorchorusolitorus            Kwagiri             Typhoid fever
Monanthotaxissp               Myanbeine           Typhoid fever

Mareyamicrantha               Odubrafo            Typhoid fever

Alchorneacordifolia           Gyama               Typhoid fever
Acanthosperm ushispidum       Bogovaare           Typhoid fever

Cochlospermumtinctorium       Gbalenbili          Typhoid fever

Plant Species                 Method of Preparation

Paulina pinnata               Boil leaves and drink
                                three times daily
Cochlospermumtinctorium       Boil chopped roots  and drink
Khayasenegalensis             Boil stem bark and drink
Aradirachtaindica             Boil leaves, drink and
                                use for steam bath
Mitragynainermis              Boil leaves and twigs and
                                drink 3 times daily
Psidiumguavaja                Boil leaves and drink decoction
Sidaacuta                     Drink leave decoction 3 times daily
Hoslundia opposite            Boil leaves and drink 3 times a day
Cassia sieberiana             Boil chopped roots and drink.
                                Boil leaves and use as steam bath
Acanthosperm ushispidum       Boil leaves and drink and also
                                use as steam bath
Citrus aurantifolia           Boil leaves and/or fruit
                                juice and drink. (May add sugar)
Carica papaya                 Boil leaves with leaves of
                                Azadirachtaindica and drink
Strychnosinnocua              Drink leave decoction
Tamarindusindica              Boil leaves and stem bark and
                                drink decoction 3 times daily
Lippiaadoensis                Boil leaves and drink twice daily
                                (May add sugar)
Com bretumghasalense          Boil leaves and drink decoction
Lanneaacida                   Boil leaves with leaves of
                                Mangiferaindica. Drink and use as
                                steam bath for three days
Alchorneacordifolia           Boil leaves and drink decoction
Haematostaphisbarteri         Boil leaves with leaves of
                                Psendocedrelakotschyi
                                Drink twice daily
Monanthotaxissp               Boil leaves and twigs and
                                drink 3 times daily
Vigneasubterranea             Char leaves and mix with Shea butter
                                and apply to the area
Phyllanthusdiscoideus         Burn leaves and let smoke
                                pass over area.
                                Char leaves, mix with shea butter
                                and apply to affected area
Mangiferaindica               Burn stem bark and let smoke pass over
                                affected area. Boil leaves with
                                Xylopiaaethiopica fruit and drink.
Plum bagozeylanica            Boil leaves and use as enema
Kigeliaafricana               Burn leaves and fruits and let smoke
                                pass over area. Apply charred leaves
                                and fruit with shea butter and apply

Xylopiaaethiopica             Grind fruit and mix with Shea butter
                                and apply to area. make fruit
                                decoction and drink
Hoslundiaopposita             Boil leaves,add fruit juice of
                                Citrus aurantifoliaand drink
Monadoramyristica             Char leaves, mix with shea
                                butter and apply
                                to affected area. Boil leaves
                                and drink 2 times a day
Veroniaamygdalina             Grind leaves and boil in
                                water with Tamarindus.
                                Strain and drink infusion.
                                May add sugar.
Sidaacuta                     Grind charred leaves and mix with shea
                                butter and apply to affected area
Piptoporusbetulinus           Grind and mix with shea butter
                                and apply to affected area
Khayasenegalensis             Boil stem bark and leaves and
                                drink and use as enema
Khayasenegalensis             Grind stem bark, boil sieve and
                                drink 3 times daily
Dialiumguineense              Grind charred leaves, mix with
                                Shea butter and apply
                                area. Boil leaves and
                                drink 2 times daily
Harunganamatdagascariens is   Burn stem bark and let
                                smoke pass over area.
                                Grind bark boil and sieve and drink
Corchorusolitorius            Boil leaves and drink 3 times daily
Blighiasapida                 Boil leaves and stem bark
                                and drink. Char stem
                                bark and grind and mix with
                                Shea butter and apply to area
Emilia sonchifolia            Boil chopped leaves and
                                drink 3 times a day
Veroniaamygdalina             Boil chopped leaves with
                                Tamarindus and drink
Khayasenegalensis             Boil stem bark and leaves and drink
Mitragynainermis              Boil leaves and twigs with leaves of
                                neem tree and drink. May add sugar.
Chorchorusolitorus            Boil leaves and drink
Monanthotaxissp               Boil leaves and drink 3 times daily.
                                Use as steam bath.
Mareyamicrantha               Boil leaves with leaves of
                                Veroniaamygdalina and drink
Alchorneacordifolia           Boil leaves and drink
Acanthosperm ushispidum       Grind leaves with hot pepper,
                                sieve and drink
Cochlospermumtinctorium       Boil chopped roots and drink

Table 3: Frequency of malaria treatment.

Number of Cases of        Number of Healers
Malaria Seen in A Week

1-5                       5
6-15                      26
16-25                     11
[greater than or
  equal to] 26             5

Table 4: Duration of time used to treat malaria.

Number of Days Used     Number of Healers
To Treat Malaria

0-3                     23
4-7                     24
[greater than or
  equal to] 8            0

Table 5: Duration of time used to treat
typhoid fever.

Period Used in Treating     Number of Healers
  Typhoid Fever (Weeks)

0-1                         15
1-2                         22
2-3                         5
3-4                         2
[greater than or
  equal to] 4               1

Table 6: Duration of time used to treat piles.

Period Used In Treating   Number of Healers
Piles (Weeks)

0-1                       11
1-2                       14
2-3                       10
3-4                       2
[greater than or
  equal to] 4             1

Table 7: Frequency of typhoid fever treatment.

Number of Healers    Number of Cases of Typhoid
                     Fever Seen In A Week

19                   0-5
20                   6-15
4                    16-25
3                    [greater than or equal to] 25

Table 8: Frequency of treating piles

Number of Cases of  Number of Healers
Seen In A Week

0-5 cases          16
6-15 cases         22
COPYRIGHT 2011 American-Eurasian Network for Scientific Information
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2011 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

 Reader Opinion

Title:

Comment:



 

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Sam, G.H.; Mensah, M.L.K.; Annan, Kofi; Zahree, Sena
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:6GHAN
Date:Sep 1, 2011
Words:3735
Previous Article:Benefits of poultry biotechnology: respective on poverty reduction and food security in rural Sudan.
Next Article:Evaluating of ion pairs effects on Iranian salty and sodium soil.
Topics:

Terms of use | Copyright © 2014 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters