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Plant reproduction.



Kinds of Plants

Plants can: a) grow 90 meters tall from a seed smaller than your thumbnail A miniature representation of a page or image that is used to identify a file by its contents. Clicking the thumbnail opens the file. Thumbnails are an option in file managers, such as Windows Explorer, and they are found in photo editing and graphics program to quickly browse multiple ; b) produce seeds weighing over 9 kilograms; c) have flowers that can be smelled .8 kilometers away; d) all of the above.

If you picked "d", you know there is an amazing a·maze  
v. a·mazed, a·maz·ing, a·maz·es

v.tr.
1. To affect with great wonder; astonish. See Synonyms at surprise.

2. Obsolete To bewilder; perplex.

v.intr.
 variety of plants. In fact, scientists have identified about 500,000 plant species. Plants range in size from single-celled diatoms diatoms

a series of unicellular algae, microscopic in size, with cell walls containing silica. Members of the family Diatomaceae. Their remains accumulate as geological deposits and are mined. See diatomaceous earth.
 (di-a-toms) to the giant sequoia giant sequoia: see sequoia.  (se-quoi-a) trees of California. How do all these wonderful plants reproduce (re-pro-duce), or make more of themselves?

How Do Plants Grow?

Many plants grow from seeds, which are produced by both flowers and cones. Flowering plants plants which have stamens and pistils, and produce true seeds; phenogamous plants; - distinguished from flowerless plants.

See also: Flowering
 have male and female organs. The male organs, or stamens (sta-mens), have knobby knob  
n.
1. A rounded protuberance.

2.
a. A rounded handle, as on a drawer or door.

b. A rounded control switch or dial.

3. A prominent rounded hill or mountain.
 tips called anthers (an-thers) that make tiny grains of pollen (pol-len). The female part of the flower, the pistil pistil (pĭs`tĭl), one of the four basic parts of a flower, the central structure around which are arranged the stamens, the petals, and the sepals.  (pis-til), has 3 main parts--the stigma (stig-ma), the style, and the ovary ovary, ductless gland of the female in which the ova (female reproductive cells) are produced. In vertebrate animals the ovary also secretes the sex hormones estrogen and progesterone, which control the development of the sexual organs and the secondary sexual  (o-va-ry). Pollination pollination, transfer of pollen from the male reproductive organ (stamen or staminate cone) to the female reproductive organ (pistil or pistillate cone) of the same or of another flower or cone.  (pol-li-na-tion) is the process where pollen from the stamens gets onto the sticky stigma. Then, the pollen travels down the tube-shaped style to the overy, and the ovules (ov-ules) in the ovary begin to ripen rip·en  
tr. & intr.v. rip·ened, rip·en·ing, rip·ens
To make or become ripe or riper; mature. See Synonyms at mature.



rip
 into seeds. Each seed will contain an embryo (em-bryo), the earliest stage of a plant, as well as food for the embryo. Later, the ovary will develop into a berry or fruit.

The color and smell of flowers attracts insects and birds. As they look for nectar (nec-tar), bees and birds carry pollen from one flower to another. Grasses and other small-flowered plants rely on wind and rain to move pollen.

How are Seeds Produced?

Many plants such as pine trees produce cones instead of flowers. These plants have both male pollen cones and female seed cones. Wind carries pollen from the pollen cone to the seed cone. After the pollen reaches an ovule ovule (o´vul)
1. the oocyte within the graafian follicle.

2. any small, egglike structure.


o·vule
n.
1. A small or immature ovum of a mammal.

2.
 on the seed cone, the ovule develops into a seed which later falls to the ground. The seed can then sprout and begin growing a new plant. This is called germination germination, in a seed, process by which the plant embryo within the seed resumes growth after a period of dormancy and the seedling emerges. The length of dormancy varies; the seed of some plants (e.g.  (ger-mi-na-tion). Seeds from flowers and cones need moisture and oxygen to germinate. Many seeds also need warmth and light.

Plants can also reproduce from stems, roots, and bulbs. Strawberry and spider plants spider plant

African plant of genus Chlorophytum (lily family). This popular houseplant has long, narrow, grassy green-and-white-striped leaves. Periodically a flower stem emerges, and tiny white flowers (not always produced) are replaced by young plantlets, which can then
 grow new plants from their stems, or runners (run-ners). New trees or shrubs can grow from suckers (suck-ers), or stems which grow from the plant's roots. Many spring flowers spring flowers

a token of Christ’s resurrection. [Christian Tradition: Jobes, 487]

See : Easter
 such as iris and daffodils reproduce from rhizomes (rhi-zomes) or bulbs, which are types of underground stems Underground stems are modified plant structures that derive from stem tissue but exist under the soil surface. Plants have two axis of growth, which can be best seen from seed germination and growth. . The "eyes" of potatoes are actually buds that can be planted and, later, become the mashed potatoes n. pl. 1. Potatoes which have been boiled and mashed to a pulpy consistency, usu. with sparing addition of milk, salt, butter, or other flavoring. It is a popular accompaniment to a meat course [U.S., 1900's], providing bulk and calories to a meal.  on your plate!

Background

With about 500,000 species of plants identified, it is no wonder that plants come in every size, shape, and color imaginable. They range in size from the giant sequoia trees of California, the largest living things Living Things may refer to:
  • Life, or things in nature that are alive
  • Living Things (band), a St. Louis musical group
  • Living Things (album) by Matthew Sweet
 on Earth, to single-celled diatoms visible only through a microscope. Plants live underwater, in deserts, in polar regions polar regions: see Antarctica; Arctic, the. , and on other plants. Annual plants live for less than one year, while a bristlecone pine bristlecone pine, common name for the pine species Pinus longaeva, found in the White Mountains of California. Specimens are known that are nearly 5,000 years old.  in California is believed to be between 4 and 5 thousand years old.

Plants are not only incredibly diverse, they are also incredibly important to us. People and animals could not survive without plants, which provide food, shelter, medicine, clothing, wood, paper, and oxygen in the air we breathe. How do these wonderful plants reproduce?

Sexual Reproduction sexual reproduction
n.
Reproduction by the union of male and female gametes to form a zygote. Also called syngenesis.
 

Sexual reproduction refers to plants that reproduce from seeds or spores. Seeds are produced by both flowering plants and cone-bearing plants. Flowering plants have male and female organs. The male organs, or stamens, have knobby tips called anthers that make tiny grains of pollen. The female part of the flower, the pistil, has 3 main parts--the stigma, the style, and the ovary. Reproduction occurs through pollination--the process whereby pollen from anthers comes into contact with the sticky stigma. The pollen then travels down the tube-shaped style to the ovary, and the ovules in the ovary begin to ripen into seeds. Each seed will contain an embryo, the earliest stage of a plant. Later, the ovary can develop into a berry or fruit.

Self-pollination occurs when pollen from the anthers falls onto the stigma of the same flower. Flowers are cross-pollinated when a flower receives the pollen from another plant of the same species. Flowers that are cross-pollinated generally produce larger, healthier plants.

Flowers also contain petals and sepals. Petals are often brightly colored, surrounding and protecting the pistil and stamens. Organs at the base of the petals produce nectar, a food for bees and birds. Sepals, usually green, surround the flower petals. Flowers that contain a pistil, stamens, petals, and sepals are complete flowers complete flower

A flower having all four floral parts: sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels. Compare incomplete flower. See also perfect flower.
. Flowers missing one or more of these parts are incomplete.

Some species of plants, such as hollies and willows, have male and female flowers on separate plants. For these plants to be pollinated and bear fruit or berries, a female plant must be planted in close proximity to a male plant. These plants are classified as dioecious di·oe·cious or di·e·cious
adj.
Of or relating to organisms, especially plants, having the male and female reproductive organs borne on separate individuals of the same species; sexually distinct.
. Monoecious plants monoecious plant: see hermaphrodite.  have male and female flowers on the same plant.

The color and smell of flowers attracts insects and birds. As they look for nectar, bees and birds carry pollen from one flower to another, causing pollination. Grasses and other small flowered plants rely on wind and rain to move pollen.

Seeds also come in many sizes, shapes, and colors, and their size has little to do with the eventual size of the plants they produce. For example, the seeds of giant sequoia trees, which may grow taller than 90 meters, are just 1.6 mm long. Tobacco seeds are so small that 2,500 fit in a pod just 19 mm long. The seeds of some coconut trees weigh as much as 9 kilograms.

Many plants such as pine trees produce cones instead of flowers. These plants have both male pollen cones and female seed cones. Wind carries pollen from the pollen cone to the seed cone. After the pollen reaches an ovule on the seed cone, the ovule develops into a seed which later falls to the ground. The seed can then germinate and begin growing a new plant.

Seeds from flowers and cones need moisture and oxygen to germinate. Many seeds also need warmth and light, although some seeds such as spinach spinach, annual plant (Spinacia oleracea) of the family Chenopodiaceae (goosefoot family), probably of Persian origin and known to have been introduced into Europe in the 15th cent.  and lettuce germinate best in cool temperatures. The period of time in which seeds will germinate, or are viable, varies greatly. Some willow seeds willow seeds

taken in water, produce only sons. [Western Folklore: Boland, 11]

See : Aphrodisiacs
 will only germinate for a period of several days, while in 1995 a lotus seed Lotus seeds or Lotus nuts are the seeds of plants in the genus Nelumbo, particularly the species Nelumbo nucifera. The seeds are of great importance to East Asian cuisine and are used extensively in traditional Chinese medicine and in Chinese desserts.  germinated after 1,300 years. If properly stored, corn, okra okra: see mallow.
okra

Herbaceous, hairy, annual plant (Hibiscus esculentus or Abelmoschus esculentus), of the mallow family, grown for its edible fruit. Okra leaves are deeply notched; flowers are yellow with a crimson centre.
 and parsley seeds will remain viable for a year; spinach, lettuce, and tomato will remain viable for 3 years; and cucumber cucumber, fruit of Cucumis sativus, a species of gourd whose many varieties are descended from a plant native to Asia and Africa. Cucumber is classified in the division Magnoliophyta, class Magnoliopsida, order Violales, family Curcurbitaceae.  and watermelon watermelon, plant (Citrullus vulgaris) of the family Curcurbitaceae (gourd family) native to Africa and introduced to America by Africans transported as slaves. Watermelons are now extensively cultivated in the United States and are popular also in S Russia.  seeds remain viable for 5 or more years. Thus, home gardeners and farmers can safely use many seeds for more than one growing season growing season, period during which plant growth takes place. In temperate climates the growing season is limited by seasonal changes in temperature and is defined as the period between the last killing frost of spring and the first killing frost of autumn, at which .

Ferns Ferns can refer to:
  • the plural of fern, a pteridophyte plant that reproduces using spores rather than seeds.
  • Ferns, a small historic town in north County Wexford, Ireland.
  • Ferns Inquiry.
 reproduce from spores rather than seeds. These tiny spores grow on the undersides of the fern fern, any plant of the division Polypodiophyta. Fern species, numbering several thousand, are found throughout the world but are especially abundant in tropical rain forests. The ferns and their relatives (e.g.  leaves. When the spores ripen and fall to the ground, the male and female cells of the spores can unite and new ferns begin to grow. Mosses also reproduce from spores.

Asexual Reproduction asexual reproduction
n.
Reproduction occurring without the sexual union of male and female gametes.
 

Plants can also reproduce from stems, roots, and bulbs. Strawberry and spider plants grow new plants from their stems, or runners. New trees or shrubs can grow from suckers, or stems which sprout from the plant's roots. Many spring flowers such as iris and daffodils reproduce from rhizomes or bulbs, which are types of underground stems. The "eyes" of potatoes are actually buds that can be planted. When plants reproduce in this way, they will have the same characteristics of the parent plant. Plants produced from seeds may vary significantly, as they often have two "parents".

DID YOU KNOW??

Cockle cockle, common name applied to the heart-shaped, jumping or leaping marine bivalve mollusks, belonging to the order Eulamellibranchia. The brittle shells are of uniform size, are obliquely spherical, and possess distinct radiating ridges, or ribs, which aid the  burrs, which stick to animals and help the seeds to move to other places, were the inspiration for Velcro[R].

DID yOU KNOW??

The giant redwood giant redwood
n.
See giant sequoia.
 tree grows from a seed only 1.6 millimeters long.

DID YOU KNOW??

some male insects are tricked into pollinating flowers that resemble female insects.

DID YOU KNOW??

Flowers pollinated by flies usually have a bad smell.

Level Pre-A

Main concepts: There are many kinds of plants, and they can reproduce in many ways. Flowers and cones make seeds. New plants can grow from seeds, bulbs, and stems.

Initiating Questions:

1. Do you know any plants that make seeds?

2. Do you ever eat plants that have seeds?

3. What kind of plants make cones?

Follow-up Questions:

1. What parts of plants make seeds?

2. Do seeds know which way to grow?

3. How can seeds get to other places?

Vocabulary

The words all have "ow". Have the students write "ow" in the blanks. Then read the words out loud. Flower and plow plow or plough, agricultural implement used to cut furrows in and turn up the soil, preparing it for planting. The plow is generally considered the most important tillage tool.  have short "o" sounds, while grow and mow have the long "o" sound.

Weekly Lab

Bean seeds germinate quickly and are large and easy for the children to handle. Plants' roots grow down and stems grow up because of a plant chemical called auxin. In nature, when seeds fall to the ground, they can land pointing in any direction, but the stems will always grow up and the roots down.

Storytelling Storytelling
Aesop

semi-legendary fabulist of ancient Greece. [Gk. Lit.: Harvey, 10]

Münchäusen

Baron traveler grossly embellishes his experiences. [Ger. Lit.
 

Have the students look at the picture and tell what they see. Have them relate the picture to their own experience. Have they ever planted seeds or bulbs? Do they have a spider plant at home?

Puzzle

The buds of potatoes are often called "eyes". When these are cut off of a potato and planted, they can grow new potato plants.

Bringing it Home

Good places to walk are by bushes, trees, tall grasses, and flower stalks. Woods and parks are good places to go seed hunting.

Math

Answers:

5+4 = 9; 5-4 = 1

DID YOU KNOW??

Tulip and daffodil daffodil: see amaryllis.
daffodil

Bulb-forming flowering plant (Narcissus pseudonarcissus), also called common daffodil or trumpet narcissus, native to northern Europe and widely cultivated there and in North America. It grows to about 16 in.
 bulbs will not sprout unless they are chilled firts.

DID YOU KNOW??

Some flowers open only at night and attract moths This is an incomplete list of species of Lepidoptera that are commonly known as moths. Large and dramatic moth species
  • Death's-head Hawkmoth Acherontia atropos
  • Luna Moth Actias luna
  • Atlas moth Attacus atlas
 as pollinators.

Level A

Main concepts: People and animals need plants for food. Plants reproduce by seeds, stems, roots, and bulbs. Flowers and cones make seeds.

Initiating Questions:

1. What are ways that people and animals use plants?

2. What are some plants that make seeds?

2. Do you ever eat plants that have seeds?

3. What kind of plants make cones?

Follow-up Questions:

1. What parts of plants make seeds?

2. Do roots know which way to grow?

3. Do stems know which way to grow?

Vocabulary

Answer: the missing letters are r, o, s, e to spell rose. Ask the student if they know what a rose is. What other flowers can they name?

Weekly Lab

See Level Pre-A--WEEKLY LAB. In addition, the students will turn the jar on its side. The stems will bend to grow upward.

Math

Answer: The students can cross out half of the seeds in the drawing. There will be 3 left.

For the second question, 2 + 2 + 2 = 6.

Writing in Science

The students learned in the text that flowers and cones makes seeds, which grow new plants. Encourage them to think whether they have seen plants with cones. What kinds of plants (trees, bushes, etc. have they seen flowers on?

Puzzle

This is a long word, so students will feel a sense of accomplishment being able to write it with the help of the puzzle.

Bringing it Home

Potatoes can be grown from seed, but they can also grow from their "eyes", or buds This takes less time than growing from seed. If grown long enough, potato plants will develop pretty white flowers. Adult Supervision is Required.

DID YOU KNOW??

The largest living things are the giant sequoia trees, which live only in California.

Level B

Main concepts: Plants can grow in many environments. People and animals need plants. These plants reproduce in many ways. Plants reproduce from seeds, roots, stems, cones, and bulbs. Flowers and cones make seeds. Seeds need water to germinate.

Initiating questions:

1. Where can plants grow?

2. What kinds of plants make seeds?

3. What do seeds need to grow?

Follow-up questions:

1. How do seeds travel?

2. Besides seeds, what are ways plants can reproduce?

3. Can seeds begin growing in the dark?

Vocabulary

Remind students that a one-syllable word has a single sound, and give examples. Then have them unscramble Same as decrypt. See scramble.  the one-syllable plant words.

DID YOU KNOW??

The flower of the titan arum arum, common name for the Araceae, a plant family mainly composed of species of herbaceous terrestrial and epiphytic plants found in moist to wet habitats of the tropics and subtropics; some are native to temperate zones.  attracts dung beetles dung beetle: see scarab beetle.
dung beetle

Any member of one subfamily (Scarabaeinae) of scarab beetles, which shapes manure into a ball (sometimes as large as an apple) with its scooperlike head and paddle-shaped antennae. They vary from 0.
 and can be smelled .8 km away.

Answers: seed, cone, root, stem, bulb

Weekly Lab

The students may need help poking holes in the bottom of the cartons with the pencil points. Place plates or trays under the egg cartons An egg carton is a container designed for carrying and transporting eggs. These cartons have a dimpled form in which each dimple accommodates an individual egg and isolates that egg from eggs in adjacent dimples.  to catch water. Mustard seeds mustard seed

kingdom of Heaven thus likened; for phenomenal development. [N.T.: Matthew 13:31–32]

See : Growth
 work well because they germinate quickly. Mustard seeds, like many other seeds, will germinate in the dark.

Math

Some seeds (lettuce, spinach, peas) germinate best in cool temperatures, while others (tomatoes, squash) germinate in warmer temperatures.

Answers: the bar graph shows that watermelons will germinate at a high of 40[degrees]C and a low of 16[degrees]C; carrots at a high of 35[degrees]C and a low of 4[degrees]C, with a difference of 31[degrees]C.

Writing in Science

This writing activity encourages students to think of all the different kinds of plants there are, and the different environments they live in.

Puzzle

For step 2, students will cross out the letter "p". After following all the steps, the students will be left with the letters r, o, t, o, which they will unscramble to spell root.

Bringing it Home

Many seeds can be found in kitchen cupboards, including celery seed Noun 1. celery seed - seed of the celery plant used as seasoning
flavorer, flavoring, flavourer, flavouring, seasoning, seasoner - something added to food primarily for the savor it imparts
, mustard seed, poppy poppy, common name for some members of the Papaveraceae, a family composed chiefly of herbs of the Northern Hemisphere having a characteristic milky or colored sap.  seeds, etc. Cucumbers, strawberries, kiwi kiwi (kē`wē) or apteryx (ăp`tərĭks), common name for the smallest member of an order of primitive flightless birds related to the ostrich, the emu, and the cassowary. , lemon, apple, orange, green peppers are all good places to find seeds.

Level C

Main concepts: Plants are amazingly diverse. Plants reproduce from seeds, roots, buds, stems, bulbs, and rhizomes. Flowers have male and female parts. When conditions are right, seeds germinate.

Initiating questions:

1. What are some ways that humans and animals depend on plants?

2. What kinds of plants have cones? Flowers?

Follow-up questions:

1. What is pollination?

2. What are 2 things that plants need to germinate?

3. What is the name of the food that birds and insects get from flowers?

Vocabulary

This activity reinforces the meanings of the plant words, as well as the alphabetical order that words come in a dictionary.

Answers:

1. germination (sprouting of seeds)

2. nectar (food for bees and insects)

3. ovary (can become a fruit or berry)

4. pistil (female organ of a flower)

5: pollen (tiny grains from the stamen stamen, one of the four basic parts of a flower. The stamen (microsporophyll), is often called the flower's male reproductive organ. It is typically located between the central pistil and the surrounding petals. )

6: reproduction (ways that plants make more plants)

7. rhizome rhizome (rī`zōm) or rootstock, fleshy, creeping underground stem by means of which certain plants propagate themselves. Buds that form at the joints produce new shoots.  (type of underground stem)

8. stamen (male organ of a flower).

Weekly Lab

See Level B--WEEKLY LAB

Math

Answers:

1) 2 x 16 x 83 = 2,656

2) 224 divided by 16 = 14

Writing in Science

Students can stretch their imaginations, using rhyming words to write their own song about how plants grow.

Challenge

It is important not to let the paper touch the wet paper towels, or it will become soggy. The beans will lift the paper and a piece of cardboard, if it is not too heavy. The growing tip is strong because it is filled with water--like the fingers of a rubber glove A rubber glove is a glove made out of rubber. Its primary use is in works related with chemicals where you want to protect the hands. Rubber gloves are worn during dishwashing to protect the hands from detergent and allow the use of hotter water.  become still and hard to bend when filled with water. The growing tips of plants can break through hard dirt and even come up through a tiny crack in a sidewalk A Microsoft service that was launched in 1997 to provide online arts and entertainment guides on the Web for major cities worldwide. In 1999, Microsoft sold Sidewalk to Ticketmaster, which continued to provide guides, ticketing and other information to the MSN network. .

Puzzle

Answer:

The map leads the way--maple

Shop in every store--pine

She will own books--willow

Jeff irks me--fir

DID YOU KNOW??

The pods of mountain wisteria wisteria (wĭstēr`ēə) or wistaria (–târ`–), any plant of the genus Wisteria,  can shoot their seeds up to 5 meters.

DID YOU KNOW??

Nuts, cucumbers, peas, and beans are actually fruits.

DID YOU KNOW??

The part of the carrot, beets, and radishes we eat are the roots,

Level D

Main concepts: Plants reproduce from seeds, roots, buds, stems, bulbs, and rhizomes. Flowers have male and female parts. Birds and insects help pollinate pol·li·nate also pol·len·ate  
tr.v. pol·li·nat·ed also pol·len·at·ed, pol·li·nat·ing also pol·len·at·ing, pol·li·nates also pol·len·ates
To transfer pollen from an anther to the stigma of (a flower).
 flowers. Seeds need moisture and oxygen to germinate. Some seeds also need warmth and light.

Initiating questions:

1. What are some ways that humans and animals depend on plants?

2. What kinds of plants have cones? Flowers?

3. Have you ever planted seeds? What time of year was it? Did you water the seeds?

Follow-up questions:

1. What is pollination?

2. What are 2 things that plants need to germinate?

3. What are the main parts of a flower?

Vocabulary

This activity reinforces the meanings of the vocabulary from the text, as well as gives the students practice in putting sentence in logical order and using connecting words.

Answers: The correct order of the sentences is 3, 5, 1, 2, 6, 4.

Weekly Lab

As seeds mature, they begin to dry out and go into a dormant, or resting, period. They germinate when certain conditions are met (which are different for different seeds). Inside the seed is the embryo for the emerging plant and a supply of stored food. Soaking the beans in dyed water will soften them and make the parts of the seed easier to see.

25 drops of food coloring

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

1/2 cup water

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

5 pinto beans pinto bean
n.
A form of the common string bean that has mottled seeds and is grown chiefly in the southwest United States.

Noun 1.
 or lima beans lima bean: see bean.  

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

magnifying glass magnifying glass: see microscope.

magnifying glass

traditional detective equipment; from its use by Sherlock Holmes. [Br. Lit.: Payton, 473]

See : Sleuthing
 

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Math

Answers: $1.49 + $3.99 = $5.48; $0.65 x 30 = $19.50;

The difference in cost is $14.02.

Writing in Science

See WEEKLY LAB activity. Students should use a magnifying glass and try to draw what they can observe directly from the bean seed. Encourage students not to copy the printed illustration, but use it as a reference only, to help them identify and label the parts

Challenge

See Level C--CHALLENGE. Also, the mustard seeds will also lift paper.

Puzzle

See Level C--PUZZLE.

Answers:

Ros, enter now.--rose

Well, I'm Abe Anderson.--lima bean

Brad and Eli only drink tea.--dandelion

DID YOU KNOW??

More than half of all plant species are flowering.

DID YOU KNOW??

Wind can carry pollen up to 160 kilometers.

DID YOU KNOW??

Fruits help protect the seeds inside.

DID yOU KNOW??

The seeds of some coconut trees weigh 9 kilograms.

Level E

Main concepts: Plants reproduce from seeds, roots, buds, stems, bulbs, and rhizomes. Flowers have male and female parts. Seeds contain embryos, the earliest stage of plant development. Flowers that contain a pistil, stamen, petals, and sepals are complete; if they are missing one or more of these parts, they are incomplete.

Initiating questions:

1. How do flowers attract bees and insects? How does this benefit the plant?

2. Have you ever planted seeds? What time of year was it? Did you water the seeds?

3. What do seeds need to germinate?

Follow-up questions:

1. What is pollination?

2. What are the female parts of a flower? The male parts?

3. How do ferns reproduce?

Vocabulary

See Level D--VOCABULARY.

Answer: The order of the sentences is: 5, 2, 7, 3, 1, 4, 8, 6.

Weekly Lab

See Level D--WEEKLY LAB. Also, by putting wax on the opening in the seed coat, the water will not enter the seed as easily, and the seed will take longer to soften.

Math

Answers:

46 + 39 + 40 + 33 + 42 + 40 + 35 = 275 divided by 7 = 39.2; favorable for corn germination;

42 + 33 + 38 + 37 + 49 + 41 + 40 = 280 divided by 7 = 40[degrees]C; not favorable for squash germination.

Writing for Science

Discuss with the students that many pesticides kill a broad range of insects. Therefore, by spraying against beetles beetles

members of the insect order Coleoptera. They are common intermediate hosts for tapeworms.


darkling beetles
this and other mealworms are common inhabitants of poultry houses and are suspected of aiding in the transmission of
, one may also kill butterflies, lady bugs, bees, and other beneficial insects Beneficial Insects are any of a number of species of insects that perform valued services like pollination and pest control. The concept of beneficial is subjective and only arises in light of desired outcomes from a human perspective. . Some ways to protect against bugs are with netting; by planting certain flowers such as marigolds that keep some pests away; making sure that plants are otherwise as healthy as possible, in good soil and with plenty of water; and by taking a "live and let live" attitude.

Challenge

The seeds of pine trees are contained in the scales of their cones, Each scale contains 2 seeds, attached to a papery pa·per·y  
adj.
Resembling paper, as in thickness or texture.



paper·i·ness n.

Adj. 1.
 wing on the inside of the pinecone. Use immature pinecones (small pinecones with tightly closed scales); mature pinecones may have already dropped their seeds. If it is too difficult to twist the cones, soak them in water for several hours first.

Puzzle

Across: anther anther, pollen-bearing structure of the stamen of a flower, usually borne on a slender stalk called the filament. Each anther generally consists of two pollen sacs, which open when the pollen is mature. , ovule, germination;

Down: stamens, ovary, petal;

Up: pistil, pollination;

Backwards: nectar, style, sepals, reproduction, embryo;

Diagonal: rhizome.

Weekly Resources

Helpful Sources for Planning Your Science Weekly Classroom Activities

Recommended Resources

* Ontario Science Center. Plants. Toronto, Canada: Kids Can Press, Ltd., 1994.

* Royston, Angela. How Plants Grow. Chicago, IL: Reed Professional & Professional Publishing, 1999.

* Heller, Ruth. The Reason for a Flower. Grosset & Dunlap, Inc.: New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
, 1983.

* Raife Durant, Penny. Exploring the World of Plants. Franklin Watts Publishers, New York, 1995.

Internet Resources

http://theseedsite.co.ukseedparts.html

http://www.pbs.org.wnet/nature/plants/

http://www.botanical-online.com/lasplantasangles.htm

http://wayneword.palomar.edu/trmar98.htm

http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/plants/label/plant/

http://ag.arizona.edu/pubs/garden/mg/botany/physiology.html

Vocabulary

FLY-pothesis is teaching the class about plant reproduction, but his sentences are mixed up. Help FLY-pothesis by putting his sentences in the right order.

--The female organ is called the pistil and the male organ, the stamen, makes pollen.

--They can reproduce from stems, buds, and roots.

--Then, the pollen travels down the style to the ovary.

--They can also reproduce from the seeds of flowers.

--Plants can reproduce in many ways.

-- Flowers have male and female organs.

--Finally, seeds begin to grow.

--This pollen gets on the stigma of the pistil.

DID yOU KNOW??

The pods of mountain wisteria can shoot their seeds up to 5 meters.

Weekly Lab

What's inside a seed? When seeds germinate, they don't "become alive". They start growing again after a resting period. Inside the seed is the embryo (em-bry-o), the earliest state in a new plant's life. Take a look.

You need: food coloring, cup, water, 8-10 pinto beans or lima beans, magnifying glass, candle, matches, aluminum foil Noun 1. aluminum foil - foil made of aluminum
aluminium foil, tin foil

foil - a piece of thin and flexible sheet metal; "the photographic film was wrapped in foil"
, an adult's help

Step 1: Add 25 drops of food coloring to 1/2 cup of water and soak 5 of the beans overnight. What changes do you predict in the beans? The next day, remove the beans from the cup and use the magnifying glass to observe any changes.

Step 2: Put the beans back in the water and soak 2 more days. Using your thumbnail, carefully open some beans. Can you find all the parts of the developing plant shown in the drawing?

Step 3: Find the part of the seed where water entered. With help from an adult, put a drop of melted wax on several dry bean seeds. Then soak them in dyed water for 3 days. What do you predict will happen?

Step 4: Were your predictions correct? If not, how were your results different from your predictions? Explain what you observed.

Math

Corn will not germinate when temperatures are above 40 degrees centigrade centigrade /cen·ti·grade/ (sen´ti-grad) having 100 gradations (steps or degrees); see under scale.

cen·ti·grade
adj.
Celsius.
 ([degrees]C). Squash will not germinate above 38[degrees]C. Determine whether or not the mean temperatures for the first 2 weeks in June would be favorable for germination for corn and squash. (Mean, or average, is found by computing the sum of the numbers, then dividing by the number of numbers in the set). The temperatures for the first week in June were 46[degrees], 39[degrees], 40[degrees], 33[degrees] 42[degrees], 40[degrees], and 35[degrees]C. The temperatures the following week were 42[degrees], 33[degrees], 38[degrees], 37[degrees], 49[degrees], 41[degrees], and 40[degrees]C.

DID YOU KNOW??

Flowers pollinated by flies usually have a bad smell.</p> <pre>

June--week 1 June--week 2 Temperatures Temperatures

(Degrees C) (Degrees C) S -- -- M

-- -- T -- -- W --

-- T -- -- F --

-- J -- -- SUMS -- -- </pre>

<pre> June Number of Week 1

Week 1 days in week Mean Temperatures

(numbers in set) Temperature SUM -- /

-- = -- Is the mean temperature for the first week in June favorable for corn germination? [] yes [] no June Number of Week 2 Week 2

days in week Mean Temperatures (numbers in set) Temperature SUM -- / --

= -- Is the mean temperature for the second week in June favorable for squash germination? [] yes [] ne </pre> <p>Writing In Science

Your neighbor, Bugsy, really doesn't like bugs, so he uses a lot of pesticides. You are worried that if Bugsy keeps it up, there won't be many insects around to pollinate your garden. Write a letter to Bugsy, telling him how birds and insects help pollinate flowers. Can you suggest any other ways for Bugsy to handle his bug problem?

DID yOU KNOW??

some male insects are tricked into pollinating flowers that resemble female insects.

DID YOU KNOW??

The flower of the titan arum attracts dung beetles and can be smelled .8 km away.

Challenge

Find the seeds in a pinecone.

You need: newspaper, 2 old washcloths, and 3 immature pinecones

Step 1: Spread the newspaper on a table.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Step 2: Wrap a washcloth around each end of a pinecone.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Step 3: Grasp the washcloth-covered pinecone at each end.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Step 4: Twist the pinecone several times to loosen its scales.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Step 5: While holding the base of the cone with the washcloth, use your other hand to pull out some scales near the top of the cone. Each scale will have 2 seeds.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

newspaper

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

2 washcloths

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

3 pinecones

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

pinecone scale

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

2 seeds

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Puzzle

Find the 14 plant reproduction words. They can be forward, backward, up, down, or diagonal.

DID YOU KNOW??

Cockle burrs, Which stick to animals and help the seeds to move to Other places, Were the inspiration for Velcroo[R].

DID YOU KNOW??

Nuts, cucumbers, peas, and beans are actually fruits.

DID YOU KNOW??

Some flowers open only at night and attract moths as Pollinators,

DID YOU KNOW??

The largest living things are the giant sequoia trees, which live only in California.
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Date:Feb 23, 2006
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