Planned JDAM upgrade boosts accuracy to 10 Feet: Navy completes development of new seeker that guides bombs with images. (Analysis).
An imaging infrared seeker that can improve the accuracy of the JDAM Noun 1. JDAM - a pinpoint bomb guidance device that can be strapped to a gravity bomb thus converting dumb bombs into smart bombs
Joint Direct Attack Munition satellite-guided munitions mu·ni·tion
War materiel, especially weapons and ammunition. Often used in the plural.
tr.v. mu·ni·tioned, mu·ni·tion·ing, mu·ni·tions
To supply with munitions. by more than 200 percent has been tested successfully and is ready for production, said program officials. The same technology also could be used in other types of bombs and missiles.
The Joint Direct Attack Munition Noun 1. Joint Direct Attack Munition - a pinpoint bomb guidance device that can be strapped to a gravity bomb thus converting dumb bombs into smart bombs
JDAM is a 1,000-pound or 2,000-pound free-falling bomb with a strap-on Global Positioning System/Inertial Navigation System A GPS-based electronic system in a car or truck that provides a real time map of the vehicle's current location as well as step-by-step directions to a programmed destination. See GPS and vehicle tracking. (GPS/INS GPS/INS Global Positioning System/Inertial Navigation System ) guidance kit.
JDAM's accuracy is nearly 43 feet in the GPS/INS mode and 100 feet with INS INS
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2. International News Service
Noun 1. INS alone. The new seeker, using uncooled imaging infrared focal plane The plane, perpendicular to the optical axis of the lens, in which images of points in the object field of the lens are focused. array technology, would increase the accuracy to about 10 feet. The system is called Damask damask (dăm`əsk) [from Damascus], fabric of silk, wool, linen, cotton, or man-made fibers, with a pattern formed by the weaving; e.g., the ground may be in twill weave, and the contrasting design in satin. , an acronym for direct attack munition affordable seeker. Each system is expected to cost $12,700, said Michael Dietchman, director of strike technology at the Office of Naval Research The U.S. Office of Naval Research (ONR), headquartered in Arlington, Virginia (Ballston), is the office within the U.S. Department of the Navy that coordinates, executes, and promotes the science and technology programs of the U.S. . Each JDAM guided bomb costs about $20,000.
Air - to - surface weapon accuracy is defined by circular error probable An indicator of the delivery accuracy of a weapon system, used as a factor in determining probable damage to a target. It is the radius of a circle within which half of a missile's projectiles are expected to fall. Also called CEP. , or CEP CEP congenital erythropoietic porphyria.
congenital erythropoietic porphyria . That is the radius of a circle within which 50 percent of the weapons will strike. The smaller the CEP, the greater the weapon's accuracy. The JDAM CEP is 13 meters. Dietchman said that the addition of Damask to JDAM lowers the CEP to three meters (about 10 feet).
Three-meter accuracy is achievable with laser-guided bombs, which can only be used in clear weather with direct line-of-sight to the target, and require a dedicated designator. JDAM is less accurate but often a preferred choice, because it's satellite-guided, so it works in bad weather.
The Office of Naval Research (ONR ONR Office of Naval Research
ONR Ontario Northland Railway ) developed and tested the Damask seeker and has turned over the system to Navy weapon acquisition officials. Damask could soon be used to upgrade JDAMs currently in production at the Boeing Co.
"The acquisition part of the Navy is working with Boeing to look at the design and where to go from here," said Dietchman in a briefing to the Precision Strike Association. "The science and technology proved that it can work. Now it's in the hands of the acquisition community."
The Navy and the Air Force collectively could buy anywhere between 20,000 and 100,000 JDAMs during the next several years. These weapons were widely used in the 1999 air war over Kosovo and the campaign over Afghanistan this fall. JDAMs are compatible with Air Force B-2, B-52 and B-1 bombers, F-16C/D fighter aircraft, and with Navy F/A-18C/D fighter aircraft.
On the question on whether Damask could be viewed as an alternative to GPS, "one must be careful to distinguish between midcourse guidance and terminal guidance," said Gil Graff, program manager for weapons science and technology at ONR. The Damask only is an alternative for terminal guidance. Guidance accuracy, he said, is limited by the capabilities of GPS and by the initial target location error (TLE TLE Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
TLE The Living End (band)
TLE Two Line Elements (for satellite tracking)
TLE The Learning Equation
TLE Taxe Locale d'Équipement ). An imaging seeker such as Damask can achieve "substantial improvement in the final accuracy [compared to] inertially guided weapons," said Graff.
He said he expects that this technology will have applications beyond JDAM. "While the initial focus of Damask was for JDAM improvement, we believe that the technology will support much smaller weapons--such as the Army Hellfire hell·fire
The fire of hell, considered as punishment for sinners.
the torment of hell, imagined as eternal fire
Noun 1. missile and the Air Force Small Smart Bomb and [other weapons] as small as 2.75-inch rockets.
"The real power of an imaging weapon," he said, "is that it allows the munition size to be reduced substantially for a given level of damage."
In his briefing, Dietchman noted that, if the GPS signal were jammed, Damask would be able to guide JDAM to the target nonetheless.
During tests last year, JDAM weapons, equipped with the Damask, successfully hit targets when the GPS signal was jammed, he said.
The Damask has been in development for three years. In 1998, the Raytheon Systems Co. received an $11 million Navy contract to work on the uncooled focal plane array technology. The detector in Damask is a thermal imaging IR camera produced by Raytheon for use in the night-vision system of the 2000 Cadillac Deville.
The upgrade kit includes a seeker mounted on the nose of the JDAM and processing electronics in the tail assembly.
Before a mission, an image of the target taken from infrared, visual, synthetic aperture radar Synthetic aperture radar (SAR)
Radar, airborne or satellite-borne, that uses special signal processing to produce high-resolution images of the surface of the Earth (or another object) while traversing a considerable flight path. , satellite photograph or other source is used to make a target template, which is loaded into Damask.
The target template can be created on a PC and loaded into Damask before aircraft launch. A template also can be downloaded to the aircraft from a reconnaissance unmanned aircraft or a satellite, or can be generated from the launch aircraft's onboard sensors and loaded into the weapon during the mission.
For most of the mission, guidance is exclusively by GPS/INS. Then, when the weapon is a few kilometers from the target, Damask can be used to supplement GPS. It looks at the target for a second or two and compares what it sees with the target template that's been loaded. If necessary, it updates the JDAM guidance unit.
A Damask prototype called GR-2 was tested a year ago at the Navy's air warfare range in China Lake, Calif. The test was designed to duplicate a GPS-jamming scenario and measure the effect Damask would have in improving the JDAM accuracy, Dietchman said.
The launch platform was an F-16 Fighting Falcon The F-16 Fighting Falcon is an American multirole jet fighter aircraft developed by General Dynamics and Lockheed Martin for the United States Air Force. Designed as a lightweight fighter, it evolved into a successful multirole aircraft. from Edwards Air Force Base Edwards Air Force Base, U.S. military installation, 301,000 acres (121,805 hectares), S Calif., NE of Lancaster; est. 1933. It is one of the largest air force bases in the United States and has the world's longest runway. . Accompanying the shooter aircraft was a two-seat F-16 flying chase.
The pilot released the weapon at a slant range of about six miles, altitude of 28,000 feet (mean sea level) and speed of 0.8 Mach. From the point of launch, the JDAM received no GPS signals, navigating solely on INS. The GR-2's target was a square aluminum plate. About 1,800 meters from the target, the Damask signal processor compared the target-area view through the IR seeker with a target-area template that had been loaded before flight, and then sent a correctional signal to the JDAM's tail-control surfaces, said Dietchman. "Five seconds later, the weapon punched a hole in the target."
RELATED ARTICLE: Pentagon Panel: Targeting Far From Perfect
U.S. military precision-bombing skills and capabilities have advanced in recent years, but there still is much room for improvement, said a Pentagon advisory panel.
Among the shortcomings A shortcoming is a character flaw.
Shortcomings may also be:
The Defense Science Board began a study on precision targeting about a year ago and has briefed its findings to senior Pentagon officials in recent months. The DSB DSB Dispute Settlement Body (World Trade Organization)
DSB Double Strand Break
DSB Defense Science Board (US DoD)
DSB Deep Sand Bed
DSB Deutscher Sportbund recommendations will focus, among other things, on the need to share targeting data among the military services and to expedite development of advanced sensors for intelligence collection, said Diane Wright, assistant director for air warfare, at the office of the undersecretary of defense for acquisition, technology and logistics.
"We are very good at precision strike," she told a conference of the Precision Strike Association. "We have laser designators to guide weapons down airshafts and through windows." However, she added, "There is plenty of room for problems in this very complicated process."
These problems include the ability of U.S. aircrews to positively identify targets that are not in visual range and to hit moving targets even when they hide under cover, concealment and decoys.
The DSB said that the Defense Department should focus on developing a capability to link a "targeting database" of precise geographic coordinates with the sensors on reconnaissance or strike platforms.
Ideally, said Wright, a pilot would be able to point and click on a digital map and automatically receive that target's coordinates from the database. She called that capability a "gridlock Gridlock
A government, business or institution's inability to function at a normal level due either to complex or conflicting procedures within the administrative framework or to impending change in the business. " system.
The National Imagery and Mapping Agency manages the so-called digital point positioning database, or DPPDB DPPDB digital point positioning database (US DoD) . It is the Defense Department's primary source for targeting information and imagery for GPS-guided weapons.
The gridlock would automate the "geo-registration process for both still imagery and motion imagery," said Wright. The goal would be to link that process to surveillance and tactical platforms, she said. "If you can tie the platform sensors to the related PPDB PPDB Point Positioning Data Base database, you can establish a relationship, so you can get PGM-quality target coordinates, just by pointing at the target on the tactical imagery."
Every platform would lock to the same grid, she said, "so you can share target coordinates without the need for imagery, therefore reducing demand for wideband communications."
This technology, she said, could be transitioned to the Joint Strike Fighter and might be tested with the Predator unmanned aircraft motion imagery.
According to one industry official, the growing emphasis on "open architectures" in military workstations used for targeting missions will help the services share new software applications constantly being developed by the intelligence community. "There are so many collection systems--for imagery, signals intelligence, etc.--that being able to present diverse information in a coherent way is an enormous engineering job," said Don Bently, program manager at BAE Systems.
A shift to open architectures in computer systems, he said, "should be a major step toward resolving interoperability problems." BAE Systems makes the so-called precision-targeting workstation for the U.S. Navy.
The Defense Science Board also recommended that the Pentagon accelerate the development of a modular advanced electronically-scanned-array radar with ground moving target indicator A radar presentation which shows only targets which are in motion. Signals from stationary targets are subtracted out of the return signal by the output of a suitable memory circuit. (GMTI GMTI Ground Moving Target Indicator
GMTI Greenman Technologies, Inc. (stock symbol)
GMTI Gannett Media Technologies International
GMTI Gus Matonek Trucking, Inc. ). Wright said that the panel urged the Defense Department to spend more money on new systems such as foliage penetration (FOPEN FOPEN Foliage Penetration radar and precision signals intelligence (SIC-NT) to be used for targeting. A combination of GMTI and FOPEN technologies, she said could be used to create a "GMTI sentry" that would survey enemy strongholds and "effectively engage [targets] as they emerge from hiding."
The problems highlighted in the DSB study were seen in real-world operation over Afghanistan (against the ruling Taliban regime) in October, when errant bomb killed and injured civilians who were not the intended U.S. targets. In one instance, Navy F/A-18 Hornet dropped a 1,000-pound, laser-guided bomb on a warehouse used by the International Committee of the Red Cross
The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a private humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland. in northern Kabul. The Pentagon said that was an unintentional strike, which apparently had been aimed at the Kabul air port, a couple of kilometers away. Marine Corps Lt. Gen. Gregory S. Newbold Lieutenant General Gregory S. Newbold is a retired United States Marine Corps 3-star general who served as Director of Operations (J-3) for the Joint Chiefs of Staff from October 200 until he retired in October 2002. , the Joint Staff's director of operations, told reporter that the number of missed targets was "minuscule," in the context of the air was overall. Over a three-week span in October the United States and allies launched more than 3,000 bombs and missiles against tar gets in Afghanistan.
During one weekend in mid-October, a least three U.S. bombs were reported to hit civilian sites, unintentionally. A Navy F-14 dropped two 500-pound bombs on a residential area near Kabul. According to Pentagon officials, the fighter had been aiming at enemy vehicles parked less than mile away. In a separate strike mission, an F/A-18 was aiming at a Taliban storage facility but instead struck a field in the vicinity o a home for the elderly.
Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld said that incidents of misfires, regardless of whether they are caused by equipment failure or human error, should be accepted as realities of war.