Ping-pong, endurance, card, and other types of drinking games: are these games of the same feather?
The goal of this study was to investigate the structural heterogeneity het·er·o·ge·ne·i·ty
The quality or state of being heterogeneous.
the state of being heterogeneous. of drinking games with respect to beverage type consumed, competitiveness, intoxication intoxication, condition of body tissue affected by a poisonous substance. Poisonous materials, or toxins, are to be found in heavy metals such as lead and mercury, in drugs, in chemicals such as alcohol and carbon tetrachloride, in gases such as carbon monoxide, and level and game duration, as well as the motives for participation in different games and their relevance to intoxication level while playing. Participants were female students (N = 162; M age = 20.3; 18-24 years) attending an all-women's college in the Northeastern U.S. Descriptive analyses revealed variations across the different types of drinking games with respect to popularity, type of alcoholic beverage alcoholic beverage
Any fermented liquor, such as wine, beer, or distilled liquor, that contains ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, as an intoxicating agent. When an alcoholic beverage is ingested, the alcohol is rapidly absorbed in the stomach and intestines because it does not consumed, competitiveness, intoxication level and game duration. Motivations for playing drinking games were also differentially associated with intoxication level across the different game categories. Implications for programming and intervention efforts and future research directions are discussed.
Epidemiological studies An Epidemiological study is a statistical study on human populations, which attempts to link human health effects to a specified cause. indicate that roughly 40% of college students drink heavily (O'Malley & Johnston, 2002). Moreover, 91% of the alcohol used by college students is consumed in the form of binge drinking binge drinking An early phase of chronic alcoholism, characterized by episodic 'flirtation' with the bottle by binges of drinking to the point of stupor, followed by periods of abstinence; BD is accompanied by alcoholic ketoacidosis–accelerated lipolysis and (Ham & Hope, 2003). Researchers also note the growing rate of heavy drinking
repercussions npl → Auswirkungen pl resulting from participation in DG such as hangovers, heightened aggression, vandalism The intentional and malicious destruction of or damage to the property of another.
The intentional destruction of property is popularly referred to as vandalism. It includes behavior such as breaking windows, slashing tires, spray painting a wall with graffiti, and , missing class, and driving while intoxicated driving while intoxicated n. see driving under the influence. . Additionally, the role of gender is an important consideration with respect to DG participation; for example, a recent study indicated that the association between alcohol-related problems and DG participation was stronger for women than for men (Pedersen & LaBrie, 2006). Altogether, these statistics illustrate the need to further our knowledge and understanding of DG participation and related behaviors in college students, particularly among women. The present investigation was designed to examine the structural heterogeneity of DG and female college students' motives for playing DG.
Heterogeneity of Drinking Games
DG are heterogeneous and can be separated into several different categories (for a review of game descriptions see Borsari, 2004; Zamboanga, Leitkowski, Rodriguez, & Cascio, 2006). For example, Verbal games (e.g., Never Have I Ever) are structured such that specific verbal responses and/or questions dictate participants' alcohol consumption. Media games (e.g., Roxanne) are designed so that each participant imbibes when a verbal or action cue cue,
n a stimulus that determines or may prompt the nature of a person's response.
cue Psychology Any sensory stimulus that evokes a learned patterned response. See Conditioning. is depicted de·pict
tr.v. de·pict·ed, de·pict·ing, de·picts
1. To represent in a picture or sculpture.
2. To represent in words; describe. See Synonyms at represent. by predetermined pre·de·ter·mine
v. pre·de·ter·mined, pre·de·ter·min·ing, pre·de·ter·mines
1. To determine, decide, or establish in advance: TV/Video/Music sources. Endurance Endurance
See also Longevity.
feminine name denotes power of endurance. [Gk. Myth.: Jobes, 148]
famous 26-mile race held annually for long-distance runners. [Am. Pop. Culture: Misc. games (e.g., Power Hour) are set up specifically to promote elevated alcohol use in a short time and in general, these games do not require a lot of cognitive or motor abilities on the part of the participants. Because the structure and design of DG vary, one might also expect DG to differ with respect to popularity, type of alcoholic beverage consumed, competitiveness, intoxication level, and game duration. For example, Endurance games (e.g., Power Hour) are designed such that participants continuously drink for a given amount of time resulting in elevated intoxication levels and prolonged pro·long
tr.v. pro·longed, pro·long·ing, pro·longs
1. To lengthen in duration; protract.
2. To lengthen in extent. game duration. Consumption of hard liquor hard liquor A popular term for beverages with a high–often > 30% by volume–ie, 60 proof alcohol content–eg, gin, rum, vodka, whiskey; HLs are preferred by alcoholics as a steady state of low-level inebriation is easier to maintain. See Standard drink. alone will likely preclude pre·clude
tr.v. pre·clud·ed, pre·clud·ing, pre·cludes
1. To make impossible, as by action taken in advance; prevent. See Synonyms at prevent.
2. continued participation in these games, thus it is conceivable con·ceive
v. con·ceived, con·ceiv·ing, con·ceives
1. To become pregnant with (offspring).
2. that gamers will consume soft liquor alone or in combination with hard liquor to allow extended involvement.
v. con·ceived, con·ceiv·ing, con·ceives
1. To become pregnant with (offspring).
2. , team oriented o·ri·ent
1. Orient The countries of Asia, especially of eastern Asia.
a. The luster characteristic of a pearl of high quality.
b. A pearl having exceptional luster.
3. types of games Major categories:
1. Abundantly supplied; abounding: a stream replete with trout; an apartment replete with Empire furniture.
2. Filled to satiation; gorged.
3. with winner, losers, and spectators" (p. 37). This sports-like feature can be appealing and as such, games that are perceived as highly competitive may also be very popular among college students.
Altogether, DG vary considerably by virtue of their structure and therefore participants' gaming experiences may differ as a function of the type of games they play. Surprisingly, many researchers often treat DG as homogeneous The same. Contrast with heterogeneous.
homogeneous - (Or "homogenous") Of uniform nature, similar in kind.
1. In the context of distributed systems, middleware makes heterogeneous systems appear as a homogeneous entity. For example see: interoperable network. , and it is often assumed that all DG pose similar health risks such as heavy alcohol use. These assumptions have yet to be confirmed (Zamboanga et al., 2006); however, it is conceivable that specific types of DG (e.g., Endurance games) pose greater health risks compared to others (e.g., Coordination games In game theory, coordination games are a class of games with multiple pure strategy Nash equilibria in which players choose the same or corresponding strategies. For a classic example of a coordination game, consider the 2-player, 2-strategy game, with the payoff matrix shown on ). Moreover, DG may differ with respect to their contextual (e.g., popularity, competitiveness) and behavioral (e.g., type of beverage consumed while playing games, intoxication level) structure. Therefore, the heterogeneity of DG is an important factor worth considering due to the potential health risks they pose for college gamers.
Motives for Playing Drinking Games
According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. Johnson and Sheets (2004), "motives or reasons for drinking ... refer to specific outcomes that an individual intends to produce from drinking." (p. 92). Although prior research has examined specific motives for alcohol use and their relevance to consumption, few studies have investigated these motives across specific drinking contexts (Johnson & Sheets, 2004). Indeed, DG are one social context in which heavy alcohol consumption is prevalent. Johnson and Sheets' (2004) work builds on prior research on college students' motives for alcohol consumption by examining specific motives for DG participation. They researched eight dimensions: competition and thrills, conformity, fun and celebration, social lubrication lubrication, introduction of a substance between the contact surfaces of moving parts to reduce friction and to dissipate heat. A lubricant may be oil, grease, graphite, or any substance—gas, liquid, semisolid, or solid—that permits free action of , novelty, sexual manipulation, boredom Boredom
See also Futility.
Aldegonde, Lord St.
bored nobleman, empty of pursuits. [Br. Lit.: Lothair]
(1821–1867) French poet whose dissipated lifestyle led to inner despair. [Fr. Lit. , and coping. Their findings showed that competition and thrills, fun and celebration, social lubrication, sexual manipulation, coping, and boredom were positively associated with the amount of alcohol consumed per week while playing DG. In short, Johnson and Sheets' (2004) findings suggest that college students' motives can impact their consumption level when playing DG. Because DG are uniquely structured, particularly with respect to the task(s) involved, competitiveness, social atmosphere, and intoxication level, one might expect differences regarding the associations between motives for playing and intoxication level across the different types of games.
Study Aims and Research Questions
The primary goal of the present investigation was to examine the heterogeneity of DG among female college students. Building on Zamboanga et al.'s (2006) and Johnson and Sheet's (2004) work, this investigation was designed to address three limitations in these previous studies. First, Zamboanga et al. (2006) examined the heterogeneity of DG with respect to popularity, type of beverage consumed, and intoxication level. However, they did not examine other relevant aspects of DG such as competitiveness level and game duration. DG that are highly competitive can be attractive for some students which could make certain games highly popular. Moreover, game duration is a relevant consideration because it sheds light on the rate of alcohol consumption. As such, we explored these structural elements Structural elements are used in structural analysis to simplify the structure which is to be analysed.
Structural elements can be linear, surfaces or volumes.
v. in·tox·i·cat·ed, in·tox·i·cat·ing, in·tox·i·cates
1. To stupefy or excite by the action of a chemical substance such as alcohol.
2. when playing different games for various reasons. To address this limitation, we examined motives for DG participation and their relevance to intoxication level across different game categories. Third, one aim of the Johnson and Sheets (2004) study was to examine the associations between specific DG motivations and alcohol consumption. However, they did not investigate how specific motives might be associated with intoxication level across different game types. Thus, we examined these associations in our investigation. We focused on intoxication level because prior research has highlighted the important role of drunkenness Drunkenness
See also Alcoholism.
self-indulgent in the pleasures of the senses. [Br. Lit.: Faerie Queene]
Admiral of the red
a wine-bibber. [Br. with respect to alcohol-related problems (Nagoshi, Wood, Cote, & Abbit, 1994). Given the heterogeneity of DG and prior reports (Borsari, 2004; Zamboanga et al., 2006), we expected variations to emerge with respect to popularity, type of beverage consumed, competitiveness, and intoxication levels across different games. Moreover in light of the unique structures of DG, we also anticipated differences in the associations between garners' motives for playing DG and intoxication level across different types of games. We did not advance any specific hypotheses regarding these associations; rather, we treated this issue as an exploratory research Exploratory research is a type of research conducted because a problem has not been clearly defined. Exploratory research helps determine the best research design, data collection method and selection of subjects. question.
Participants and Procedures
Participants in this cross-sectional study cross-sectional study
See synchronic study.
n the scientific method for the analysis of data gathered from two or more samples at one point in time. were 162 traditional age (M = 20.3, SD = 1.36; 18-24 years) students at an all-women's college in the Northeastern United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. who indicated that they played DG. Respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. were pooled from two different studies in which participants completed a 30-minute self-report questionnaire after providing written informed consent. The first study focused exclusively on college athletes' social and health behaviors (N = 98). We collected data for this investigation over three-weeks during the spring semester se·mes·ter
One of two divisions of 15 to 18 weeks each of an academic year.
[German, from Latin (cursus) s . After completing the survey, participants received a written debriefing de·brief·ing
1. The act or process of debriefing or of being debriefed.
2. The information imparted during the process of being debriefed.
Noun 1. form and $25 cash/gift certificate. The second study focused on drinking behaviors among college students in general (N = 256). We collected data from several large psychology courses during the fall/spring semesters; respondents received course credit.
Preliminary analyses revealed significant group differences in motives for playing DG between student athletes and non-athletes with respect to coping, F(1, 158) = 7.92, p < .01, [[eta].sup.2] = .05 and social lubrication, F(1, 158) = 5.87, p < .02, [[eta].sup.2] = .04; compared to student athletes, non-athletes were more likely to endorse these motives. No significant differences emerged among the other study variables. Preliminary descriptive analyses also showed that when participants reported the gender of the individuals they typically played DG with, 28% indicated that they usually play with all women, 22% said that they play with an equal proportion of men and women, 35% reported that the groups were mixed but usually consisted of more women, 12% reported that the groups were mixed but usually comprised of more men, and 4% indicated that the groups consisted of only men.
Drinking game type. Respondents completed a grid that listed popular categories of DG played on college campuses (e.g., Verbal, Ping-Pong, Card); in this grid, participants reported the specific type(s) of DG they have played during college. For each category, one or two examples of specific games [e.g., Card Games (ex: Kings); Ping Pong (1) A half-duplex communications method in which data are transmitted in one direction and acknowledgment is returned at the same speed in the other. The line is alternately switched from transmit to receive in each direction. Contrast with asymmetric modem. Game (ex: Beirut/Beer Pong (games) Pong - A computer game invented in 1972 by Atari's Nolan Bushnell. The game is a minimalist rendering of table tennis. Each of the two players are represented as a white slab, controllable by a knob, which deflects a bouncing ball. )] were provided. For each type of game played, participants also indicated the type of alcoholic beverage consumed (hard liquor; soft liquor; both soft/hard liquor), the competitiveness level (1 = Not at all competitive to 5 = Extremely competitive), their perceived level of intoxication (1 = Not drunk at all to 5 = Extremely drunk), and game duration (in minutes) (see Table 1).
Motives for playing drinking games. Respondents completed the Motives for Drinking Games Measure (MDGM; Johnson & Sheets, 2004). The MDGM measures participants' specific motives or reasons for playing DG including competition and thrills (M= 1.65, SD = .54, range, 1.0-3.4, [alpha] = .72; e.g., "for the competition"), conformity (M = 1.62, SD = .64, range, 1.0-4.0, = .86; e.g., "to fit in"), fun and celebration (M = 2.65, SD = .66, range, 1.0-4.0, [alpha] = .78; e.g., "to liven up Verb 1. liven up - make lively; "let's liven up this room a bit"
liven, enliven, invigorate, animate
energize, perk up, energise, stimulate, arouse, brace - cause to be alert and energetic; "Coffee and tea stimulate me"; "This herbal infusion doesn't a boring party"), social lubrication (M = 1.87, SD = .65, range, 1.0-3.6, [alpha] = .79; e.g., "a way to get to know other people"), novelty (M = 2.08, SD = .64, range, 1.0-3.7, [alpha] = .60; e.g., "a more exciting way to drink"), boredom (M = 1.76, SD = .64, range, 1.0-4.0, [alpha] = .66; e.g., "to kill time"), coping (M = 1.50, SD = .57, range, 1.0-4.0, [alpha] = .72; e.g., "to forget about problems"), and sexual manipulation (M = 1.14, SD = .30, range, 1.0-2.3, [alpha] = .66; e.g., "to have sex with someone"). Due to the restricted range of responses to the motive of sexual manipulation, we did not include this motive in our analyses. Participants reported the importance of each statement with respect to their decision to play DG using a 4-point scale (1 = Not at all important to 4 = Very important). Respondents received a score for each DG motive by summing across all items within each subscale and dividing by the total number of items within that subscale.
Data Analytic Approach
We conducted our analyses using SPSS A statistical package from SPSS, Inc., Chicago (www.spss.com) that runs on PCs, most mainframes and minis and is used extensively in marketing research. It provides over 50 statistical processes, including regression analysis, correlation and analysis of variance. (Version 11.5). First, to explore the heterogeneity of DG, we computed descriptive statistics descriptive statistics
see statistics. of their various characteristics (popularity, drink type, competitiveness, intoxication level, and game duration). Second, we conducted bivariate bi·var·i·ate
Mathematics Having two variables: bivariate binomial distribution.
Adj. 1. correlation analyses to examine how students' specific motivations for playing DG are associated with intoxication level across different DG.
Structural Heterogeneity of DG
Descriptive analyses revealed variations across the different types of DG with respect to the structural elements of DG (see Table 1 for description of different categories of DG). Descriptive statistics are presented below.
Popularity. Participation in Ping-Pong (73%) and Card (60%) games was the most frequent among respondents. Participation in Speed (41%), Board (32%), Verbal (24%), Coin (15%), Endurance (13%), and TV/Video (11%) games was reported less frequently. Participation in Musical (8%) and Coordination (6%) games was infrequently in·fre·quent
1. Not occurring regularly; occasional or rare: an infrequent guest.
Type of beverage consumed. Across all games, the majority of participants consumed soft liquor alone or in combination with hard liquor. Consumption of soft liquor alone was quite prevalent during participation in Speed (76%), Ping-Pong (75%), Endurance (67%), Coin (46%), and TV/Video (37%) games. Consumption of hard and soft liquor was frequently reported by those who played Musical (57%), Card (50%), Coordination (50%), and Verbal (41%) games.
Competitiveness level. Participants of Speed (M = 4.02, SD = 1.24) and Ping-Pong (M = 3.88, SD = 1.23) games perceived these games as highly competitive. The participants of Coin, Coordination, Card, Endurance, Board, and Verbal games viewed these games as moderately competitive, whereas the participants of Musical (M = 1.71, SD = 1.07) and TV/Video (M = 1.58, SD = .96) games perceived these games as modestly competitive.
Intoxication level. Most participants who played Endurance games reported high intoxication levels (M = 4.10, SD = 1.00); conversely con·verse 1
intr.v. con·versed, con·vers·ing, con·vers·es
1. To engage in a spoken exchange of thoughts, ideas, or feelings; talk. See Synonyms at speak.
2. , the majority of those who played Coordination games reported low levels of intoxication (M = 2.00, SD = .82). Across the other games, most participants reported moderate intoxication levels.
Duration of game. Participants in Ping-Pong, Card, Board, Endurance, and TV/Video games reported the longest average playing times, lasting between 48-54 minutes. Participants in Musical games reported the lowest average playing time of 16 minutes. The other categories of DG lasted between 24 to 37 minutes, on average.
Motivations for DG Participation and their Association with Intoxication Level
The DG motives of conformity and boredom were not associated with intoxication levels for any game types. Across the majority of DG categories, the motives of fun and celebration and competition and thrills, were positively correlated cor·re·late
v. cor·re·lat·ed, cor·re·lat·ing, cor·re·lates
1. To put or bring into causal, complementary, parallel, or reciprocal relation.
2. with intoxication level. For Coin and Endurance games, coping (r = .46, p < .05 for Coin games; r = .36, p < .10 for Endurance games) and novelty (r = .32, p <. 10 for Coin games; r = .50, p < .05 for Endurance games) were positively correlated with intoxication level; social lubrication was also positively associated with intoxication level for Coin games (r = .34, p <. 10). For Board games This is a list of board games. This page classifies board games according to the concerns which might be uppermost for someone organizing a gaming event or party. See the article on game classification for other alternatives, or see for a list of board game articles. , social lubrication was the only motive positively correlated (marginal) with intoxication level (r = .24, p <. 10). For Verbal games, all of the DG motives examined were positively associated with intoxication level. We conducted follow-up bivariate correlation analyses controlling for athletic membership on the motives of coping and social lubrication for playing DG. Overall, results yielded highly similar correlation coefficients Correlation Coefficient
A measure that determines the degree to which two variable's movements are associated.
The correlation coefficient is calculated as: and p-values.
The prevalence of elevated alcohol use among college women (Ham & Hope, 2003) and the heavy drinking endemic endemic /en·dem·ic/ (en-dem´ik) present or usually prevalent in a population at all times.
1. to DG (Borsari, 2004) underscore The underscore character (_) is often used to make file, field and variable names more readable when blank spaces are not allowed. For example, NOVEL_1A.DOC, FIRST_NAME and Start_Routine.
(character) underscore - _, ASCII 95. the importance of alcohol research in this population and served as the impetus for the present study. Given our descriptive analyses, it appears that not all DG pose the same health risk for participants, which is consistent with Zamboanga et al.'s (2006) prior findings. For example, on average, when partaking in Endurance games, participants reported higher intoxication levels than when playing Coordination and Musical games. Furthermore, although participants in Board and Endurance games reported comparable game durations (50 min. vs. 54 min., respectively), the average intoxication level reported by participants differed (2.80 vs. 4.10; on a 1-5 scale). Given these descriptive findings, Endurance games pose a great health risk for participants. Endurance games foster high-risk drinking contexts and the motives for participation in these types of games likely involved coping and novelty. Students who are involved in these types of games may be experiencing other psychological challenges (e.g., coping issues) and tendencies (e.g., novelty-seeking) that warrant attention. Health educators and practitioners should therefore consider the type of DG students play, as well as their reasons for participation. For instance, a high proportion of respondents indicated participation in DG which were perceived as highly competitive (e.g., Ping Pong, Speed); this suggests that students might be attracted to the competitive feature of these types of DG. Altogether, these descriptive statistics shed light on the heterogeneity of DG and gaming-related behaviors.
Our findings revealed that among students who reported playing Verbal, Ping-Pong, Card, and Coin games, the motives of competition and thrills as well as fun and celebration were positively associated with levels of intoxication in these games. While Johnson and Sheets (2004) did not examine specific games, their study also found that these motives (among others) were associated with consumption levels when playing DG. Because the college years can be described as a period of elevated social activity during which alcohol use is likely to take place (Baer, 2002), students may learn or perhaps become socialized so·cial·ize
v. so·cial·ized, so·cial·iz·ing, so·cial·iz·es
1. To place under government or group ownership or control.
2. To make fit for companionship with others; make sociable. into thinking that fun and celebration calls for participation in gaming activities.
DG are inherently different (Borsari, 2004) and motivations for playing vary across game type. Among students who reported playing Board games, social lubrication was associated with higher levels of intoxication; perhaps students participate in Board games purely for social reasons and to get to know others. Among the students who played Verbal games, all the DG motivations examined (with the exception of boredom and conformity) were associated with elevated intoxication level. The reason for this finding remains unclear; however, it is possible that the structure of these games contains a variety of attractive features that make them appealing to students. Though Borsari (2004) noted that DG are "replete with winner, losers, and spectators" (p. 37), Verbal games embody em·bod·y
tr.v. em·bod·ied, em·bod·y·ing, em·bod·ies
1. To give a bodily form to; incarnate.
2. To represent in bodily or material form: a unique kind of competition. The competitive nature of these games can serve as a means to compare one's social status with others without concrete winners or losers per se. Verbal games also have the potential to create a therapeutic social context whereby participants "loosen up" and are able to verbalize their life experiences. As such, participants may perceive these games as a coping mechanism coping mechanism Psychiatry Any conscious or unconscious mechanism of adjusting to environmental stress without altering personal goals or purposes and a way to relax. Given the social context it creates, Verbal games allow participants to get to know and learn about one another, thus it is not surprising to find that students become more intoxicated during these games for social reasons.
The present findings have potential implications for college programmers and counselors. First, because DG are heterogeneous and students' motivations for playing DG vary, college officials should work to educate staff and students about these issues. Second, college programmers and counselors should provide non-drinking activities as an alternative to DG for all students. Perhaps they might consider providing alternative, low-risk social outlets that embody a similar competitive climate to those found in DG. Third, health practitioners and college officials should be mindful mind·ful
Attentive; heedful: always mindful of family responsibilities. See Synonyms at careful.
mind of students' alcohol consumption and their participation in specific types of DG as an outlet for fun and celebration. Providing alternative, safe student recreation activities can help address students' tendencies to imbibe heavily in times of celebration (e.g., post-exam periods). These intervention strategies could be tailored to all students and contain different information based on the student's individual and personal motivations for playing DG.
There are some key limitations worth noting regarding our study. First, the study population consisted of students at an all-women's college; thus, the findings may not generalize generalize /gen·er·al·ize/ (-iz)
1. to spread throughout the body, as when local disease becomes systemic.
2. to form a general principle; to reason inductively. to other students (e.g., male and/or female students at other colleges). Second, we acknowledge the limited sample size of participants who reported playing certain categories of DG in our study. Future studies on the heterogeneity of DG should be conducted with students from a variety of colleges with large sample sizes. Furthermore, research could take a person-centered approach (i.e., cluster analysis Cluster analysis
A statistical technique that identifies clusters of stocks whose returns are highly correlated within each cluster and relatively uncorrelated across clusters. Cluster analysis has identified groupings such as growth, cyclical, stable, and energy stocks. ) to examine the heterogeneity of DG. Third, given the cross-sectional design of our study, any inferences of causality causality, in philosophy, the relationship between cause and effect. A distinction is often made between a cause that produces something new (e.g., a moth from a caterpillar) and one that produces a change in an existing substance (e.g. with respect to our study findings and the associations between DG motivations and intoxication level cannot be made. Experimental studies designed to examine how the various structural elements of DG influence college gaming behaviors will contribute to researchers' and educators' understanding of drinking behaviors in this context. Fourth, although college students would be expected to be familiar with the difference between hard and soft types of alcoholic beverages
Of, relating to, or constituting a precaution: taking precautionary measures; gave precautionary advice.
Adj. 1. measures were implemented to help with data accuracy, the possibility remains that participants may have under- or over-reported their responses. Despite these limitations, the present study addressed the paucity pau·ci·ty
1. Smallness of number; fewness.
2. Scarcity; dearth: a paucity of natural resources. of research on DG in the alcohol literature, particularly with respect to the diversity of these games. Altogether, we examined the structural heterogeneity of DG and the motives for participation in specific games. Further research and education on this topic can help guide programming and intervention efforts aimed at reducing hazardous drinking behaviors on college campuses. Such efforts will allow researchers and health practitioners to better understand which DG pose a serious health-risk for college students and which ones are simply "just games."
We are grateful to Dr. Sam A SAM A Speech Technology Assessment for Multilingual Applications . Hardy, Dr. Laura Padilla-Walker, and Janine Olthuis for their thoughtful comments on this paper. We also thank Jennifer Hockensmith, Jennifer Paul, Rachel Russell and Mona Sabagh for their assistance with data entry on this project. This investigation was supported by a grant to Byron L. Zamboanga from the Committee on Faculty Compensation and Development and the Office of Research and Development, Smith College.
Send correspondence concerning this article to Byron L. Zamboanga, Department of Psychology, Smith College, Northampton, MA, 01063, US. Email address See Internet address. : email@example.com.
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Byron L. Zamboanga, Barbara D. Calvert, Siobhan S. O'Riordan & Elan (Emulated LAN) A virtual LAN in the ATM world. See LANE and virtual LAN.
Elan - ["Top-down Programming with Elan", C.H.A. Koster, Ellis Horwood 1987]. C. McCollum
TABLE 1. Descriptive Statistics for Specific Drinking Games. Beverage Drinking Games Popularity Type Game Type: Example(s) n (%) H S B Ping-Pong: Beirut/Beer Pong 118 (73%) 3% 75% 22% Card: Kings, Up & Down the 97 (60%) 14% 36% 50% River Speed: Flip-Cup, Boat 67 (41%) 6% 76% 17% Races, Chug-A-Lug Board: Monopoly, Cranium, 52 (32%) 22% 39% 39% Apples to Apples Verbal: Categories, Never 39 (24%) 21% 38% 41% Have I Ever Coin: Quarters, Moose 24 (15%) 25% 46% 29% Endurance: Power Hour, Century Club 21 (13%) 5% 67% 29% TV/Video: Movie, Sports 19 (11%) 32% 37% 32% Games Television Shows Musical: Roxanne 14 (8%) 0% 43% 57% Coordination: Jenga 10 (6%) 10% 40% 50% Competitiveness Intoxication Drinking Games Level Level Game Type: Example(s) M/SD Range M/SD Range Ping-Pong: Beirut/Beer Pong 3.88/1.23 1.0-5.0 3.00/1.00 1.0-5.0 Card: Kings, Up & Down the 2.56/1.18 1.0-5.0 2.94/.88 1.0-5.0 River Speed: Flip-Cup, Boat 4.02/1.24 1.0-5.0 3.00/1.10 1.0-5.0 Races, Chug-A-Lug Board: Monopoly, Cranium, 2.25/1.00 1.0-4.0 2.80/.85 1.0-5.0 Apples to Apples Verbal: Categories, Never 2.23/1.25 1.0-5.0 2.90/.96 1.0-4.0 Have I Ever Coin: Quarters, Moose 3.00/1.16 1.0-5.0 2.75/1.00 1.0-5.0 Endurance: Power Hour, Century Club 2.38/1.20 1.0-5.0 4.10/1.00 2.0-5.0 TV/Video: Movie, Sports 1.58/.96 1.0-5.0 3.10/1.20 1.0-5.0 Games Television Shows Musical: Roxanne 1.71/1.07 1.0-5.0 2.79/.89 1.0-4.0 Coordination: Jenga 2.90/1.29 1.0-5.0 2.00/.82 1.0-3.0 Duration of Entire Drinking Games Game (Minutes) Game Type: Example(s) M/SD Range Ping-Pong: Beirut/Beer Pong 48.2/41.0 4.0-280 Card: Kings, Up & Down the 48.0/52.0 1.0-350 River Speed: Flip-Cup, Boat 23.8/36.7 .80-225 Races, Chug-A-Lug Board: Monopoly, Cranium, 50.5/37.2 8.0-189 Apples to Apples Verbal: Categories, Never 29.0/20.4 1.5-80 Have I Ever Coin: Quarters, Moose 35.0/26.3 10-100 Endurance: Power Hour, Century Club 53.8/38.6 2.0-180 TV/Video: Movie, Sports 48.8/38.5 2.0-100 Games Television Shows Musical: Roxanne 15.7/18.7 3.0-56 Coordination: Jenga 36.7/33.9 15-120 Note. N = 162 respondents with complete cases; some participants reported having played more than one game. Games with <10 participants are not shown (Dice and Luck Games). H = Hard Liquor, S = Soft Liquor, B = Both Hard/Soft Liquor. TABLE 2. Motives for Playing DG and Level of Intoxication by Game Type. Game Type Motives for DG Verbal (a) Ping-Pong Card Coin (a) Participation (n=39) (n=118) (n=97) (n=24) Fun and Celebration .57 ** .36 ** .36 ** .50 ** Competition & Thrills .39 ** .24 * .26 * .29 + Coping .35 * .01 .06 .46 * Novelty .29 * .10 .02 .32 + Social Lubrication .42 ** -.03 .05 .34 + Game Type Motives for DG Speed Endurance (a) Board Participation (n=67) (n=21) (n=52) Fun and Celebration .38 ** .33 + .04 Competition & Thrills .14 .05 .01 Coping .11 .36 + .03 Novelty .06 .50 * .12 Social Lubrication .07 -.10 .24 + Note. N = 162 respondents with complete cases; some participants reported having played more than one game. (a) One-tailed test, + p <.10 (marginally significant); * p <.05; ** p <.01. The DG motives of conformity and boredom were not associated with intoxication level for any DG category and were therefore excluded from the table.