Petrus Christus: Renaissance Master of Bruges.This publication accompanied the exhibition of Petrus Christus's works held at the Metropolitan Museum from April to July of 1994. The catalogue essay, "The Art of Petrus Christus Petrus Christus (c. 1410/1420 – 1475/1476) was a Netherlandish painter active in Bruges from 1444. Introduction
Christus was born in Baarle-Hertog, near Antwerp, Belgium. ," and the catalogue are by Maryan Ainsworth. Two additional essays, "Bruges During Petrus Christus's Lifetime," and "Petrus Christus: A Cultural Biography," are by Maximilian P. J. Martens as is an appendix: "Archival Documents and Literary Sources." A second appendix: "Dendrochronological Analysis of Panels Attributed to Petrus Christus," is by Peter Klein Peter Klein may refer to:
The exhibition enabled the Metropolitan to place a major portion of Christus's known and attributed works together for visual comparison, most of them for the first time. These included twenty-three works, including eighteen paintings, one miniature, and four drawings. In addition, the catalogue beautifully reproduces the St. Jerome from Detroit's Institute of Arts, once attributed to Jan van Eyck; Christus's Madonna With Sts. Barbara and Elizabeth and Jan Vos Jan Vos may be:
Considerable scientific analysis was undertaken in preparation for the exhibition. The results were included in the show, and ranged from infrared reflectography, xradiography, and dendrochronological evaluation. The evidence of this study - particularly the reflectography and radiography radiography: see X ray. - forms a critical element in Aynsworth's essay on the art of Petrus Christus.
Christus was the most important of Bruges's painters between Jan van Eyck and Hans Memling Hans Memling (Memlinc) (c. 1430 – 11 August, 1494) was an Early Netherlandish painter, born in Germany, who was the last major fifteenth century artist in the Netherlands, the successor to Jan van Eyck and Rogier van der Weyden, whose tradition he continued with little . Three years after Jan van Eyck's death, he became a citizen of Bruges in order to enroll in the painters' guild. In emulation of van Eyck, Christus signed and dated a small number of his paintings, even though none of Christus's Bruges contemporaries - and only a few other painters of the fifteenth-century Netherlandish school - signed their works. As a result, there is a core of paintings more-or-less securely attributable to the artist. Earlier scholarship has also drawn an inevitable, though far less dependable, link between Christus and van Eyck, assuming Christus to have been in van Eyck's workshop, and to have completed at least two of van Eyck's works at his death.
Two monographs and several scholarly articles over the past twenty years TWENTY YEARS. The lapse of twenty years raises a presumption of certain facts, and after such a time, the party against whom the presumption has been raised, will be required to prove a negative to establish his rights.
2. have not settled all of the many problematic matters of attribution and association for this artist, but it seems unlikely now that Jan van Eyck and Petrus Christus were ever so directly associated. Christus appears to have been aware of some of van Eyck's workshop practices, and therefore may have had access to his studio at some point, but the matter is moot.
Petrus Christus lived until 1475 or 1476. While several other Bruges painters are prominent in the archives of the period, scholars have not yet isolated their works by name. Hans Memling, who became a citizen of Bruges in 1465, and who signed his name and dated several of his own works, is the next major Bruges artist.
Ainsworth's basic chapter on Christus deals with the historiography of Christus scholarship and the documentary evidence A type of written proof that is offered at a trial to establish the existence or nonexistence of a fact that is in dispute.
Letters, contracts, deeds, licenses, certificates, tickets, or other writings are documentary evidence. of signed and dated works, seven of which are valuable as such, especially since no proven documents of commission or payment for Christus's paintings survive. Ainsworth follows with an analysis of the artist's painting technique and chronology, devoting considerable space to the comparison of underdrawing Underdrawing is the drawing done on a painting ground before paint is applied, for example, an imprimatura or an underpainting. Underdrawing was used extensively by 15th century painters like Jan van Eyck and Rogier van der Weyden. techniques by Petrus Christus.
These criteria tend to be confusing. The discussion of the Lamentation lamentation,
n a prayer expressing affliction or sorrow and requesting defense, retribution, or comfort. in Paris, for instance (not in the exhibition), first acknowledges the apparent authenticity of the underdrawing of figures and faces, then finds the faces in paint uncharacteristic of the artist, though these follow the underdrawing closely. Meanwhile no discussion ensues on the poor condition of the entire paint surface or repainting of the Paris work which is distinctly evident, even in the reproduction. Comparison of the Lamentation with the Death of the Virgin, cat. 15, in the Timken Art Gallery, San Diego San Diego (săn dēā`gō), city (1990 pop. 1,110,549), seat of San Diego co., S Calif., on San Diego Bay; inc. 1850. San Diego includes the unincorporated communities of La Jolla and Spring Valley. Coronado is across the bay. , presents some distinct affinities in painted drapery style, faces, and landscape, despite the erosion and size differences between the two works.
The computer-assembled reflectographic images were difficult to read in originals at the exhibition and are much more so in the text. Further, the assertions of technique that seem to derive from them seem based on far too few comparisons for this reader to feel secure about the conclusions drawn. This analysis continues to represent specialized knowledge about which the lay viewer is advised rather than actively engaged.
In the Friedsam Annunciation Annunciation
dove and lily
pictured with Virgin and Gabriel. [Christian Iconography: Brewer Dictionary, 645]
Mary’s old cousin; bears John the Baptist. [N.T. , for instance, the reader is invited to compare the underdrawing of the Virgin's garments with that of the Virgin's garments in the Frankfurt Madonna and Saints (figs. 132, 142, 145). Not only is the comparison inconclusive when the images are confronted, but the styles of drapery in the two paintings are so different as to increase doubts as to the common source.
The Friedsam Annunciation is in general an ongoing problem, presented here as "attributed to Christus" with many arguments for the attribution. Unconvinced, this writer has no reasonable alternative to present for an attribution but can only note the work's affinity with the several magnificent paintings displayed as "School of van Eyck" or even "Hubert van Eyck Hubert van Eyck (also Huybrecht van Eyck) (c. 1366–1426) was a Flemish painter and older brother of Jan van Eyck.
The date of his birth and the records of his progress are lost amidst the ruins of the earlier civilization of the valley of the Meuse. " in the world's museums.
CHARLES I. MINOTT University of Pennsylvania (body, education) University of Pennsylvania - The home of ENIAC and Machiavelli.
Address: Philadelphia, PA, USA.