Petition on Behalf of the Children of Iraq Submitted to the United Nations Charging President Bush and U.S. Authorities Actions Constitute Acts of Genocide.
EDITOR'S NOTE Editor's Note (foaled in 1993 in Kentucky) is an American thoroughbred Stallion racehorse. He was sired by 1992 U.S. Champion 2 YO Colt Forty Niner, who in turn was a son of Champion sire Mr. Prospector and out of the mare, Beware Of The Cat.
Trained by D. : In September of 1991 Francis Boyle Francis Boyle is a scholar in the areas of international law and human rights, Professor Boyle received a J.D. degree magna cum laude and A.M. and Ph.D. degrees in political science from Harvard University. asked the Coalition to Stop U.S. intervention in the Middle East to submit an Indictment, Complaint and Petition for Relief from Genocide genocide, in international law, the intentional and systematic destruction, wholly or in part, by a government of a national, racial, religious, or ethnic group. by President George Herbert Walker Bush Noun 1. George Herbert Walker Bush - vice president under Reagan and 41st President of the United States (born in 1924)
George H.W. Bush, President Bush, George Bush, Bush and the United States of America UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. The name of this country. The United States, now thirty-one in number, are Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, New Hampshire, , which he had prepared on behalf of the 4.5 million children of Iraq. Professor Boyle filed the Complaint at the request of several Iraqi mothers whose children were dying as a result of the sanctions. The Petition was submitted to the Secretary General of the U.N., members of the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council, the Commission on Human Rights, the Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, UNESCO UNESCO: see United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization.
in full United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization , and UNICEF UNICEF (y`nĭsĕf'), the United Nations Children's Fund, an affiliated agency of the United Nations. .
Boyle's petition reviewed the factual situation confronting the children of Iraq including malnutrition malnutrition, insufficiency of one or more nutritional elements necessary for health and well-being. Primary malnutrition is caused by the lack of essential foodstuffs—usually vitamins, minerals, or proteins—in the diet. , starvation, disease, and death, and details the violations of international law upon which this Claim is based. The relief asked for included a lifting of the sanctions against Iraq, massive provision of international humanitarian relief and compensation to the victims of the policies described.
Boyle has stated, based on then current -- and ongoing -- devastating dev·as·tate
tr.v. dev·as·tat·ed, dev·as·tat·ing, dev·as·tates
1. To lay waste; destroy.
2. To overwhelm; confound; stun: was devastated by the rude remark. situation for Iraq's children, "Likeunto a pirate, the Respondent George Bush is hostis humani generis Hostis humani generis (Latin for "enemy of mankind") is a term of art in international law, generally referring to the particular status of pirates. Piracy is the broadest exception to the principle that a ship on the high seas is subject to the protection of, and -- the enemy of all humankind." Boyle asked for an urgent review of this Petition and that the appropriate organs of the United Nations, as well its member states, institute criminal proceedings against President Bush for committing the international crime of genocide against the children of Iraq. The transcript of Boyle's Indictment, Complaint and Petition for Relief from Genocide follows.
Despite the best professional efforts by Professor Boyle, who is working pro bono publico Pro bono publico (often shortened to pro bono) is a phrase derived from Latin meaning "for the public good." The term is sometimes used to describe professional work undertaken voluntarily and without payment, as a public service. on this matter, so far the entire United Nations Organization has refused to act upon this Complaint on behalf of the Children of Iraq.
TO: THE SECRETARY GENERAL OF THE UNITED NATIONS, THE MEMBERS OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY, THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL, THE COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, THE SUB-COMMISSION ON PREVENTION OF DISCRIMINATION AND PROTECTION OF MINORITIES, UNESCO, UNICEF, THE HEADS OF ALL NGO'S ETC ETC - ExTendible Compiler. Fortran-like, macro extendible. "ETC - An Extendible Macro-Based Compiler", B.N. Dickman, Proc SJCC 38 (1971). .
RE: INDICTMENT, COMPLAINT AND PETITION BY THE 4.5 MILLION CHILDREN OF IRAQ FOR RELIEF FROM GENOCIDE BY PRESIDENT GEORGE W. BUSH AND THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
On behalf of The 4.5 Million Children of Iraq, I hereby submit to you this Indictment, Complaint and Petition for Relief from Genocide by President George Bush and the United States of America (hereinafler referred to as the "Respondents"). This Indictment, Complaint and Petition accuses the Respondents (1) of committing the international crime of genocide against The 4.5 Million Children of Iraq in violation of the International Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in December 1948 and came into effect in January 1951. of 1948 and in violation of the municipal legal systems of all civilized nations in the world; (2) of a gross and consistent pattern of violations of the most fundamental human rights of The 4.5 Million Children of Iraq as recognized and guaranteed to them by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948. Drafted by a committee chaired by Eleanor Roosevelt, it was adopted without dissent but with eight abstentions. of 1948; (3) of the complete negation NEGATION. Denial. Two negations are construed to mean one affirmation. Dig. 50, 16, 137. and denial of all the rights guaranteed to The 4.5 Million Children of Iraq by the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, often referred to as CRC or UNCRC, is an international convention setting out the civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights of children. ; and (4) of the systematic violation of the special pro tections of international humanitarian law International humanitarian law (IHL), also known as the law of war, the laws and customs of war or the law of armed conflict, is the legal corpus "comprised of the Geneva Conventions and the Hague Conventions, as well as subsequent treaties, case law, guaranteed to The 4.5 Million Children of Iraq by the Fourth Geneva Convention The Fourth Geneva Convention (or GCIV) relates to the protection of civilians during times of war "in the hands" of an enemy and under any occupation by a foreign power. of 1949 and Additional Protocol I thereto of 1977.
Under the human rights provisions of the United Nations Charter, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Genocide Convention, the Children's Convention, and the Fourth Geneva Convention and Protocol I, The 4.5 Million Children of Iraq are proper parties to invoke the jurisdiction of the United Nations and its various organs in requesting the following Relief in order to be relieved from the inhuman in·hu·man
a. Lacking kindness, pity, or compassion; cruel. See Synonyms at cruel.
b. Deficient in emotional warmth; cold.
2. , degrading TO DEGRADE, DEGRADING. To, sink or lower a person in the estimation of the public.
2. As a man's character is of great importance to him, and it is his interest to retain the good opinion of all mankind, when he is a witness, he cannot be compelled to disclose , cruel, criminal, and genocidal conditions perpetrated upon them by the Respondents: The 4.5 Million Children of Iraq demand (1) the termination of the international economic embargo and all forms of bilateral economic sanctions Economic sanctions are economic penalties applied by one country (or group of countries) on another for a variety of reasons. Economic sanctions include, but are not limited to, tariffs, trade barriers, import duties, and import or export quotas. against Iraq; (2) the massive provision of international humanitarian relief required in order to save themselves from death, disease, malnutrition, starvation, and extermination extermination
mass killing of animals or other pests. Implies complete destruction of the species or other group. at the hands of the Respondents; (3) monetary compensation for the harm done to them as well as all other forms of relief deemed necessary and appropriate; and (4) the institution of criminal proc eedings against Respondent Bush for committing the international crime of genocide by the appropriate international organs as well as by all States of the World Community under their respective municipal legal systems.
The 4.5 Million Children of Iraq have set forth in the attached Indictment, Complaint and Petition all of the Facts necessary to constitute a prima facie case prima facie case n. a plaintiff's lawsuit or a criminal charge which appears at first blush to be "open and shut." (See: prima facie) against the Respondents for genocide; grave breaches of the Fourth Geneva Convention and Protocol I; and a gross and consistent pattern of violations of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Convention on the Rights of the Child. Wherefore For which reason.
The term wherefore is frequently used in an averment (a positive statement of fact set out in the pleadings that must be filed with a court by the parties to a legal action)—for example, "wherefore the defendant says that such contract , The 4.5 Million Children of Iraq demand that the United Nations and its organs immediately undertake a full investigation of the matters presented in this Indictment, Complaint and Petition, and subsequently authorize a complete and public disclosure of all evidence and findings of fact findings of fact n. (See: finding) at the conclusion of such investigation. I would appreciate receiving a formal acknowledgment of your receipt of the attached Indictment, Complaint, and Petition by The 4.5 Million Children of Iraq at the address listed above as well as all further communications related to this matter.
THE PEOPLES AND COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD MUST NOT TURN THEIR EYES AWAY IN SHAME FROM IRAQ AS HUMANKIND APPROACHES THE DAWN OF THE NEXT MILLENNIUM OF ITS PARLOUS EXISTENCE. AS IRAQ'S CHILDREN GO, SO GOES THE ENTIRE WORLD!
RESPECTFULLY SUBMITTED ON BEHALF OF THE 4.5 MILLION CHILDREN OF IRAQ,
FRANCIS A. BOYLE
PROFESSOR OF INTERNATIONAL LAW
MEMBER OF THE BARS OF THE SUPREME JUDICIAL COURT OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS AND OF THE SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES Supreme Court of the United States
Final court of appeal in the U.S. judicial system and final interpreter of the Constitution of the United States. The Supreme Court was created by the Constitutional Convention of 1787 as the head of a federal court system, though it was OF AMERICA
DATED: SEPTEMBER 18, 1991
IN THE UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY, SECRETARY GENERAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL, HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION,
SUB-COMMISSION ON PREVENTION OF DISCRIMINATION AND PROTECTION OF MINORITIES,
UNESCO, UNICEF, ALL NGO'S
UNITED NATIONS HEADQUARTERS
IN NEW YORK New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of , GENEVA Geneva, canton and city, Switzerland
Geneva (jənē`və), Fr. Genève, canton (1990 pop. 373,019), 109 sq mi (282 sq km), SW Switzerland, surrounding the southwest tip of the Lake of Geneva. , VIENNA, AND PARIS Paris, in Greek mythology
Paris or Alexander, in Greek mythology, son of Priam and Hecuba and brother of Hector. Because it was prophesied that he would cause the destruction of Troy, Paris was abandoned on Mt.
THE 4.5 MILLION CHILDREN OF IRAQ, APPLICANTS,
GEORGE BUSH, PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES The head of the Executive Branch, one of the three branches of the federal government.
The U.S. Constitution sets relatively strict requirements about who may serve as president and for how long. INDICTMENT, COMPLAINT, AND PETITION FOR RELIEF FROM GENOCIDE IN BOTH HIS OFFICIAL AND PERSONAL CAPACITIES, AND THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, RESPONDENTS.
TO: THE SECRETARY GENERAL OF THE UNITED NATIONS, THE MEMBERS OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY, THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL, THE COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, THE SUB-COMMISSION ON PREVENTION OF DISCRIMINATION AND PROTECTION OF MINORITIES, UNESCO, UNICEF, THE HEADS OF ALL NGO'S, ETC.
RE: INDICTMENT, COMPLAINT AND PETITION BY THE 4.5 MILLION CHILDREN OF IRAQ FOR RELIEF FROM GENOCIDE BY PRESIDENT GEORGE BUSH AND THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.
(1.) The Applicants herein, THE 4.5 MILLION CHILDREN OF IRAQ, invoke the jurisdiction of the United Nations and its organs by virtue of the provisions of the United Nations Charter, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and the International Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, and file this Indictment, Complaint and Petition on their own behalf. The Applicants charge the Respondents with committing the international crime of genocide against The 4.5 Million Children of Iraq. Applicants pray for the termination of the international economic embargo and all forms of bilateral economic sanctions against Iraq, and to secure the massive provision of international humanitarian relief required in order to save themselves from death, disease, malnutrition, starvation, and extermination at the hands of the Respondents. Applicants also pray for monetary compensation for the harm done to them and all other forms of relief deemed necessary and appropriate. Finally, Applicants request the institution of criminal proceedings against the Respondent George Bush for committing the international crime of genocide by the appropriate international organs and by all States of the World Community under their respective municipal legal systems.
II. THE FACTS
(2.) The Applicants are The 4.5 Million Children of Iraq.
(3.) The Respondents are (1) George Bush, President of the United States of America PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. This is the title of the executive officer of this country.
2. The constitution directs that the executive power shall be vested in a president of the United States of America. Art. 2, s. 1. , in both his official and personal capacities, and (2) the United States of America, a Permanent Member of the United Nations Security Council.
(4.) The Respondents are the Person and State primarily responsible for the imposition of the now year-long international economic embargo and bilateral economic sanctions against Iraq.
(5.) Reports from the United Nations, the Physicians for Human Rights, the International Red Cross, a Harvard Study Team, other independent organizations, and private U.S. citizens have documented the fact that unless the economic sanctions imposed against Iraq are immediately lifted and Iraq is allowed to buy and import food, medicine and equipment, especially for power generation, hundreds of thousands of innocent Iraqi civilians will die in the upcoming months.
(6.) A Harvard Study Team estimates that at least 170,000 Iraqi children under the age of five will die within the next year from the delayed effects of the war in the Persian Gulf Persian Gulf, arm of the Arabian Sea, 90,000 sq mi (233,100 sq km), between the Arabian peninsula and Iran, extending c.600 mi (970 km) from the Shatt al Arab delta to the Strait of Hormuz, which links it with the Gulf of Oman. if the imposition of the sanctions continues.
(7.) This is a conservative estimate and does not include tens of thousands of Iraqi children above the age of five who are expected to die from similar causes.
(8.) The Catholic Relief Service estimates that more than 100,000 Iraqi children will die from malnutrition and disease in the upcoming months due to the economic embargo and destruction of the war, and the United Nations Children's Fund United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), an affiliated agency of the United Nations. It was established in 1946 as the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund. estimates that 80,000 Iraqi children may die from these causes.
(9.) Malnutrition has become severe and widespread in Iraq since imposition of the embargo and the war due to severe food shortages and the inflation of food prices of up to 1000%, which has effectively priced many Iraqis, especially the poor and disadvantaged, out of the food market.
(10.) Cholera cholera (kŏl`ərə) or Asiatic cholera, acute infectious disease caused by strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae that have been infected by bacteriophages. , typhoid typhoid
or typhoid fever
Acute infectious disease resembling typhus (and distinguished from it only in the 19th century). Salmonella typhi, usually ingested in food or water, multiplies in the intestinal wall and then enters the bloodstream, causing , and gastroenteritis gastroenteritis: see enteritis.
Acute infectious syndrome of the stomach lining and intestines. Symptoms include diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps. have become epidemic throughout Iraq since the war due to the critical scarcity of medicine and the inability of Iraq to process sewage and purify Purify - A debugging tool from Pure Software. the water supply.
(11.) The system of medical care has broken down in Iraq, resulting in the closure of up to 50% of Iraq's medical facilities due to acute shortages 'of medicines, equipment, and staff.
(12.) The incapacitation in·ca·pac·i·tate
tr.v. in·ca·pac·i·tat·ed, in·ca·pac·i·tat·ing, in·ca·pac·i·tates
1. To deprive of strength or ability; disable.
2. To make legally ineligible; disqualify. of 18 of Iraq's 20 power plants during the war is a principal cause of the deterioration in public health due to the resultant inability of Iraq to process sewage, purify its water supply, and supply electricity to health facilities.
(13.) The health care crisis cannot be addressed without the reconstruction of electrical facilities that enable the purification of water and treatment of sewage.
(14.) Before the economic embargo of Iraq, three quarters of the total caloric caloric /ca·lo·ric/ (kah-lor´ik) pertaining to heat or to calories.
1. Of or relating to calories.
2. Of or relating to heat. intake in Iraq was imported and, moreover, 96% of Iraqi revenue to pay for imports, namely food and medicine, was derived from the exportation of oil now prohibited under the embargo.
(15.) The summer heat in Iraq has both accelerated the spread of disease and impeded its treatment due to the lack of refrigeration refrigeration, process for drawing heat from substances to lower their temperature, often for purposes of preservation. Refrigeration in its modern, portable form also depends on insulating materials that are thin yet effective. facilities even in hospitals.
(16.) The acute shortages of food in Iraq, the inflation of up to 1000% in food prices caused by these shortages, the critical scarcity of medicine, and the essential need to reconstruct Iraq's capacity to generate electricity to enable sewage treatment Sewage treatment
Unit processes used to separate, modify, remove, and destroy objectionable, hazardous, and pathogenic substances carried by wastewater in solution or suspension in order to render the water fit and safe for intended uses. and water purification It has been suggested that , , and be merged into this article or section. , cannot be addressed or rectified without Iraq's re-entry RE-ENTRY, estates. The resuming or retaking possession of land which the party lately had.
2. Ground rent deeds and leases frequently contain a clause authorizing the landlord to reenter on the non-payment of rent, or the breach of some covenant, when the into global commerce, at present effectively prohibited by the economic sanctions.
(17.) The immediate lifting of the sanctions would drastically reduce the number of Iraqi children who will die in the upcoming months from malnutrition and disease and would relieve the suffering of the innocent Iraqi population which is now bearing the burden of the embargo.
(18.) Approximately 500 Iraqi children are dying each day from disease, malnutrition, and lack of proper medical treatment due to the continuation of the international economic embargo and bilateral economic sanctions upon Iraq that have been organized and imposed by the Respondents.
(19.) The Harvard Study Team Report, Public Health in Iraq After the Gulf War, estimated that as of May 1991, 55,000 additional deaths of Iraqi children under five had already occurred because of the Gulf Crisis, and projected that at least 170,000 Iraqi children under five will die in the coming year from the delayed effects of the Gulf Crisis. The Study also emphasized that these projections are conservative: "In all probability, the actual number of deaths of children under five will be much higher."
(20.) The continuation of multilateral and bilateral economic sanctions against Iraq prevents the massive infusion of international humanitarian assistance necessary to prevent these mortality projections from becoming a reality. The Harvard Report directly raises the question whether Respondents are responsible for the commission of the international crime of genocide against the Applicants, The 4.5 Million Children of Iraq, because of their obstinate ob·sti·nate
1. Stubbornly adhering to an attitude, opinion, or course of action.
2. Difficult to alleviate or cure. insistence that economic sanctions be maintained in order to produce the deposition of the President of Iraq The President of Iraq is Iraq's head of state.
Republic of Iraq (1958-2003)
For most of the country's history, Iraq's presidents have been authoritarian dictators occupying an office without a clearly designed constitutional structure. despite the fact that the original purpose for their imposition was achieved with the so-called "liberation" of Kuwait.
(21.) Respondent United States of America is a Contracting Party to the International Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide of 1948, which will hereinafter here·in·af·ter
In a following part of this document, statement, or book.
Formal or law from this point on in this document, matter, or case
Adv. 1. be referred to as "the Genocide Convention" for sake of convenience.
(22.) Article I of the Genocide Convention provides that the Contracting Parties confirm that genocide, whether committed in time of peace or in time of war, is a crime under international law, which they undertake to prevent and to punish.
(23.) Article II of the Genocide Convention defines the international crime of "genocide" as follows:
Article II. In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical eth·ni·cal
2. Of or relating to ethnology.
Adj. 1. , racial or religious group, as such:
(a) Killing members of the group;
(b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;
(c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;
(d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
(e) Forcibly forc·i·ble
1. Effected against resistance through the use of force: The police used forcible restraint in order to subdue the assailant.
2. Characterized by force; powerful. transferring children of the group to another group.
(24.) Article III of the Genocide Convention provides that the following acts shall likewise all be punishable: (a) genocide; (b) conspiracy to commit genocide; (c) direct and public incitement in·cite
tr.v. in·cit·ed, in·cit·ing, in·cites
To provoke and urge on: troublemakers who incite riots; inciting workers to strike. See Synonyms at provoke. to commit genocide; (d) attempt to commit genocide; (e) complicity com·plic·i·ty
n. pl. com·plic·i·ties
Involvement as an accomplice in a questionable act or a crime.
pl -ties in genocide.
(25.) According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. Article IV of the Genocide Convention, persons committing genocide or any of the other acts enumerated This term is often used in law as equivalent to mentioned specifically, designated, or expressly named or granted; as in speaking of enumerated governmental powers, items of property, or articles in a tariff schedule. in Article III shall be punished, whether they are constitutionally responsible rulers, public officials, or private individuals. This basic requirement of the Genocide Convention is fully applicable to Respondent George Bush.
(26.) According to Article V of the Genocide Convention, the Contracting Parties undertake to enact, in accordance with their respective Constitutions, the necessary legislation to give effect to the provisions of the Genocide Convention and, in particular, to provide effective penalties for persons guilty of genocide or of any of the other acts enumerated in Article III.
(27.) Pursuant to Article V, the Congress of the United States Congress of the United States, the legislative branch of the federal government, instituted (1789) by Article 1 of the Constitution of the United States, which prescribes its membership and defines its powers. of America adopted what is called implementing legislation for the Genocide Convention that makes genocide a crime under U.S. federal criminal law. Basically following the terms of the Genocide Convention, this Genocide Convention Implementation Act of 1987 (found in Title 18 of the United States Code Title 18 of the US Code deals with Crimes and Criminal Proceedings in five parts:
Part I - Crimes
Part II - Criminal Procedure
Part III - Prisons and Prisoners
Part IV - Correction of Youthful Offenders
Part V - Immunity of Witnesses ) defines the crime of "genocide" as follows:
[section] 1901. Genocide
(a) BASIC OFFENSE - Whoever, whether in time of peace or in time of war, in a circumstance described in subsection (d) and with the specific intent to destroy, in whole or in substantial part, a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group as such --
(1) kills members of that group;
(2) causes serious bodily injury to members of that group;
(3) causes the permanent impairment of the mental faculties of members of the group through drugs, torture, or similar techniques;
(4) subjects the group to conditions of life that are intended to cause the physical destruction of the group in whole or in part;
(5) imposes measures intended to prevent births within the group; or
(6) transfers by force children of the group to another group; or attempts to do so, shall be punished as provided in subsection (b).
(28.) According to subsection (d), the basic offense must be committed either within the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. , or by a national of the United States. The penalty for violating subsection (a)(1) is a fine of not more than $1 million and imprisonment Imprisonment
See also Isolation.
former federal maximum security penitentiary, near San Francisco; “escapeproof.” [Am. Hist.: Flexner, 218]
German prison ship in World War II. [Br. Hist. for life. The penalty for violating subsections (a)(2) to (a)(6) is a fine of not more than $1 million or imprisonment for not more than twenty years TWENTY YEARS. The lapse of twenty years raises a presumption of certain facts, and after such a time, the party against whom the presumption has been raised, will be required to prove a negative to establish his rights.
2. , or both.
(29.) Under the definitional provisions of this Act, 225,000 dead Iraqi children clearly constitute a "substantial part" of "a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group as such." The continuation of economic sanctions against Iraq will (1) kill at least 170,000 more Iraqi children by the end of the year; (2) "cause serious bodily injury to" Applicants, The 4.5 Million Children of Iraq; (3) "cause the permanent impairment of the mental faculties of" Applicants; and (4) subject Applicants "to conditions of life that are intended to cause the physical destruction of the group in whole or in part...."
(30.) Only the "specific intent" of Respondent George Bush to commit genocide against Applicants remains to be proven beyond a reasonable doubt to establish his criminal responsibility under United States municipal law and international criminal law. The open publication and widespread dissemination of the Harvard Report on 22 May 1991 makes that task possible. Any Bush administration official responsible for implementing the economic sanctions policy against Iraq who has knowledge of the conclusions of the Harvard Report would possess the "specific intent" required to serve as the mental element or mens rea As an element of criminal responsibility, a guilty mind; a guilty or wrongful purpose; a criminal intent. Guilty knowledge and wilfulness.
A fundamental principle of Criminal Law is that a crime consists of both a mental and a physical element. of the international and municipal crime of genocide against Applicants, The 4.5 Million Children of Iraq. Applicants assert that Respondent George Bush has full knowledge of the genocidal consequences of the continuation of economic sanctions against Iraq and therefore has the mens rea necessary for committing the crime of genocide as recognized by the Genocide Convention and the Genocide Implementation Act.
(31.) The same principles of international criminal law have been incorporated into the municipal legal systems of almost all States in the World Community today. Wherefore, there is universality of jurisdiction for any State to prosecute Respondent George Bush for committing genocide against the Applicants, The 4.5 Million Children of Iraq. Like unto a pirate, the Respondent George Bush is host is humani generis
(32.) Article I of the Genocide Convention makes it quite clear that all 99 states that are Contracting Parties have an international legal obligation "to prevent" the commission of genocide against Applicants, The 4.5 million children of Iraq.
(33.) Article VIII of the Genocide Convention provides that any Contracting Party "may call upon the competent organs of the United Nations to take such action under the Charter of the United Nations as they consider appropriate for the prevention and suppression of acts of genocide ..."
(34.) Thus, all 99 states parties to the Genocide Convention have both the right and the duty under international law to bring the genocidal situation in Iraq to the attention of the entire United Nations Organization, as well as its affiliated organizations such as UNESCO, UNICEF, etc.
(35.) The Genocide Convention expressly confers international legal competence upon all organs of the United Nations--including the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the General Assembly, the Secretary General, the International Court of Justice, the U.N. Commission on Human Rights, the Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, UNESCO, UNICEF, etc. -- to do something about the genocidal situation in Iraq. But so far, such individual steps and collective actions by Member States have not been taken for fear of running afoul of a·foul of
1. In or into collision, entanglement, or conflict with.
2. Up against; in trouble with: ran afoul of the law. the all-powerful Respondents, who represent and constitute the only self-styled "superpower" sitting as one of the five Permanent Members of the Security Council.
(36.) The Respondents bear ultimate legal responsibility for the imposition of economic sanctions upon Iraq and therefore for the international crime of genocide against Applicants, The 4.5 Million Children of Iraq.
(37.) Under the current desperate circumstances, responsible officials of Member States permitting the continuation of economic sanctions against Iraq could commit the separate international crime of "complicity" in the crime of genocide that is today being inflicted upon the Applicants by the Respondents, in violation of Article III(e) of the Genocide Convention.
(38.) That the organs and agencies of the United Nations, including the Secretary General, the Economic and Social Council, the General Assembly, the Human Rights Commission, the Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, UNESCO and UNICEF, inter alia [Latin, Among other things.] A phrase used in Pleading to designate that a particular statute set out therein is only a part of the statute that is relevant to the facts of the lawsuit and not the entire statute. , have the jurisdiction to receive and hear this Indictment, Complaint and Petition, and to provide the Relief requested herein.
(39.) That the organs of the United Nations are endowed en·dow
tr.v. en·dowed, en·dow·ing, en·dows
1. To provide with property, income, or a source of income.
a. with explicit and inherent powers Inherent powers are Presidential powers derived or inferred from specific powers in the U.S. Constitution.
Contrasted with Article 1, section 1 of the Constitution which states "herein granted," the statement in Article 2, section 1 ("shall be vested") has led to the to assume jurisdiction of cases of the kind presented in this Indictment, Complaint and Petition is reflected in the Charter of the United Nations. Chapter I, Article 1(1) of the Charter obligates the United Nations and its members to "maintain international peace and security." Such peace and security are threatened by many acts short of open interstate warfare. Genocide by the Respondents against the Applicants, The 4.5 Million Children of Iraq, threatens international peace and security.
(40.) As the situation described above constitutes a constant threat to the maintenance of international peace and security, the Secretary General, under the authority conferred upon him by Article 99 of the Charter, is entitled to bring this matter to the attention of the Security Council. He is also authorized by Rule 13(g) of the Rules of Procedure of the General Assembly to include in the Assembly's agenda any item which he deems it necessary to put before the Assembly. Applicants hereby request the Secretary General to include their Indictment, Complaint, and Petition on the agenda of the 46th General Assembly, and to bring it to the attention of the Security Council.
(41.) The General Assembly is authorized to act under Chapter IV, Article 22 of the United Nations Charter to establish an ad hoc For this purpose. Meaning "to this" in Latin, it refers to dealing with special situations as they occur rather than functions that are repeated on a regular basis. See ad hoc query and ad hoc mode. Tribunal empowered to grant the Relief requested herein. For instance, in 1950, the General Assembly established a special tribunal to deal with various claims arising in the former Italian colony of Libya. Given the circumstances detailed in this Indictment, Complaint and Petition, the creation of such a Tribunal would be justified and necessary to carry out the very Purposes and Principles for which the United Nations was established: to ensure peace and security and to guarantee the protection of fundamental human rights. Applicants request the 46th General Assembly to establish such a Tribunal as a subsidiary organ and to charge it with the responsibility to investigate and adjudicate adjudicate (jōō´dikāt´),
v their Indictment, Complaint and Petition, as well as to order all forms of Relief requested in Section VI herein.
(42.) That all Members of the United Nations have pledged themselves under U.N. Charter Chapter IX Articles 55 and 56 to take action to ensure respect for human rights. Article 55 states in part:
With a view to the creation of conditions of stability and wellbeing which are necessary for peaceful and friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, the United Nations shall promote:
(c) universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion.
Article 56 states:
All Members pledge themselves to take joint and separate action in co-operation with the Organization for the achievement of the purposes set forth in Article 55.
(43.) Such a pledge indicates that under the Charter, Member States must be prepared to take action to assist in enforcing and protecting human rights. Should an organ of the United Nations determine that the rights of Applicants were violated by Respondents and recommend action, Member States have pledged themselves to co-operate with the United Nations in taking necessary steps under the Charter to promote "universal respect for, and observance of, human rights."
(44.) These human rights provisions of the United Nations Charter were further elaborated upon and specified by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which was adopted by consensus by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights enunciates the basic standards of international human rights law to which all individuals around the world are entitled. Indeed, it is the official position of the United Nations Organization and of the Respondent United States of America that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is binding upon all States and for the benefit of all People around the world as a matter of customary international law In addition to treaties and other expressed or ratified agreements that create international law, the International Court of Justice, jurists, the United Nations and its member states consider customary international law .
(45.) Among the plethora of rights guaranteed to the Applicants by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that are currently being systematically violated by the Respondents, the most sacred and most fundamental right of all is their very right to life itself, as recognized by Article 3 thereof: "Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person." Respondents act as if the "everyone" referred to in Article 3 does not include the Applicants, The 4.5 Million Children of Iraq.
(46.) Applicants also assert that the Respondents have grossly, consistently, and systematically violated the fundamental right that has been guaranteed to them by Article 5 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: "No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment."
(47.) Applicants, The 4.5 Million Children of Iraq, also assert that the Respondents have violated all of the rights guaranteed to them by the International Convention on the Rights of the Child of 1989.
(48.) Applicants also assert that the Respondents have violated the special protections of international humanitarian law guaranteed to children by the Fourth Geneva Convention of 1949 and the Additional Protocol I thereto of 1977.
(49.) Under the human rights provisions of the United Nations Charter, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Genocide Convention, the Children's Convention, and the Fourth Geneva Convention and Protocol I, Applicants are proper parties to invoke the jurisdiction of the United Nations in requesting Relief on their own behalf in order to be relieved from the inhuman, degrading, cruel, criminal, and genocidal conditions perpetrated upon them by the Respondents.
(50.) Due to the fact that the Respondents represent and constitute the only self-styled "superpower" sitting as one of the five Permanent Members of the Security Council, the Respondents have repeatedly and abusively used and threatened to use their voting power and their so-called "veto power" to continue the international economic embargo upon Iraq in a manner that is ultra vires [Latin, Beyond the powers.] The doctrine in the law of corporations that holds that if a corporation enters into a contract that is beyond the scope of its corporate powers, the contract is illegal. the "primary responsibility" for the maintenance of international peace and security that has been conferred upon the Security Council by Article 24(1) and (2) of the United Nations Charter: "2. In discharging these duties the Security Council shall act in accordance with the Purposes and Principles of the Nations." According to Article 1(3) of the Charter, one of the foremost Purposes of the United Nations is proclaimed to be "... promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all ..."
(51.) That as a direct result of the illegal and ultra vires conduct by the Respondents at the Security Council, the Applicants have nowhere else to turn for Relief except to the General Assembly, the Secretary General, the Economic
and Social Council, the Human Rights Commission, the Sub-commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, UNESCO and UNICEF, etc. in order to save themselves from the death, disease, malnutrition, starvation and genocide that is currently being inflicted upon them by the Respondents.
(52.) That the General Assembly has the inherent power to create methods and instrumentalities to carry out the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations Charter, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Genocide Convention and the other aforementioned instruments of international law. The Secretary General also possesses inherent powers to carry out these Purposes and Principles. The same is true for the Human Rights Commission, the Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, as well as for UNESCO and UNICEF, etc.
(53.) That the Respondents represent and constitute a Member State of the United Nations and therefore would be obligated ob·li·gate
tr.v. ob·li·gat·ed, ob·li·gat·ing, ob·li·gates
1. To bind, compel, or constrain by a social, legal, or moral tie. See Synonyms at force.
2. To cause to be grateful or indebted; oblige. to act in compliance with any determination by any United Nations organ concerning this matter.
VI. PRAYER FOR RELIEF
(54.) Applicants pray for the issuance of a Directive by the Secretariat, or the General Assembly, or the Economic and Social Council, or the Human Rights Commission, or the Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, or UNESCO, or UNICEF or any other competent organ or agency of the United Nations to hear this Indictment, Complaint and Petition; to investigate and adjudicate the allegations of genocide by Respondents against Applicants; and to order the termination of all forms of multilateral and bilateral economic sanctions against Iraq.
(55.) Applicants also pray for the massive provision of international humanitarian relief to Iraq by the United Nations Organizations as a whole, its specialized agencies and affiliated organizations, as well as by all Member States thereof, in order to save them from death, disease, malnutrition, starvation, genocide, and extermination at the hands of the Respondents.
(56.) Applicants also pray for due compensation to be paid by Respondents to Applicants and their families for the deaths as well as physical and mental injury caused by Respondents' actions in violation of the Genocide Convention and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, inter alia.
(57.) Applicants pray that proper sanctions be taken against Respondents for any refusal to comply with any of the orders or decisions that the United Nations or any international organ makes in relation to this matter.
(58.) Applicants pray that the United Nations authorize a full investigation of the matters presented in this Indictment, Complaint and Petition and subsequently authorize a complete and public disclosure of all evidence and findings of fact at the conclusion of such investigation.
(59.) Applicants further pray that the appropriate organs of the United Nations Organization -- as well as of all the Member States thereof -- institute criminal proceedings against Respondent George Bush for committing the international crime of genocide against the Applicants, as required by the Genocide Convention and the municipal legal systems of all civilized nations, including his own.
THE PEOPLES AND COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD MUST NOT TURN THEIR EYES AWAY IN SHAME FROM IRAQ AS HUMANKIND APPROACHES THE DAWN OF THE NEXT MILLENNIUM OF ITS PARLOUS EXISTENCE. AS IRAQ'S CHILDREN GO, SO GOES THE ENTIRE WORLD!
RESPECTFULLY SUBMITTED ON BEHALF OF THE APPLICANTS, THE 4.5 MILLION CHILDREN OF IRAQ,
FRANCIS A. BOYLE
PROFESSOR OF INTERNATIONAL LAW
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MEMBER OF THE BARS OF THE SUPREME JUDICIAL COURT OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS AND OF THE SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
DATED: SEPTEMBER 18, 1991
Francis Boyle, author of the Indictment, Complaint and Petition for Relief from Genocide, is Professor of Law at the University of Illinois College of Law The creator of this article, or someone who has substantially contributed to it, may have a conflict of interest regarding its subject matter.
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