Printer Friendly
The Free Library
22,725,466 articles and books

Personality and motivations to believe, misbelieve, and disbelieve in paranormal phenomena.

The striking diversity of beliefs about paranormal paranormal,
adj 1. outside the realm of normal experience or scientific explanation.
n 2. collective term for anomalous phenomena.
 phenomena is a noteworthy and poorly understood characteristic of humanity. On the extremes, some people are almost violently opposed to the very concept of paranormal phenomena and others are equally adamant that such phenomena are real. Neither side has prevailed and there is no indication that either is getting the upper hand (Mathews, 2004; Musella, 2005). Even those who claim tempered scientific perspectives sometimes appear to be living in different worlds. For example, Schumaker (1990), a skeptic, described belief in paranormal phenomena as one of the strongest human motivations and as resulting from the "terror" of facing reality without irrational illusions. On the other hand, Tart (1984), a proponent of psi, described the fear of psi as a powerful, pervasive, instinctive human motivation that prevents the acceptance and occurrence of psi.

As might be expected, the proposed explanations for paranormal beliefs tend to reflect the attitudes of the person proposing the explanation. In his extensive review, Irwin (1993) noted that "much of the skeptical research on the topic seems to have the implicit objective of demonstrating that believers in the paranormal are grossly deficient in intelligence, personality, education, and social standing" (p. 6). These skeptical efforts have also carefully ignored the obvious fact that the deep hostility of some extreme skeptics indicates an irrational prejudice that needs explanation.

At the same time, proponents have done little to offer alternative models or to explain the prevalence of misbeliefs about psi. Many people apparently misinterpret mis·in·ter·pret  
tr.v. mis·in·ter·pret·ed, mis·in·ter·pret·ing, mis·in·ter·prets
1. To interpret inaccurately.

2. To explain inaccurately.
 normal experiences as paranormal. Broughton (1991, p. 10) noted that surveys typically find that over half of the population report having had a psi experience, but closer examination of the cases suggests that only about 10% to 15% of the population have had experiences that appear to be possible psi. This estimate is consistent with early surveys (Rhine, 1934/1973, p. 17) and with later studies (Haight, 1979; Schmiedler, 1964). At least 70% to 80% of the people reporting psychic experiences appear to be misinterpreting the experiences.

The motivations for such extensive misinterpretations need to be explored. In fact, understanding the motivations related to attitude toward psi would seem to be a prerequisite for understanding whether, when, and how psi occurs.

The purpose of this article is to summarize and discuss some of the key personality factors and motivations that appear to be relevant for understanding why people believe, misbelieve, and disbelieve dis·be·lieve  
v. dis·be·lieved, dis·be·liev·ing, dis·be·lieves
To refuse to believe in; reject.

To withhold or reject belief.
 in the paranormal. Of course, innumerable personal, social, and cultural factors may have a role in attitude toward the paranormal. The present discussion is intended as a starting point Noun 1. starting point - earliest limiting point
terminus a quo

commencement, get-go, offset, outset, showtime, starting time, beginning, start, kickoff, first - the time at which something is supposed to begin; "they got an early start"; "she knew from the
 focusing on selected prominent factors. These factors are diverse, and the possibility of conflicting motivations should be recognized.


Terminology and Concepts

Certain distinctions in the terminology and concepts related to paranormal phenomena are useful for this discussion. According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

 the definitions in the American Heritage Dictionary (3rd Edition), "paranormal" is a broad term that means beyond scientific explanation. The term "psychic" is more narrow and refers to extraordinary mental powers such as ESP (1) (Enhanced Service Provider) An organization that adds value to basic telephone service by offering such features as call-forwarding, call-detailing and protocol conversion. . This definition of psychic implies that a person is the causal factor causal factor Medtalk A factor linked to the causation of a disease or health problem  for the phenomena, although it can include communication with the spirit of a deceased person. The term "supernatural" means outside the natural world or attributed to divine power. Supernatural typically implies paranormal phenomena caused by a nonphysical being or power that has motivations and intentions separate from those of living persons. Such beings are often considered as God or gods if the motivations are beneficial for people, or as the devil or demons Demons
See also devil; evil; ghosts; hell; spirits and spiritualism.


one who denies the existence of the devil or demons.

bogyism, bogeyism

recognition of the existence of demons and goblins.
 if the motivations are detrimental or evil. The term "miracle" means an event with a supernatural origin. According to the glossary in the Journal of Parapsychology The Journal of Parapsychology is a semi-annual publication "devoted primarily to the original publication of experimental results and other research findings in extrasensory perception and psychokinesis. , the term "psi" refers to ESP and PK, which also implies that the phenomena are produced by the mind of a person. Also in that glossary, the term "parapsychology parapsychology, study of mental phenomena not explainable by accepted principles of science. The organized, scientific investigation of paranormal phenomena began with the foundation (1882) of the Society for Psychical Research in London. " primarily refers to the study of ESP and PK. Supernatural interpretations tend to be excluded from parapsychological par·a·psy·chol·o·gy  
The study of the evidence for psychological phenomena, such as telepathy, clairvoyance, and psychokinesis, that are inexplicable by science.
 writings and are often assumed to be misinterpretations of psi phenomena produced by living persons. The extent to which psychic and supernatural are different interpretations for the same basic phenomena is an interesting empirical question that remains to be investigated.

The most widely used measures for paranormal beliefs are sheep-goat scales based on psychic phenomena Noun 1. psychic phenomena - phenomena that appear to contradict physical laws and suggest the possibility of causation by mental processes
parapsychology, psychic phenomenon
 (Palmer, 1971; Thalbourne & Delin, 1993) and the much broader paranormal beliefs scales that also include things like the Loch Ness monster Loch Ness monster

“Nessie”; sea serpent said to inhabit Loch Ness. [Scot. Folklore: Wallechinsky, 443]

See : Monsters

Loch Ness monster

supposed sea serpent dwelling in lake. [Scot. Hist.
, that black cats bring bad luck, and heaven and hell (Tobacyk & Milford, 1983). The sheep-goat scales were developed by parapsychologists and the broader paranormal belief scales were generally developed by researchers who were more skeptical. The number, validity, and orthogonality of factors in paranormal beliefs have been persistent, unresolved topics of debate (Hartman, 1999; Lange, Irwin, & Houran, 2000; Lawrence, Roe, & Williams, 1997; Tobacyk & Thomas, 1997).

The most widely held beliefs about paranormal phenomena involve supernatural religious interpretations and are not included in these scales. In U.S. national surveys, 89% of respondents strongly or somewhat agreed that "there is a God who watches over you and answers your prayers" (Barna, 1991) and 82% agreed that "even today, miracles are performed by the power of God" (Gallup & Castelli, 1989). Measures that do not capture the most widely held beliefs may be of limited value in understanding the characteristics of paranormal beliefs.

Personality and Genetics

Behavioral genetic and related research indicates that personality has significant genetic components and is also influenced by experiences, particularly during childhood (Cary, 2003; Collins, Maccoby, Steinberg, Hetherington, & Bornstein, 2000; Heath, Cloninger, & Martin, 1994; Rutter, Pickles, Murray, & Eaves, 2001; Stallings, Hewitt, Cloninger, Heath, & Eaves, 1996; Tellegen et al., 1988). Attempts to isolate genetic from environmental effects are difficult because of methodological factors, such as the possibility that genes can influence which environments a person chooses to experience (Rutter et al., 2001). However, for purposes of the present article, the basic concept that personality depends on both genetic dispositions and environmental experiences is sufficient.

The discussions of personality types here are primarily intended to show that these factors appear to have a significant role in attitude toward the paranormal. These discussions are not intended to limit the recognition of the variability among people or the likelihood that an individual may have motivations associated with various personality factors. The research studies discussed here have often employed the Myers-Briggs personality model. A summary of that model is described in the Appendix for those who may not be familiar with it. Other personality models could probably be developed that would be more useful for research on paranormal beliefs.

Capricious capricious adv., adj. unpredictable and subject to whim, often used to refer to judges and judicial decisions which do not follow the law, logic or proper trial procedure. A semi-polite way of saying a judge is inconsistent or erratic. , Evasive Psi

Discussions of belief in psi must recognize the problematic properties of psi experiments that make scientific conclusions controversial. The inability to develop reliable practical applications of psi after a century of research indicates a fundamental lack of scientific progress (Kennedy, 2003a). The research efforts have not been able to overcome the capricious, evasive properties of psi that include unintended and undesired psi-missing and loss of effects. If the basic assumptions of experimental parapsychology were true, gambling industries such as casinos, lotteries, and commodity markets would not be expected to be viable. The fact that these industries remain in business and appear to make profits consistent with the laws of probability places significant restrictions on the scientific expectations about psi. Parapsychological writings generally have not addressed this central dilemma. Greater acceptance of and attention to the capricious, evasive nature of psi may be a prerequisite for scientific progress in parapsychology (Kennedy 2003a).

One of the most revealing properties of psi research is that meta-analyses consistently find that experimental results do not become more reliably significant with larger sample sizes as assumed by statistical theory (Kennedy, 2003b; 2004). This means that the methods of statistical power analysis for experimental design do not apply, which implies a fundamental lack of replicability.

This property also manifests as a negative correlation Noun 1. negative correlation - a correlation in which large values of one variable are associated with small values of the other; the correlation coefficient is between 0 and -1
indirect correlation
 between sample size and effect size. Meta-analysis assumes that effect size is independent of sample size. In medical research, a negative correlation between effect size and sample size is interpreted as evidence for methodological bias (Egger, Smith, Schneider, & Minder, 1997).

The normal factors that can produce a negative correlation between effect size and sample size include publication bias, study selection bias, and the possibility that the smaller studies have lower methodological quality, selected subjects, or different experimenter influences. All of these factors reduce confidence in a meta-analysis. However, for psi experiments, the failure to obtain more reliable results with larger sample sizes could be a manifestation of goal-oriented psi experimenter effects or decline effects (Kennedy, 1995; 2003a). Even if these effects are properties of psi, parapsychologists cannot expect that other scientists will find the experimental results convincing if methods such as power analysis cannot be meaningfully applied. Further, for the past two decades, the debates about the reality of psi have focused on meta-analysis. The evidence that psi experiments typically do not have properties consistent with the assumptions for meta-analysis adds substantial doubts to the already controversial (Kennedy, 2004) claims about meta-analysis findings in parapsychology.


Paranormal and mystical beliefs are closely related. The personality factors most consistently associated with paranormal beliefs and experiences are the interrelated in·ter·re·late  
tr. & intr.v. in·ter·re·lat·ed, in·ter·re·lat·ing, in·ter·re·lates
To place in or come into mutual relationship.

 cluster of absorption, fantasy-proneness, and temporal lobe temporal lobe
The lowest of the major subdivisions of the cortical mantle of the brain, containing the sensory center for hearing and forming the rear two thirds of the ventral surface of the cerebral hemisphere.
 symptoms. All three of these personality constructs involve a high degree of imagination and fantasy. These factors generally correlate in the .5 to .6 range with each other and with mystical and paranormal experiences (summarized in Kennedy, Kanthamani, & Palmer, 1994).

Thalbourne (1998; Lange, Thalbourne, Houran, & Storm, 2000) found that mystical experience, belief in paranormal phenomena, absorption, and fantasy proneness actually constitute a single factor. He proposed that it reflects a tendency for unconscious processes to emerge into consciousness and called the factor transliminality. Hartmann's (1991) earlier concept of thin boundaries of the mind is the same idea and has been associated with paranormal experiences (Palmer & Braud, 2002; Richards, 1996) and with the transliminality scale (r = .66) (Houran, Thalbourne, & Hartmann, 2003).

Based on his work with the Myers-Briggs personality model, Keirsey (1998) stated that people having intuitive, feeling (NF) personality types are mystical in outlook and often explore occultism, parapsychology, and esoteric metaphysical systems. Those with NF dispositions aspire
   to transcend the material world (and thus gain insight into
   the essence of things), to transcend the senses (and thus
   gain knowledge of the soul), to transcend the ego (and
   thus feel united with all creation), [and] to transcend even
   time (and thus feel the force of past lives and prophecies).
   (p. 145)

Research studies have found that belief in paranormal phenomena is associated with the N and F personality factors (Gow, et. al., 2001; Lester, Thinschmidt, & Trautman, 1987; Murphy & Lester, 1976). In a study of a technique attempting to induce a sense of contact with someone who had died, 96% of the participants with NF personality types reported after-death contact experiences, whereas 100% of the participants with ST (sensing, thinking) personality types did not have these experiences (Arcangel, 1997). In a survey of parapsychological researchers, Smith (2003) found that the F factor was associated with experimenters who were rated as psi-conducive. Temporal lobe symptoms have been found to be associated with the N and P Myers-Briggs personality factors, and to a weaker extent with F (Makarec & Persinger, 1989). Thin boundaries have been found to be associated with NF personality dispositions (Barbuto & Plummer, 1998).

Taken together, these findings indicate that certain people have innate interests in and motivations for mystical and paranormal experiences. Behavioral genetic research indicates that absorption, the Myers-Briggs personality types, and interest in spirituality all have significant genetic components similar to other personality factors (Bouchard & Hur, 1998; Cary, 2003; Hammer, 2004; Tellegen et al., 1988).

Common Source for Psi and Mysticism

Psychical and mystical experiences have several characteristics in common that suggest that they derive from the same or very similar processes.

Personality. As discussed above, paranormal and mystical experiences are associated with the same personality characteristics and appear to be components of one personality factor.

Unconscious. Psychical and mystical experiences are both thought to arise from an unconscious or higher part of the mind and to be facilitated by efforts to still the conscious mind and to reduce superficial unconscious activity. Both types of experience are viewed as a link or doorway to a higher realm of interconnectedness. In fact, the primary difference is that psychical experiences provide information about the material world whereas mystical experiences provide information about the higher realm of interconnectedness itself. William James Noun 1. William James - United States pragmatic philosopher and psychologist (1842-1910)
 (1902/1982) noted that the knowledge revealed in mystical experiences may pertain to pertain to
verb relate to, concern, refer to, regard, be part of, belong to, apply to, bear on, befit, be relevant to, be appropriate to, appertain to
 sensory events (e.g., precognition or clairvoyance clairvoyance (klâr'voi`əns), alleged power to perceive, as though visually, objects or persons not discernible through the ordinary sense channels. ) or to metaphysics.

Lack of control. Both psychical and mystical experiences are spontaneous and normally outside of direct conscious control. At best, one can create conditions that set the stage for the experiences. Claims for direct, sustained, consistent control of mystical experiences or psi are very controversial (Kennedy, 2003a; Kornfield, 2000). Such claims for sustained control appear to be illusions in virtually all cases.

After-effects. As discussed in a later section, the primary effects of both mystical and paranormal experiences are increased sense of meaning in life, interconnectedness, and spirituality. Mystical experiences and paranormal miracles have both had major roles in most spiritual traditions (Woodward, 2000).

Lack of evident evolutionary advantage. According to the prevailing scientific perspective, humans have emerged through biological evolution, which is driven by self-serving enhancement of reproductive and associated material success. However, mystical and psychical experiences both have characteristics that do not appear to be driven by the self-serving materialism associated with biological evolution. The pursuit of mystical transcendence in the form of monastery traditions inhibits reproductive success Reproductive success is defined as the passing of genes onto the next generation in a way that they too can pass those genes on. In practice, this is often a tally of the number of offspring produced by an individual.  and has the goal of reducing the motivations for material self-interest and status. These conditions are in direct opposition to the assumed driving forces of biological evolution. Similarly, the inability to develop or demonstrate practical applications of psi prevents its use for material self-interest (Kennedy, 2003a; in press). The personality constructs of thin boundaries and transliminality are both reported to be associated with susceptibility to mental illness (Hartmann, 1991; Thalbourne & Delin, 1994), which further detracts from any evolutionary advantage.

On the other hand, speculations about the benefits of these personality types that may keep them in the gene pool include: (a) enhanced imagination and creativity (Hartmann, 1991; Thalbourne & Delin, 1994), (b) enhanced flexibility and adaptability (Hartmann, 1991), (c) reduced tendency to create stress and conflict (Hartmann, 1991), (d) enhanced tendency to develop a strong sense of meaning and purpose in life and to inspire a sense of purpose in others (Keirsey, 1998; McClenon, 1994; White, 1997b), (e) highly cooperative, compassionate, altruistic, and motivated by ideals (Keirsey, 1998), and (f) enhanced self-healing through placebo and hypnotic hypnotic /hyp·not·ic/ (hip-not´ik)
1. inducing sleep.

2. an agent that induces sleep.

3. pertaining to or of the nature of hypnosis or hypnotism.
 effects (McClenon, 2002). The evolutionary implications of mystical and paranormal experiences remain an open and fascinating topic of inquiry.


The need for control has been investigated in numerous studies and is a basic human motivation that influences many activities, including religion and science (Baumeister, 1991; Schumaker, 2001; Spilka, Hood, Hunsberger, & Gorsuch, 2003). Spilka and colleagues (2003, pp. 46-47, 58, 484-485) note that need for control has many aspects and has a genetic component that varies among people. Control can be direct, interpretive, predictive or vicarious vicarious /vi·car·i·ous/ (vi-kar´e-us)
1. acting in the place of another or of something else.

2. occurring at an abnormal site.

 and may involve self, powerful others, God, or supernatural powers in a self-directive, collaborative, or deferring mode.

Baumeister (1991) considered control as part of a need for efficacy, which includes having an impact on the world and changing the world. He considered this need to be an aspect of obtaining a sense of meaning in life.

From the perspective of daily life, the drive to impress one's self on the world manifests in various forms, including creating technology, building construction projects, climbing or conquering mountains "because they are there," making scientific discoveries, writing books, and creating various forms of entertainment. Conflicts with other people are another way of impressing one's self on the world. This includes various forms of competition in sports, business, and politics. The development of computer viruses may be some of the clearest evidence for this motivation. Most computer viruses have no apparent purpose other than for the developers to impress themselves on the world just because they can. As indicated by the fact that computer viruses are developed almost entirely by males, this motivation appears to be more prominent in males but certainly can also be present in females.

The Rational Scientific Personality

Keirsey (1998) described the development of rational scientific understanding and pragmatic application of science as the central motivations for people with intuitive, thinking (NT) personality types. People with these dispositions are naturally attracted to the process and results of the scientific method. Of course, experiencing scientific culture presumably pre·sum·a·ble  
That can be presumed or taken for granted; reasonable as a supposition: presumable causes of the disaster.
 enhances rationality and empiricism empiricism (ĕmpĭr`ĭsĭzəm) [Gr.,=experience], philosophical doctrine that all knowledge is derived from experience. For most empiricists, experience includes inner experience—reflection upon the mind and its . The tendency to elevate a rational, scientific, mathematical style of thinking to an almost religious-like level of commitment and faith is widely apparent in scientific writings.

The inability to reliably control, predict, or understand psi may exclude paranormal phenomena from the interests of many who have pragmatic, scientific orientations. From this perspective, it is not surprising that scientists tend to be skeptical of psi (McClenon, 1982; McConnell & Clark, 1991). Prediction is the foundation of science, and control and application provide the most compelling evidence and value. For example, the concepts of quantum physics quantum physics
n. (used with a sing. verb)
The branch of physics that uses quantum theory to describe and predict the properties of a physical system.

quantum physics

See quantum mechanics.
 are as radical as the ideas of parapsychology; however, quantum physics has provided numerous successful applications, including lasers and transistors. If psi experiments produced reliable results, and particularly if they produced useful applications, scientists would likely accept the phenomena and begin developing theories for further control and application.

Skeptical scientists tend to explain belief in psi as due to a failure of rational, empirical analysis (e.g., Alcock & Otis, 1980; Blackmore & Troscianko, 1985; Gray & Mill, 1990). These explanations often imply that all people should share the scientist's devotion to rational, empirical analysis. The possibility that alternative values, personalities, and ways of processing information may also have value is rarely acknowledged in these writings.

Skeptics also tend to have a greater internal locus of control locus of control
A theoretical construct designed to assess a person's perceived control over his or her own behavior. The classification internal locus indicates that the person feels in control of events; external locus
 (belief that they control the events in their lives) than those who believe in psi (summarized in Irwin, 1993). This is consistent with a stronger motivation for control by skeptics or possibly with less belief in supernatural influences.

I suspect that there is a closely related motivation for rational explanations but with less emphasis on pragmatic application and empiricism. This motivation would underlie the pursuit of philosophy and the more abstract, intellectual approaches to religion. However, I have not found a specific personality description that aligns with such a motivation.

Experimental Parapsychology

Belief in instrumental control of psi occurs in spite of the persistent failure to develop reliable applications of psi. The assumption of instrumental control of psi is the foundation for experimental parapsychology as well as for occultism, new age beliefs, and commercial psychics and fortune tellers. These belief systems basically view psi as a magical power that can fulfill a person's wants or provide information about the future.

Numerous authors have speculated that belief in psi results from an illusion of control Illusion of control is the tendency for human beings to believe they can control, or at least influence, outcomes that they demonstrably have no influence over. Experimental demonstration  or mastery over uncertain events motivated by the need for control (e.g., Blackmore & Troscianko, 1985; Irwin, 2000; Schumaker, 1990; Vyse, 1997). Motivations for control probably have a significant role in the pursuit of experimental parapsychology. Carrying out a psi experiment with an expectation of success requires the assumption and belief that people can control psi, even if only to a weak, statistical degree. However, other factors besides control also appear to be involved in the pursuit of experimental parapsychology. These factors may include an intense fascination with the subject matter and a tendency to overlook the problematic properties of the results or to optimistically op·ti·mist  
1. One who usually expects a favorable outcome.

2. A believer in philosophical optimism.

 assume that these properties will soon be overcome.

The Propensity to Explain

The motivation for control is closely linked to motivations to learn and to understand causes (Baumeister, 2005). The evolution in humans of imagination, symbolic thought, memory, symbolic communication Symbolic communication is exchange of messages that change a priori expectation of events. Examples of this are modern communication technology as also exchange of information amongst animals. , planning based on hypothetical futures, and creativity greatly enhanced the abilities to learn, to control, and to adapt (Baumeister, 2005; Donald, 2001).

However, the propensity to explain may go beyond achieving control. Donald (2001) argued that the human mind and human culture co-evolved, with the mind becoming extremely plastic in order to adapt to the diversity of culture. He argued that culture and particularly myths provide a needed framework for experiencing life and are actively sought. The cultural framework for experiencing and explaining life can include myths, religion, and science.

Science in theory focuses on empirically verifiable explanations but in practice often seems to be a constant struggle to control the propensity to imagine extensive myths. In the social sciences in particular, a few selected observations tend to be extrapolated way beyond scientific confidence to develop all-inclusive theories that, like myths, are abstract explanations with little empirical support. One can make a strong argument that the writings and associated subcultures of psychoanalysis and behaviorism behaviorism, school of psychology which seeks to explain animal and human behavior entirely in terms of observable and measurable responses to environmental stimuli. Behaviorism was introduced (1913) by the American psychologist John B.  were more similar to religions than to science. Even for the most well established physical forces such as gravity, the diversity of conceptual explanations over the years (general relativity general relativity
The geometric theory of gravitation developed by Albert Einstein, incorporating and extending the theory of special relativity to accelerated frames of reference and introducing the principle that gravitational and inertial forces
, quantum physics, string theory, etc.) indicates that scientific concepts are products of imagination that are at least as much cultural fads as enduring truths.

The propensity for mythology, including within science, makes it likely that the diversity of attitudes toward the paranormal will remain for the foreseeable future. In modern pluralistic plu·ral·is·tic  
1. Of or relating to social or philosophical pluralism.

2. Having multiple aspects or parts: "the idea that intelligence is a pluralistic quality that ...
 societies, people are exposed to and can select from a diversity of alternative world views and mythologies.


The motivation for control may contribute to both skepticism and belief in psi. Research on various aspects of the motivation for control and its interaction with other psychological factors is needed to understand its role in attitude toward the paranormal. The initial evidence suggests that skeptics may tend to have a greater need for control. In fact, the speculations that an illusion of control is a significant factor in psi beliefs have primarily been proposed by skeptics and may be projections of their own needs for control.


If one moves beyond the motivation for control and looks at psi on its own terms, a different motivation emerges as prominent. Many people report experiences of ostensible Apparent; visible; exhibited.

Ostensible authority is power that a principal, either by design or through the absence of ordinary care, permits others to believe his or her agent possesses.
 spontaneous paranormal phenomena that occur without attempting to elicit or control the phenomena (Rhine, 1981; Stokes, 1997). Even a casual review of these reports indicates that the experiences do not seem to be guided by self-serving, materialistic motivations or needs for control.

Research indicates the primary effect of psi experiences is an altered worldview world·view  
n. In both senses also called Weltanschauung.
1. The overall perspective from which one sees and interprets the world.

2. A collection of beliefs about life and the universe held by an individual or a group.
 and an increased sense of meaning and purpose in life and spirituality (Kennedy & Kanthamani, 1995; McClenon, 1994, 2002; Palmer, 1979; Palmer & Braud, 2002; White, 1997a, 1997c). For example, Dossey (1999, p. 3) describes how a series of unexpected paranormal experiences changed the direction of his professional career. Similarly, a survey of people who were interested in parapsychology and reported having paranormal or transcendent experiences found that (a) 72% agreed with the statement "As a result of my paranormal or transcendent experience, I believe my life is guided or watched over by a higher force or being," (b) 45% agreed with the statement "I feel like I have a purpose or mission in life as a result of my paranormal or transcendent experience(s)," (c) 25% agreed with "One or more paranormal or transcendent experiences motivated me to make a major life change that I was not previously thinking about making," and (d) 38% agreed with "One or more paranormal or transcendent experiences seemed to confirm or reinforce that I was doing what I should be doing," (Kennedy & Kanthamani, 1995). White (1997a, 1997c) has collected and evaluated cases of exceptional experiences and found that transformative aftermaths that redirected a person's worldview and focus in life were common. Ostensible paranormal miracles have been a decisive factor Noun 1. decisive factor - a point or fact or remark that settles something conclusively

causal factor, determinant, determining factor, determinative, determiner - a determining or causal element or factor; "education is an important determinant of
 in persuading people to join particular religious groups (McClenon, 1994).

The transformative psi experiences appear to guide a person rather than the person guiding psi. This is a significantly different world view than the assumptions of experimental parapsychology. These types of cases may induce an attitude of a humble seeker rather than a sense of control. Dossey (1999, p. 3) characterized his series of psi experiences as: "It was as if the universe, having delivered the message, hung up the phone. It was now up to me to make sense of it."

The source of the experience is viewed as external to the person. Without a bias for efficacy and control, the spiritual implications and supernatural aspects of paranormal phenomena predominate. The relatively few spontaneous psi cases that appear to have direct benefits related to motivation may actually serve as vehicles for this transformative aspect of psi (Kennedy, 2000).

White (1993) suggested that the best research strategy for parapsychology may be to let psi lead us rather than to try to control or apply psi. One could argue that the persistent failure to control psi leaves no choice but to pursue a more humble, learning approach.

The Need for Meaning

Baumeister (1991) integrated a wide diversity of information and ideas about the human need for a sense of meaning in life. He concluded that there are at least four aspects to the sense of meaning in life. These are:

Purpose: The need to be able to interpret current events in relation to expectations about the future, and to have and achieve goals.

Value: The need to know right and wrong behavior and to regard one's actions as right and good.

Efficacy: The need to be able to control the environment and to have an impact on the world.

Self-worth: The need to have self-respect and the respect of others, which is typically based on feeling superior to others.

Baumeister (1991) described religion as the central source of meaning in life historically. The need for meaning is also reflected in the propensity for myths described by Donald (2001). Religion can fulfill all four aspects of meaning. Baumeister and Donald both noted that science has an increasing role in the cultural explanatory framework.

Baumeister also commented that science is highly successful at providing control and efficacy but does not provide a sense of purpose, values, and self-worth. He noted that this makes it more difficult to obtain a sense of meaning and to handle stresses and traumas. Schumaker (1995, 2001) similarly argued that religion and transcendence have important roles in human mental health that are not being fulfilled by the secular rationality and materialism of modern society. Schumaker (2001) argued that the declining meaning, purpose, values, and spirituality are contrary to human nature and are causing mental health and ecological crises.

Paranormal beliefs and experiences can be directly related to purpose, efficacy, and self-worth. The extent to which paranormal beliefs provide a sense of meaning and purpose only for persons who are by disposition attracted to transcendence and spirituality is an important topic that merits empirical investigation.


Baumeister (1991) noted that the motivation for self-worth often manifests as a need to feel superior. Judging oneself as better off than others is a significant factor in human happiness, and comparing oneself to less fortunate persons is a standard technique for coping with unfortunate events (Baumeister, 1991; Myers, 1992). Exaggerated positive self-evaluations and illusions have long been recognized as a characteristic of people (Hornsey, 2003; Taylor & Brown, 1988). Human males in particular tend to have an innate drive to compete for power and status and to feel superior to most other persons (e.g., Campbell, 2002; Geary, 1998).

The motivations for superiority and efficacy (including control) are closely related, particularly when competition is involved. The tendency to divide into polarized A one-way direction of a signal or the molecules within a material pointing in one direction.  groups and attempt to prevail over opponents provides both efficacy and superiority. The motivation of some individuals to persuade others to accept their views, beliefs, and values may be related more to these drives, similar to sports competitions, than to the specific content of the beliefs. This could be a motivating factor for both belief and skepticism about the paranormal.

Superiority Through Authority and Dominance

Keirsey (1998) described the sensing, judging (SJ) personality types as materialistic, distrusting of fantasy and abstract ideas, and tending to feel a duty to maintain traditional rules of right and wrong. These personality types focus on external authority and tradition rather than internal experience.

People with STJ STJ Superior Tribunal de Justica (Brazil)
STJ Supremo Tribunal de Justiça (Portugal)
STJ Superconducting Tunnel Junction
STJ San Giljan (postal locality, Malta) 
 personality types tend to rise to positions of leadership and authority in hierarchical organizations (Keirsey, 1998; Kroeger, Thuesen, & Rutledge, 2002). Fudjack and Dinkelaker (1994) noted that the masculine "extraverted/rational-empirical/pragmatic/ materialist" ESTJ ESTJ Extraverted Sensing Thinking Judging (Myers-Briggs personality type indicator)  personality is prominent in western culture and tends to prefer hierarchical organizations that emphasize power and control rather than creativity and flexibility. Kroeger, Thuesen, and Rutledge (2002) administered the Myers-Briggs personality test to over 20,000 people in all levels of a wide variety of corporate, government, and military organizations. Across these diverse groups, they found that 60% of 2,245 people in top executive positions had STJ personalities (ESTJ or ISTJ ISTJ Introverted Sensing Thinking Judging (Myers-Briggs personality type indicator) ). The proportion of STJ types increased as the level on the management hierarchy increased.

On the other hand, only about 1% of top executives had NFP NFP Not for Profit
NFP Natural Family Planning (contraception)
NFP National Focal Point
NFP National Financial Partners Corp.
NFP Nurse Family Partnership (Denver, CO) 
 personalities, which would be more interested in psi and mysticism. For comparison, general population samples have found STJ for 26%-43% of males and 18%-29% of females, and NFP for 6%-12% of males and 9%-18% of females (Macdaid, McCaulley, & Kainz, 1986). Kroeger, Thuesen, and Rutledge also commented that 95% of top executives were T (thinking) types rather than F (feeling) types.

This rational, pragmatic, materialist personality bias in the upper echelons of power and status may be a major factor in the institutional skepticism and resistance to psi described by Hansen (2001). This value system may also be associated with the "hypercompetition" and "hypermaterialism" that Schumaker (2001) believes prevail in modern society and contribute to depression and anxiety. Somit and Peterson (1997) discuss the evolutionary and social aspects of the biological basis for dominance and hierarchy.

Baumeister (1991) observed that religion often provides a sense of superiority. He also noted that this sense of superiority unfortunately has a long history of hostility and violence toward those who are viewed as being inferior. The sense of superiority is particularly prominent in fundamentalist groups, which are found among most of the world's major religions and believe that their particular set of beliefs and values, and only theirs, has been chosen for a special relationship with God (Hunsberger, 1996). Fundamentalists also emphasize authority and tradition. Religious terrorists are characterized by extreme fundamentalism, including superiority, adherence to the authority of a particular tradition and its leader(s), and lack of respect for, dehumanization de·hu·man·ize  
tr.v. de·hu·man·ized, de·hu·man·iz·ing, de·hu·man·iz·es
1. To deprive of human qualities such as individuality, compassion, or civility:
 of, feelings of threat by, and hostility toward people with different beliefs and values (Stern, 2003).

Research indicates that the S personality types are associated with conservative religions that emphasize institutional religious authority and tradition whereas the intuitive (N) types are associated with more liberal, subjective, experiential approaches to religion and tolerance for religious uncertainty (Francis and Ross, 1997; Francis and Jones, 1998,1999; Macdaid, McCaulley, & Kainz, 1986). Similarly, greater dogmatism dog·ma·tism  
Arrogant, stubborn assertion of opinion or belief.

1. a statement of a point of view as if it were an established fact.
 was associated with the S and J personality types (Ross, Francis, & Craig, 2005).

Other personality models describe related factors like authoritarianism, traditionalism, or right-wing authoritarianism (Altemeyer, 1996; Carey, 2003, pp. 395-398; Spilka et al., 2003, pp. 467468). Altemeyer (1996) argued that fundamentalism is a religious manifestation of the authoritarian personality. Monaghan (1967) described "authority-seeker" as one of the main motivations for attending a fundamentalist church.

Fundamentalist religions often consider mystical or paranormal experiences as delusions or dangerous events. Pentecostal and charismatic religious movements emphasize "gifts of the spirit," including prophesy proph·e·sy  
v. proph·e·sied , proph·e·sy·ing , proph·e·sies
1. To reveal by divine inspiration.

2. To predict with certainty as if by divine inspiration. See Synonyms at foretell.
, healing, recognition of spirits, performance of miracles "Of Miracles" is the title of Section X of David Hume's An Enquiry concerning Human Understanding (1748). The text
In the 19th-century edition of Hume's Enquiry
, wisdom, and knowledge (Roberts, 1995, p. 370; Rosten, 1975, pp. 591-592). Christian fundamentalists frequently have conflicts with Pentecostals and charismatics because fundamentalists give primacy to the inerrant in·er·rant  
1. Incapable of erring; infallible.

2. Containing no errors.

Adj. 1. inerrant - not liable to error; "the Church was...theoretically inerrant and omnicompetent"-G.G.
 authority of the Bible rather than to direct spiritual experience (Roberts, 1995, pp. 370-371).

Tensions between those who give primacy to the authority of tradition rather than to direct mystical and miraculous experiences have occurred for centuries, as would be expected if personality dispositions have a role. The life and death of Jesus were based on conflicts between those who maintained rules, authority, and superiority of past traditions versus proponents of inspired teachings supported by claims of paranormal phenomena. Such tensions were also apparent in the reactions within Christianity to the desert ascetics and in the Protestant Reformation (Woodward, 2000). One argument that goes back to at least the sixteenth century is that the miracles described in the Bible were real and were needed to establish the authority of the Bible, but once that authority was established, miracles were not needed and claims for post-biblical miracles are fraudulent or the work of the devil (Mullin, 1996, pp. 12-16). The variation in beliefs among individuals and groups should also be kept in mind. Some of those who focus on authority also believe that supernatural interventions sometimes occur in post-biblical times.

The hostility of some extreme skeptics toward those who believe in paranormal phenomena has noteworthy similarities with religious fundamentalism and appears to be a manifestation of dominance and superiority (Kennedy, 2003c). Like fundamentalists, these skeptics believe that people and organizations which have different beliefs and values are a threat that must be vigorously fought and deserve ridicule and hostility. "Feelings of threat, hostility, and lack of respect for those with different beliefs and values are prominent with both fundamentalists and extreme skeptics" (Kennedy, 2003c, p. 30).

Skeptical writers generally view science as authoritative and consider religious and paranormal beliefs as indicating an immature stage of cognitive development that is in opposition to rational scientific theories (e.g., Kurtz, 2001; Schumaker, 1990; Vyse, 1997; Zusne & Jones, 1989). This perspective implies superiority of the skeptics and is based on philosophy and personal values that may reflect temperament and are far outside the domain of established scientific evidence.

Superiority Without Authority and Dominance

Religion and spirituality can also provide a sense of self-worth and superiority for those who do not have social status and dominance. Baumeister (1991) pointed out that the religions of slaves typically glorified glo·ri·fy  
tr.v. glo·ri·fied, glo·ri·fy·ing, glo·ri·fies
1. To give glory, honor, or high praise to; exalt.

 meritorious mer·i·to·ri·ous  
Deserving reward or praise; having merit.

[Middle English, from Latin merit
 rewards in an afterlife and punishment of oppressors. Glorification glo·ri·fy  
tr.v. glo·ri·fied, glo·ri·fy·ing, glo·ri·fies
1. To give glory, honor, or high praise to; exalt.

 of rewards in the afterlife and of austere living in the present are also apparent in the religions of the less affluent whereas the religions of the more affluent tend to view material success in the present world as blessings from God (Roberts, 1995).

More subjective forms of spirituality can also provide a means for establishing a hierarchy of superiority. Characteristics and criteria for determining who is more spiritually advanced are often proposed (e.g., White, 1972; Wilber, 2000). The claim that one is among a small minority of highly evolved people and that everyone should strive to be like him or her is a common symptom of the drive to achieve a sense of superiority.

Certain religious traditions have included the belief that the occurrence of miracles was a sign of divine favor or of the holiness of those involved (Mullin, 1996). In addition, mystical or transcendent experiences have been widely interpreted as evidence of high spirituality and sought through practices such as meditation (Kornfield, 2000; Spilka et al. 2003, pp. 259-263, 297-298).

Psi experiences are sometimes presented as associated with an advanced state of spiritual development (Grosso, 1992; Murphy, 1992; Ring, 1984; Thalbourne, in press). Traditional yoga writings similarly proposed that paranormal abilities are associated with developing spirituality (Prabhavananda & Isherwood, 1981). Gopi Krishna Some of the information in this article or section may not be verified by . It should be checked for inaccuracies and modified to cite reliable sources.
Gopi Krishna (1903 - 1984) of India was a yogi, mystic, teacher, social reformer, and writer.
 (1974) claimed that his kundalini kundalini: see yoga.

In some tantric forms of Yoga, the cosmic energy believed to be within everyone. It is pictured as a coiled serpent lying at the base of the spine.
 experiences (which resembled a mental health breakdown) made him a highly evolved "genius" and gave him psychic powers. However, that appears to have been a self-evaluation 'with no objective or tangible evidence to support his high opinion of himself.

It is now widely recognized that the occurrence of transcendent and related experiences do not necessarily indicate ethical behavior, compassion, wisdom, integration, or other characteristics normally associated with spirituality (Kornfield, 2000; Zweig, 2003). In fact, the sense of superiority from such experiences may promote self-serving abuse of power. The most conspicuous evidence for this point comes from the numerous cases of spiritual leaders who claim many transcendent experiences but have a lavish lifestyle and use their position of authority for sexual activity with people they are supposedly spiritually guiding. Sexual exploitation has happened much more widely than is generally acknowledged in both eastern and western spiritual organizations (Gonsiorek, 1995; Kornfield, 2000; Neimark, 1998; Roemischer, 2004; Zweig, 2003). Such behavior appears to have occurred in the majority of prominent yoga and meditation organizations in the U.S. As discussed in the references above, the sexual exploitation has resulted in numerous lawsuits, but even when consensual, it still appears to be an abuse of authority and trust. In an important discussion of the realities of spiritual pursuits, Kornfield (2000) described the common error of mistaking charisma for wisdom.


Some people build superiority hierarchies in the material world and some build them only in their minds. Those who build superiority hierarchies in the material world tend to have more negative attitudes toward the paranormal. Paranormal and mystical experiences may sometimes be pursued or claimed in an effort to achieve a sense of superiority. Tensions between people with authoritarian and transcendent dispositions have occurred throughout history and appear to underlie many religious and social conflicts.


For some people, belief in psi may be motivated more by a need for a sense of interconnectedness rather than for control and superiority. Social connections and support are one of the widely recognized functions of religion (Spilka et al. 2003). Women, in particular, tend to value social and emotional connections (Campbell, 2002; Geary, 1998; Gilligan, 1993). Religious, supernatural, or paranormal beliefs may be held primarily to fit into a social group or organization. Alternatively, the beliefs themselves may reflect and reinforce the motivation for interconnectedness. Blackmore (1994) noted that belief in psi may be more common among women because of their greater sense that the world is interconnected. White (1997b), Braud (1997), and Tart (2002) have discussed the sense of interconnectedness that results from psi experiences.

The relationship between interconnectedness and transcendence merits investigation. Deacon (1997) suggested that humans evolved an innate motivation to become part of something larger than oneself. This motivation promotes social organization. Deacon also suggested that this motivation, combined with a propensity to find meaning or symbolic relationships in all experiences, underlies mystical or religious beliefs.

People with a strong sense of connection may view the world as an interconnected whole that is meaningful and benevolent. These views are similar to the "assumptive as·sump·tive  
1. Characterized by assumption.

2. Taken for granted; assumed.

3. Presumptuous; assuming.

 worldviews" that initial research suggests may be related to belief in paranormal phenomena (Irwin, 2003). This holistic worldview may also lead to altruism because the world is not divided into an in-group versus outsiders.


McClenon (1994, 2002) proposed that paranormal demonstrations and beliefs promote healing through placebo and hypnotic effects. He argued that these healing benefits may have been the foundation for the evolution of religion and paranormal beliefs. He also noted that these benefits apply even if psi effects are not real, and that deception has been widely practiced to induce such beliefs.

Schumaker (1995) similarly argued that transcendent myths and religious beliefs are important for mental health. He proposed that the decline in the role of religion in culture has greatly hindered the ability for mental health healing and that a new balance between myth and reality needs to be found. This appears to be a change from his earlier view that paranormal and religious beliefs were driving humanity down a road of irrational self-destruction (Schumaker, 1990).

These ideas are closely related to the motivation for efficacy and control. Placebo effects are basically self-healing by the body. It has long been thought that expectation has a major role in placebo effects (Hyland, 2003; Shapiro & Morris, 1978; White, Tursky, & Schwartz, 1985). Certain modern medical practices may reduce expectations. In particular, legal obligations for full disclosure and informed consent can be expected to reduce optimism and expectations. The circumstances of psychic, spiritual, or alternative healing alternative healing Natural healing A philosophical stance based on alternative medicine principles, in which a person is returned to a state of well-being through a therapy that is not 'mainstream' in nature. See Alternative medicine.  techniques may optimize self-healing in ways that are difficult to achieve in the standard medical profession.

However, placebo effects have always been controversial. After decades of research and experience, some investigators question whether placebo effects exist at all (e.g., Hrobjartsson & Gotzxche, 2001). Placebo effects and their relationship to other variables are inconsistent and unpredictable, even when procedures and subject populations are as similar as possible (Hyland, 2003; Shapiro & Morris, 1978). Conditions for reasonably reliable results have not been identified. Hypnosis hypnosis

State that resembles sleep but is induced by a person (the hypnotist) whose suggestions are readily accepted by the subject. The hypnotized individual seems to respond in an uncritical, automatic fashion, ignoring aspects of the environment (e.g.
 also has a long history of controversy, including whether it actually exists and whether responses to suggestion are primarily limited to individuals with certain personality characteristics, notably fantasy proneness (Baker, 1990; Spanos & Chaves, 1989).

The controversies about placebo and hypnotic effects raise questions about whether they are sufficiently powerful to have the role in evolution McClenon proposed. It may be difficult to distinguish the evolutionary role of healing beliefs from other factors such as the motivations for meaning and purpose, efficacy, and superiority. It is also possible that healing beliefs have a role primarily for certain personality types, such as fantasy proneness.

Placebo effects have many parallels with psi effects. Both have inconsistent experimental results and controversy about whether the effects are real. The mechanisms of action for both effects are not known, resulting in negative definitions based on what they are not rather than what they are. Also, the initial research efforts on placebo effects were focused on identifying the characteristics of certain individuals who were "reactors"; however, those efforts were not sufficiently successful to maintain the interest of researchers (Shapiro & Morris, 1978; White, Tursky, & Schwartz, 1985), which is similar to the experience with efforts to identify special subjects for psi experiments (Rao, 1965).

Despite their similar properties, placebo effects have become much more widely accepted among scientists than psi effects. In fact, controlling for possible placebo effects is a standard design criterion for medical research. A more comprehensive comparison of the characteristics and scientific acceptance of placebo and psi effects might be revealing.


The usual explanations in parapsychology for the inability to obtain reliable psi effects involve speculations about unconscious, instinctive fear of psi (e.g., Batcheldor, 1984; Braude, 1997; Ehrenwald, 1978; Eisenbud, 1992; Radin, 1989; Tart, 1984) and suppression of psi to prevent information overload A symptom of the high-tech age, which is too much information for one human being to absorb in an expanding world of people and technology. It comes from all sources including TV, newspapers, magazines as well as wanted and unwanted regular mail, e-mail and faxes.  (e.g., Bergson, 1914; Ehrenwald, 1978; Koestler, 1972).

However, the widespread interest in psi and the extensive efforts of some people to cultivate psi abilities are not consistent with these speculations about fear of psi. It may be true that some people fear psi, but there is strong evidence that many others do not, and, in fact, some people desire to develop useful psi abilities, as evidenced by the perpetual popularity of books and courses on developing psi abilities (e.g., Robinson & Carlson-Finnerty, 1999) and the continuing existence of commercial psychics. Similarly, the speculations about information overload overlook the fact that instances of striking psi occur without information overload. These speculations do not explain why instances of striking psi do not occur more frequently and with greater control.

The speculations about fear and information overload, combined with the unreliable, unuseful nature of psi effects, imply that psi has more adverse effects than benefits. Experimental parapsychology assumes that psi is a widespread human ability; however, psi would not be expected to evolve as a human ability if it caused substantial adverse effects and little benefit.

The arguments about unconscious fear of psi have direct spiritual assumptions that are rarely acknowledged. Given the implausibility of evolution producing an ability that has the characteristics of psi, one possibility is that the source of psi is supernatural or external to living people. The instinctive propensity to fear snakes (Tallis, 2002, pp. 135-138) provides a useful comparison. Such instinctive fears make sense for reacting to external threats like snakes but do not offer a rationale for the evolution of an ability that appears to have negligible material benefit and serious adverse effects that need to be suppressed. Following this line of thought, an instinctive fear of psi would imply that the source of psi is external to people. Alternatively, psi could be a pre-existing, innate spiritual ability that is detrimental in the material world, as suggested by Bergson (1914). Either of these approaches identifies psi with a dualistic spiritual realm rather than as a human ability that emerged through evolution.

In terms of motivations, the lack of control of psi is the main theme emerging from empirical findings on fear of psi (Siegel, 1986; Tart, 1986; Tart & Labore, 1986). The need for research on various aspects of the motivation for control and attitude toward psi was noted earlier. Given the human need for control, fear of psi is probably a result of the lack of control rather than a cause, which is contrary to the rationale that fear causes psi effects to be unreliable.


The efforts to achieve control of psi in experimental parapsychology have not produced significant scientific progress. When psi phenomena are examined without the implicit bias for control, the relationship with spirituality emerges as the central organizing factor. The primary effect of psi experiences appears to be enhanced spirituality and meaning in life. Reliable use of psi for material self-interest in a manner that is scientifically convincing has not occurred and, at this point, does not seem likely.

It is not surprising that those who are by disposition materialistic, pragmatic, and rational find the evidence for psi not to be remotely convincing. If psi phenomena had a degree of predictability and usefulness, the scientific community could assign a label to the unknown process and begin developing methods for its control and practical application. That would not be noticeably different from the situation with the established physical forces. People with pragmatic, materialistic values cannot be expected to be interested in something that has no pragmatic, materialistic use.

People more attracted to transcendence continue to have experiences that they describe as providing absolutely certain knowledge that there is a spiritual realm (James, 1902/1982; Miller & C'de Baca, 2001; Ring, 1984). These people find substantial commonalities among their experiences and the after-effects. The fact that others with more externally focused, materialistic dispositions do not have such experiences and are skeptical is irrelevant to the interpretation of their experiences. They feel that they are dealing with direct experience and knowledge, not philosophical theories, academic rationalizations, or speculations. As William James (1902/1982) noted, there is no point in trying to convince them that their experiences are not real.

Paranormal and mystical experiences have several characteristics in common, including the ability to inspire a sense of meaning and purpose in life. Science, on the other hand, is often described as fulfilling the needs for control and efficacy but not the needs for meaning, purpose, values, and self-worth. However, this perspective may not fully take into account the diversity of motivations associated with different personality types. Some people may find meaning and purpose from scientific understanding, others from transcendent experiences, and others from enforcing the authority of tradition.

Objective scientists must recognize that they cannot prove scientifically that reports of subjective transcendent experiences do not have some validity that is beyond current scientific understanding. Paranormal phenomena that are viewed as miracles initiated by supernatural powers to inspire spiritual growth are largely outside the domain of science, as are many other religious beliefs. The extent to which attitudes toward such matters are based on personal dispositions rather than scientific knowledge deserves recognition.

Tensions among those with transcendent, authoritarian, and scientific dispositions have been common in the history of paranormal and religious beliefs. The motivation for superiority is not limited to authoritarian personalities and can contaminate con·tam·i·nate
1. To make impure or unclean by contact or mixture.

2. To expose to or permeate with radioactivity.

con·tam·i·nant n.
 both science and spirituality. This motivation can prevent proponents of science from being objective and rational, and it can prevent proponents of spirituality from being compassionate and ethical. The aggressive promotion of a particular belief system can be a form of competition and dominance similar to sports. Such aggressiveness can be seen on both sides of psi beliefs but is particularly strong for some of the skeptics. Persons on each side can see the irrational drive for superiority in their opponents, but they have difficulty acknowledging it in themselves.

Science can do much to sort out the web of motivations and to create better understanding among people with different dispositions. The ideas presented here provide a plausible beginning and have some initial empirical support.

A useful next step would be to develop measures that address various factors, including motivations for transcendence, connectedness, control and efficacy, superiority, authority, and healing. Measuring exposure to basic social and cultural factors related to belief in the paranormal would also be useful, particularly for identifying people who do not have strong personal motivations and tend to go along with social and cultural influences. The mix of factors could be characterized for an individual and for different types of paranormal experiences and beliefs. For example, it would be useful to measure the mix of factors associated with (a) experiences that could be actual psi, (b) experiences that appear to be misinterpreted as psi, and (c) skepticism about psi. The motivation for superiority, in particular, has been underappreciated in research, perhaps because many scientists prefer to overlook that aspect of their own personality.

Exploring factors of humility and gratitude versus efficacy and superiority may be particularly valuable. The tangible lesson from the failure to develop useful applications of psi is that motivations for efficacy and superiority may not be applicable in this domain. Successful research strategies in this area must identify and adapt to the properties of the phenomena. The evidence for psi and its association with transcendent experiences may hint that there is a spiritual realm that tentatively encourages development in a transcendent, humble, non-self-serving, nonmaterialistic direction.



The Myers-Briggs personality model (Keirsey, 1998; Myers & McCaulley, 1985; Myers & Myers, 1995) was developed for practical use in occupational settings and interpersonal relationships, and has been widely used in those contexts for several decades. The magnitude of the genetic component is similar to that of other personality models (Bouchard & Hut, 1998).

The Myers-Briggs model utilizes 16 personality categories based on the combinations of four factors. The summary below was taken from Keirsey (1998), whose concepts are largely the same as the original Myers-Briggs model but more clearly separate the E/I and S/N (1) (Serial/Number) Common shorthand for serial number.

(2) (Signal/Noise) As in "s/n ratio." See signal-to-noise ratio.
 factors that conceptually overlap in the original model.

Extraverted/introverted (E/I) indicates whether a person feels energized (E) or drained (I) from being with a group of people;

Sensing/intuitive (S/N) indicates whether a person focuses his or her awareness and attention more on the external, material world and prefers concrete, observable facts (S) or focuses internally on the self and imagination and prefers abstract ideas (N);

Thinking/feeling (T/F T/F True/False
T/F Time Frequency
T/F Tie Fighter (Star Wars)
T/F Terrain Following
) indicates whether a person tends to value rational thinking and self-control (T) or emotional expression (F);

Judging/perceiving (J/P J/P Just Playing ) indicates whether a person prefers setting and achieving goals and having a sense of closure (J) or spontaneously exploring open-ended possibilities and keeping options open (P).

For example, ESTJ is one personality type and the most different type from that is INFP INFP Introverted Intuitive Feeling Perceiving (Myers-Briggs personality type indicator) .

The primary difference between the sexes in personality types is on the T/F factor. About two-thirds of males are T (thinking) and about two-thirds of females are F (feeling) for U.S. data (Macdaid, McCaulley, & Kainz, 1986).

The Myers-Briggs model describes all personality types as being valuable in some circumstances. Presumably, the different personality types have been maintained throughout evolution because they had adaptive value The adaptive value represents the combined influence of all characters which affect the fitness of an individual or population. See also
  • Adaptation
  • Evolution
External links
 or at least did not inhibit reproductive success. This positive approach may be a significant reason for the widespread use of the Myers-Briggs test in occupational settings. Most personality models have factors that measure neuroticism or similar negative traits that imply a superiority/inferiority ranking of people. When organizations are experiencing tensions between departments that tend to have people with different personalities (e.g., between a sales-marketing group and a data processing data processing or information processing, operations (e.g., handling, merging, sorting, and computing) performed upon data in accordance with strictly defined procedures, such as recording and summarizing the financial transactions of a  group), joint meetings that discuss the existence and value of different personalities may be helpful. However, interjecting a dimension of superiority is counterproductive and inappropriate in these situations. The Myers-Briggs model works well in such cases.

The Myers-Briggs model has been subject to criticism because it was developed over 50 years ago by persons without academic credentials and without fully utilizing the methods and theories of academic psychology (e.g., Pittenger, 1993). The fact that the model is based on types (categories) rather than traits (continuous measures) is one of the more tangible technical criticisms.

A review and meta-analysis of a large number of reliability and validity studies concluded that the Myers-Briggs test performed well and was comparable with other personality tests (Harvey, 1996). In addition to convergent, divergent, and predictive validity In psychometrics, predictive validity is the extent to which a scale predicts scores on some criterion measure.

For example, the validity of a cognitive test for job performance is the correlation between test scores and, for example, supervisor performance ratings.
, the studies included confirmatory factor analyses. To my mind, the best indication of the validity of a psychological test is useful, practical application for real-world behavior. In that regard, the Myers-Briggs model has good standing because it has been widely used in organizational settings for decades. In addition, consistent, meaningful research results, including studies with large, noncollege student samples, provide further evidence for the usefulness of the Myers-Briggs test (Hammer, 1996; Kroeger, Thuesen, & Rutledge, 2002; Macdaid, McCaulley, & Kainz, 1986). The fact that it may not be fully optimal from an academic, mathematical perspective (e.g., types versus traits) does not mean that it lacks useful validity and reliability.

Although the Myer-Briggs test has been the most frequently used general personality test in research on paranormal and related beliefs, it would be useful to carry out research with other personality models. As noted in the conclusion, the optimal strategy for research on the role of personality in paranormal beliefs may be to develop personality tests that directly measure certain personality factors, including mystical, authoritarian, and scientific dispositions. The value of such a personality test may apply beyond paranormal beliefs and may be helpful for understanding many conflicts among people.


ALCOCK, J. E., & OTIS, L. P. (1980). Critical thinking and belief in the paranormal. Psychological Reports, 46, 479-482.

ALTEMEYER, B. (1996). The authoritarian spector. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press The Harvard University Press is a publishing house, a division of Harvard University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. It was established on January 13, 1913. In 2005, it published 220 new titles. .

ARCHANGEL archangel, in religion
archangel (ärk`ānjəl), chief angel. They are four to seven in number. Sometimes specific functions are ascribed to them. The four best known in Christian tradition are Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, and Uriel.
, D. (1997). Investigating the relationship between Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Definition

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a widely-used personality inventory, or test, employed in vocational, educational, and psychotherapy settings to evaluate personality type in adolescents and adults age 14
 and facilitated reunion experiences. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research The Society for Psychical Research (SPR) is a non-profit organization which started in the United Kingdom and later acquired branches in other countries. Its stated purpose is to understand "events and abilities commonly described as psychic or paranormal by promoting and , 91, 82-95.

BAKER, R. A. (1990). They call it hypnosis. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books.

BARBUTO, J. E., & PLUMMER, B. A. (1998). Mental boundaries as a new dimension of personality: A comparison of Hartman's Boundaries of the Mind and Jung's Psychological Types. Journal of Social Behavior In biology, psychology and sociology social behavior is behavior directed towards, or taking place between, members of the same species. Behavior such as predation which involves members of different species is not social.  and Personality, 13, 421-437.

BARNA, G. (1991). What Americans believe: An annual survey of values and religious views in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. . Ventura, CA: Regal.

BATCHELDOR, K.J. (1984). Contributions to the theory of PK induction from sitter-group work. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 78, 105-122.

BAUMEISTER, R. F. (1991). Meanings of Life. New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
: Guilford.

BAUMEISTER, R. F. (2005). The cultural animal: Human nature, meaning, and social life. New York: Oxford University Press.

BERGSON, H. (1914). Presidential address. Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, 27, 157-175.

BLACKMORE, S.J. (1994). Are women more sheepish? In L. Coly coly: see mousebird.  & R. White (Eds.), Women and parapsychology (pp. 68-84). New York: Parapsychology Foundation.

BLACKMORE, S., & TROSCIANKO, T. (1985). Belief in the paranormal: Probability judgements, illusory control, and the "chance baseline shift," British Journal of Psychology, 76, 459-468.

BOUCHARD, T. J., & HUR, Y. M. (1998). Genetic and environmental influences on the continuous scales of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: An analysis based on twins reared apart. Journal of Personality, 66, 135-149.

BRAUD, W. (1997). Parapsychology and spirituality: Implications and intimations. In C. T. Tart (Ed.) Body, mind, spirit (pp. 135-152). Charlottesville, VA: Hampton Roads Hampton Roads, roadstead, 4 mi (6.4 km) long and 40 ft (12.2 m) deep, SE Va., through which the waters of the James, Nansemond, and Elizabeth rivers pass into Chesapeake Bay. .

BRAUDE, S. E. (1997). The Limits of influence: Psychokinesis psy·cho·ki·ne·sis
n. pl. psy·cho·ki·ne·ses Abbr. PK
1. An uncontrolled, maniacal outburst, resulting from defective inhibition.

 and the philosophy of science. New York: University Press of America.

BROUGHTON, R. S. (1991). Parapsychology: The controversial science. New York: Ballantine Books.

CAMPBELL, A. (2002). A mind of her own: The evolutionary psychology evolutionary psychology
The study of the psychological adaptations of humans to the changing physical and social environment, especially of changes in brain structure, cognitive mechanisms, and behavioral differences among individuals.
 of women. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

CARY, G. (2003). Human genetics Human genetics

A discipline concerned with genetically determined resemblances and differences among human beings. Technological advances in the visualization of human chromosomes have shown that abnormalities of chromosome number or structure are surprisingly
 for the social sciences. Thousand Oaks Thousand Oaks, residential city (1990 pop. 104,352), Ventura co., S Calif., in a farm area; inc. 1964. Avocados, citrus, vegetables, strawberries, and nursery products are grown. , CA: Sage.

COLLINS, W. A., MACCOBY, E. E., STEINBERG, L., HETHERINGTON, E. M., & BORNSTEIN, M. H. (2000). Contemporary research on parenting: The case for nature and nurture. American Psychologist, 55, 218-232.

DEACON, T. W. (1997). The symbolic species: The co-evolution of language and the brain. New York: W.W. Norton and Company.

DONALD, M. (2001). A mind so rare: The evolution of human consciousness. New York: Norton.

DOSSEY, L. (1999). Reinventing medicine: Beyond mind-body to a new era of healing. San Francisco San Francisco (săn frănsĭs`kō), city (1990 pop. 723,959), coextensive with San Francisco co., W Calif., on the tip of a peninsula between the Pacific Ocean and San Francisco Bay, which are connected by the strait known as the Golden , CA: HarperSanFrancisco.

EGGER, M., SMITH, G. D., SCHNEIDER, M., & MINDER, C. (1997). Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple graphical test. British Medical Journal The British Medical Journal, or BMJ, is one of the most popular and widely-read peer-reviewed general medical journals in the world.[2] It is published by the BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (owned by the British Medical Association), whose other , 315, 629-634.

EHRENWALD,J. (1978). The ESP experience: A psychiatric validation. New York: Basic Books.

EISENBUD, J. (1992). Parapsychology and the unconscious. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books.

FRANCIS, L. J., & JONES, S. H. (1998). Personality and Christian belief among adult churchgoers. Journal of Psychological Type, 47, 5-11.

FRANCIS, L. J., & JONES, S. H. (1999). Psychological type and tolerance for religious uncertainty. Pastoral Psychology, 47, 253-259.

FRANCIS, L. J., & Ross, C. F. J. (1997). The perceiving function and Christian spirituality: Distinguishing between sensing and intuition. Pastoral Sciences, 16, 93-103.

FUDJACK, J., & DINKELAKER, P. (1994). Toward a diversity of psychological type in organization: Part 3. Paper presented at the First Annual Antioch University Antioch University is a six-campus American university with campuses in four states. An outgrowth of Antioch College in Yellow Springs, Ohio, each of Antioch's campuses has its own distinct academic programs, community life, and regional identity. Antioch has developed a new Ph.D.  Management Faculty Conference, October, 1994. Retrieved January 3, 2005, from

GALLUP, G., & CASTELLI, J. (1989). The people's religion: American faith in the 90's. New York: Macmillan.

GEARY, D. C. (1998). Male, female: The evolution of human sex differences. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

GILLIGAN, C. (1993). A different voice: Psychological theory and women's development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Press.

GONSIOREK, J. C. (Ed.) (1995). Breach of trust: Sexual exploitation by health care professionals and clergy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

GOW, K., LURIE, J., COPPIN, S., POPPER An early Unix POP server, which was written at the University of California at Berkeley. , A., POWELL, A., & BASTERFIELD, K. (2001). Fantasy proneness and other psychological correlates of UFO UFO: see unidentified flying objects.

(United Functions and Objects) A programming language developed by John Sargeant at Manchester University, U.K.
 experiences. Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Retrieved October 5, 2005, from http://www.

GRAY, T., & MILL, D. (1990). Critical abilities, graduate education (Biology vs. English), and belief in unsubstantiated phenomena. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science behavioral science
A scientific discipline, such as sociology, anthropology, or psychology, in which the actions and reactions of humans and animals are studied through observational and experimental methods.
, 22, 162-172.

GROSSO, M. (1992). Frontiers of the soul: Exploring psychic evolution. Wheaton, IL: Quest Books.

HAIGHT, J. (1979). Spontaneous psi cases: A survey and preliminary study of ESP, attitude, and personality relationship. Journal of Parapsychology, 43, 179-203.

HAMMER, A. L. (Ed.) (1996). MBTI MBTI Myers-Briggs Type Indicator  applications. Palo Alto Palo Alto, city, California
Palo Alto (păl`ō ăl`tō), city (1990 pop. 55,900), Santa Clara co., W Calif.; inc. 1894. Although primarily residential, Palo Alto has aerospace, electronics, and advanced research industries.
, CA: Consulting Psychological Press.

HAMMER, D. (2004). The God gene. New York: Doubleday.

HANSEN, G. P. (2001). The trickster trickster, a mythic figure common among Native North Americans, South Americans, and Africans. Usually male but occasionally female or disguised in female form, he is notorious for exaggerated biological drives and well-endowed physique; partly divine, partly human,  and the paranormal. Philadelphia: Xlibris Corporation.

HARTMAN, S. E. (1999). Another view of the paranormal belief scale. Journal of Parapsychology, 63, 131-141.

HARTMANN, E. (1991). Boundaries of the mind: A new psychology of personality. USA: Basic Books.

HARVEY, R. J. (1996). Reliability and validity. In A. L. Hammer (Ed.), MBTI applications (pp. 5-29). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychological Press.

HEATH, A. C., CLONINGER, C. R., & MARTIN, N. G. (1994). Testing a model for the genetic structure of personality: A comparison of the personality systems of Cloninger and Eysenck. Journal of Personality and Individual Differences, 66, 762-775.

HORNSEY, M. J. (2003). Linking superiority bias in the interpersonal and intergroup in·ter·group  
Being or occurring between two or more social groups: intergroup relations; intergroup violence. 
 domains. Journal of Social Psychology, 143, 479-491.

HOURAN, J., THALBOURNE, M. A., & HARTMANN, E. (2003). Comparison of two alternative measures of the boundary construct. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 96, 311-324.

HROBJARTSSON, A., & GOTZXCHE, P. C. (2001). Is the placebo powerless? An analysis of clinical trials comparing placebo with no treatment. New England Journal of Medicine The New England Journal of Medicine (New Engl J Med or NEJM) is an English-language peer-reviewed medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society. It is one of the most popular and widely-read peer-reviewed general medical journals in the world. , 344, 1594-1602.

HUNSBERGER, B. (1996). Religious fundamentalism, right-wing authoritarianism, and hostility toward homosexuals in non-Christian religious groups. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 6, 39-49.

HYLAND, M. E. (2003). Using the placebo response in clinical practice. Clinical Medicine, 3, 347-350.

IRWIN, H. J. (1993). Belief in the paranormal: A review of the empirical literature. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 87, 1-39.

IRWIN, H.J. (2000). Belief in the paranormal and a sense of control over life. European Journal of Parapsychology, 15, 68-78.

IRWIN, H. J. (2003). Paranormal beliefs and the maintenance of assumptive world views. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 67, 18-25.

JAMES, W. (1982). The varieties of religious experience. New York: Penguin. (Original work published 1902)

KEIRSEY, D. (1998). Please understand me II. Del Mar Del Mar is the name of several places in the United States of America:
  • Del Mar, California
  • Del Mar, Texas
  • Del Mar High School, located in San Jose, California
  • Del Mar Racetrack, located in Del Mar, California
, CA: Prometheus Nemesis Book Company.

KENNEDY, J. E. (1995). Methods for investigating goal-oriented psi. Journal of Parapsychology, 59, 47-62.

KENNEDY, J. E. (2000). Do people guide psi or does psi guide people? Evidence and implications from life and lab. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 94, 130-150.

KENNEDY, J. E. (2003a). The capricious, actively evasive, unsustainable nature of psi: A summary and hypotheses. Journal of Parapsychology, 67, 53-74.

KENNEDY, J. E. (2003b). Letter to the editor. Journal of Parapsychology. 67, 406-408.

KENNEDY, J. E. (2003c). The polarization of psi beliefs: Rational controlling masculine skepticism versus interconnected, spiritual, feminine belief. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 97, 27-42.

KENNEDY, J. E. (2004). A proposal and challenge for proponents and skeptics of psi. Journal of Parapsychology, 68, 57-67.

KENNEDY, J. E. (in press). What is the purpose of psi? Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research. (also at

KENNEDY, J. E., & KANTHAMANI, H. (1995). An exploratory study of the effects of paranormal and spiritual experiences on peoples' lives and well-being. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 89, 249-264.

KENNEDY, J. E., KANTHAMANI, H., & PALMER, J. (1994). Psychic and spiritual experiences, health, well-being, and meaning in life. Journal of Parapsychology, 58, 353-383.

KOESTLER, A. (1972). The roots of coincidence. New York: Hutchinson and Co.

KORNFIELD, J. (2000). After the ecstasy, the laundry. New York: Bantam Bantam

Former city and sultanate, Java. It was located at the western end of Java between the Java Sea and the Indian Ocean. In the early 16th century it became a powerful Muslim sultanate, which extended its control over parts of Sumatra and Borneo.

KRISHNA, G. (1974). Higher consciousness and kundalini. Norton Heights, CT: The Kundalini Research Foundation.

KROEGER, O., THUESEN,J. M., & RUTLEDGE, H. (2002). Type talk at work: How the 16 personality types determine your success on the job (revised ed.). New York: Random House.

KURTZ, P. (2001). Skepticism and humanism: The new paradigm New Paradigm

In the investing world, a totally new way of doing things that has a huge effect on business.

The word "paradigm" is defined as a pattern or model, and it has been used in science to refer to a theoretical framework.
. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

LANGE, R., IRWIN, H.J., & HOURAN, J. (2000). Top-down purification of Tobacyk's Revised Paranormal Belief Scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 29, 131-156.

LANGE, R., THALBOURNE, M.A., HOURAN, J., & STORM, L. (2000). The Revised Transliminality Scale: Reliability and validity data from a Rasch top-down purification procedure. Consciousness and Cognition The journal Consciousness and Cognition (ISSN 1053-8100) provides a forum for a natural-science approach to the issues of consciousness, voluntary control, and self. It features empirical research (in the form of regular articles and short reports) and theoretical articles. . 9, 591-617.

LAWRENCE, T. R., ROE, C. A., & WILLIAMS, C. (1997). Confirming the factor structure of the Paranormal Belief Scale: Big orthogonal seven or oblique five? Journal of Parapsychology, 61, 13-31.

LESTER, D., THINSCHMIDT, J., & TRAUTMAN, L. (1987). Paranormal belief and Jungian dimensions of personality. Psychological Reports, 61, 182.

MACDAID, G. P., MCCAULLEY, M. H., & KAINZ, R. I. (1986). Myers-Briggs Type Indicator atlas of type tables. Gainesville, FL: Center for Applications of Psychological Types.

MAKAREC, H. B., & PERSINGER, M. A. (1989). Temporal lobe signs and Jungian dimensions of personality. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 69, 841-842.

MATHEWS, R. (2004). Parapsychology special: Opposites detract. New Scientist, 181, 39-41.

MCCLENON, J. (1982). A survey of elite scientists: Their attitudes toward ESP and parapsychology. Journal of Parapsychology, 46, 127-152.

MCCLENON J. (1994). Wondrous events: Foundations of religious beliefs. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press The University of Pennsylvania Press (or Penn Press) was originally incorporated with the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania on 26 March 1890, and the imprint of the University of Pennsylvania Press first appeared on publications in the closing decade of the nineteenth .

MCCLENON, J. (2002). Wondrous healing: Shamanism shamanism /sha·man·ism/ (shah´-) (sha´mah-nizm?) a traditional system, occurring in tribal societies, in which certain individuals (shamans) are believed to be gifted with access to an invisible spiritual , human evolution, and the origin of religion. DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press Northern Illinois University Press is a publisher and part of Northern Illinois University. External link
  • Northern Illinois University Press

MCCONNELL, R. A., & CLARK, T. K. (1991). National Academy of Sciences opinion on parapsychology. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 85, 333-365.

MILLER, W. R., & C'DE BACA, J. (2001). Quantum changes: When epiphanies and sudden insights transform ordinary lives. New York: Guilford.

MONAGHAN, R. R. (1967). Three faces of the true believer true believer
One who is deeply, sometimes fanatically devoted to a cause, organization, or person: "a band of true believers bonded together against all those who did not agree with them" 
: Motivations for attending a fundamentalist church. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 6, 236-45.

MULLIN, R. B. (1996). Miracles and the modern religious imagination. New Haven New Haven, city (1990 pop. 130,474), New Haven co., S Conn., a port of entry where the Quinnipiac and other small rivers enter Long Island Sound; inc. 1784. Firearms and ammunition, clocks and watches, tools, rubber and paper products, and textiles are among the many , CT: Yale University Yale University, at New Haven, Conn.; coeducational. Chartered as a collegiate school for men in 1701 largely as a result of the efforts of James Pierpont, it opened at Killingworth (now Clinton) in 1702, moved (1707) to Saybrook (now Old Saybrook), and in 1716 was .

MURPHY, K., & LESTER, D. (1976). A search for correlates of belief in psi. Psychological Reports, 38, 82.

MURPHY, M. (1992). The future of the body: Explorations into the future evolution of human nature. Los Angeles Los Angeles (lôs ăn`jələs, lŏs, ăn`jəlēz'), city (1990 pop. 3,485,398), seat of Los Angeles co., S Calif.; inc. 1850. : Jeremy P. Tarcher.

MUSELLA, D. P. (2005). Gallup poll Gallup Poll

a sampling of the views of a representative cross section of the population, usually used to forecast voting [after G H Gallup, statistician]

Gallup poll n
 shows that Americans' belief in the paranormal persists. Skeptical Inquirer The Skeptical Inquirer is a bimonthly, American magazine published by the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (CSI), formerly the "Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal" or "CSICOP". , 29 (5), 5.

MYERS, D. G. (1992). The pursuit of happiness. New York: William Morrow

For other people named William Morrow, see William Morrow (disambiguation).
William Morrow (d. 1931) was an American publisher. He married novelist Honore Morrow in 1923. He founded William Morrow and Company in 1926 and led it until his death.

MYERS, I. B., & MCCAULLEY, H. (1985). A guide to the development and use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.

MYERS, I. B., & MYERS, P. (1995). Gifts differing: Understanding personality types. Palo Alto, CA: Davies-Black Publishing.

NEIMARK, J. (1998). Crimes of the soul. Psychology Today. Retrieved November 2, 2005, from index.php?term=pto-19980301-000043.xml

PALMER, G., & BRAUD, W. (2002). Exceptional human experiences, disclosure, and a more inclusive view of physical, psychological, and spiritual well-being spiritual well-being,
n a sense of peace and contentment stemming from an individual's relationship with the spiritual aspects of life.
. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology transpersonal psychology,
n the branch of psychology that attempts to integrate the science of psychology with the insights of various spiritual disciplines, including the role of altered states, mystical experiences, contemplative practices, and ritual
, 34, 29-61.

PALMER, J. (1971). Scoring on ESP tests as a function of belief in ESP. Part I. The sheep-goat effect. Journal of Parapsychology, 65, 399-408.

PALMER, J. (1979). A community mail survey of psychic experiences. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 73, 221-251.

PITTINGER, D.J. (1993). The utility of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Review of Educational Research, 63, 467-488.

PRABHAVANANDA, & ISHERWOOD, J. (1981). How to know God: The yoga aphorisms of Patanjali. Hollywood, CA: The Vedanta Society of Southern California The Vedanta Society was founded in 1930 in Los Angeles, California. The society is under the spiritual leadership of Ramakrishna Mission. The central theme of the Society is the spread of Swami Vivekananda's message. .

RADIN, D. (1989). The tao of psi. In L. A. Henkel & R. E. Berger (Eds.), Research in Parapsychology 1988 (pp. 157-173). Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Scarecrow

goes to Wizard of Oz to get brains. [Am. Lit.: The Wonderful Wizard of Oz]

See : Ignorance


can’t live up to his name. [Am. Lit.: The Wonderful Wizard of Oz; Am.

RAO, K. R. (1965). The place of psi in the natural order. In J. B. Rhine & Associates (Eds.), Parapsychology from Duke to FRNM. Durham, NC: Parapsychology Press.

RHINE, J. B. (1973). Extra-sensory perception. Boston: Branden Press. (Original work published 1934)

RHINE, L. E. (1981). The invisible picture: A study of psychic experiences. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

RICHARDS, D. G. (1996). Boundaries in the mind and subjective interpersonal psi. Journal of Parapsychology, 60, 227-240.

RING, K. (1984). Heading toward omega: In search of the meaning of near-death experiences. New York: William Morrow.

ROBERTS, K. A. (1995). Religion in sociological perspective The sociological perspective is a particular way of approaching a phenomena common in sociology. It involves maintaining objectivity, not by divesting oneself of values, but by critically evaluating and testing ideas, and accepting what may be surprising or even displeasing based  (3rd ed.). New York: Wadsworth.

ROBINSON, L. A., & CARLSON-FINNERTY, L. (1999). The complete idiot's guide to being psychic. New York: Alpha Books.

ROEMISCHER, J. (2004). Women who sleep with their gurus--and why they love it. What is Enlightenment, Issue 26. Retrieved October 20, 2005, from

ROSS, C. F. J., FRANCIS, L. J., & CRAIG, C. L. (2005). Dogmatism, religion, and psychological type. Pastoral Psychology, 53, 483-497.

ROSTEN, L. (1975). Religions of America: Ferment ferment /fer·ment/ (fer-ment´) to undergo fermentation; used for the decomposition of carbohydrates.

 and faith in an age of crisis. New York: Simon and Schuster.

RUTTER, M., PICKLES, A., MURRAY, R., & EAVES, L. (2001). Testing hypotheses on specific environmental causal effects on behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 281-324.

SCHMIEDLER, G. R. (1964). An experiment of precognitive clairvoyance: Part V. Precognition scores related to feelings of success. Journal of Parapsychology, 28, 109-125.

SCHUMAKER, J. F. (1990). Wings of illusion: The origin, nature and future of paranormal belief. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books.

SCHUMAKER, J. F. (1995). The corruption of reality: A unified theory of religion, hypnosis, and psychopathology psychopathology /psy·cho·pa·thol·o·gy/ (-pah-thol´ah-je)
1. the branch of medicine dealing with the causes and processes of mental disorders.

2. abnormal, maladaptive behavior or mental activity.
. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.

SCHUMAKER, J. F. (2001). The age of insanity: Modernity and mental health. Westport, CT: Praeger.

SHAPIRO, A. K., & MORRIS, L. A. (1978). The placebo effect in medical and psychological therapies. In S. C. Garfield & A. E. Bergin (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change Behavior change refers to any transformation or modification of human behavior. Such changes can occur intentionally, through behavior modification, without intention, or change rapidly in situations of mental illness.  (pp. 369-410). New York: Wiley.

SIEGEL, C. (1986). Parapsychological counseling: Six patterns of response to spontaneous psychic experiences [Abstract]. Research in parapsychology 1985 (pp. 172-174). Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press.

SMITH, M. D. (2003). The psychology of the "psi-conducive" experimenter: Personality, attitudes toward psi, and personal psi experience. Journal of Parapsychology, 67, 117-128.

SOMIT, A., & PETERSON, S. A. (1997). Darwinism, dominance, and democracy. Westport, CT: Praeger.

SPANOS, N. P., & CHAVES, J. F. (Eds.) (1989). Hypnosis: The cognitive-behavioral perspective. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books.

SPILKA, B., HOOD, R. W., HUNSBERGER, B., & GORSUCH, R. (2003). The psychology of religion: An empirical approach (3rd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

STALLINGS, M. C., HEWITT, J. K., CLONINGER, C. R., HEATH, A. C., & EAVES, L.J. (1996). Genetic and environmental structure of the tridimensional tri·di·men·sion·al  
Of, relating to, or having three dimensions.
 personality questionnaire: Three or four temperament dimensions? Journal of Personality and Individual Differences, 70, 127-140.

STERN, J. (2003). Terror in the name of God. New York: HarperCollins.

STOKES, D. M. (1997). Spontaneous psi phenomena. In S. Krippner (Ed.), Advances in parapsychological research 8 (pp. 6-87). Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

TALLIS, F. (2002). Hidden minds: A history of the unconscious. New York: Arcade Publishing Arcade Publishing is an independent trade publishing company that started in 1988 in New York, USA. They are publishers of American and world literature and non-fiction. Their distinguished list of authors include Samuel Beckett, Bertolt Brecht, Ismail Kadare, Leslie Marmon Silko, .

TART, C. T. (1984). Acknowledging and dealing with the fear of psi. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 78, 133-143.

TART, C. T. (1986). Psychics' fears of psychic powers. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 80, 279-293.

TART, C. T. (2002). Parapsychology and transpersonal psychology: "Anomalies" to be explained away or spirit to manifest? Journal of Parapsychology, 66, 31-47.

TART, C. T., & LABORE, C. M. (1986). Attitudes toward strongly functioning psi: A preliminary survey. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 80, 163-173.

TAYLOR, S. E., & BROWN, J. D. (1988). Illusion and well-being: A social psychological perspective on mental health. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 193-210.

TELLEGEN, A., LYKKEN, D. T., BOUCHARD, T.J., WILCOX, K.J., SEGAL, N. L., & RICH, S. (1988). Personality similarity of twins reared apart and together. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology The Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (often referred to as JPSP) is a monthly psychology journal of the American Psychological Association. It is considered one of the top journals in the fields of social and personality psychology. , 54, 1031-1039.

THALBOURNE, M. A. (1998). Transliminality: Further correlates and a short measure. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 92, 402-419.

THALBOURNE, M. A. (in press). The transhumanation hypothesis. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research.

THALBOURNE, M. A., & DELIN, P. S. (1993). A new instrument for measuring the sheep-goat variable: Its psychometric psy·cho·met·rics  
n. (used with a sing. verb)
The branch of psychology that deals with the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests for the measurement of psychological variables such as intelligence, aptitude, and
 properties and factor structure. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 59, 172-186.

THALBOURNE, M. A., & DELIN, P. S. (1994). A common thread underlying belief in the paranormal, creative personality, mystical experience and psychopathology. Journal of Parapsychology, 58, 3-38.

TOBACYK, J., & MILFORD, G. (1983). Belief in paranormal phenomena: Assessment instrument development and implications for personality functioning. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 1029-1037.

TOBACYK, J., & THOMAS, A. (1997). How the big orthogonal seven is really the oblique seven. Journal of Parapsychology, 61, 336-342.

VYSE, S. A. (1997). Believing in magic: The psychology of superstition. New York: Oxford University Press.

WHITE, J. (1972). The highest state of consciousness. New York: Doubleday.

WHITE, L., TURSKY, B., & SCHWARTZ, G. E. (1985) (Eds.). Placebo theory, research, and mechanisms. New York: Guilford.

WHITE, R. A. (1993). About applications. Journal of Religion and Psychical Research psychical research: see parapsychology. , 16, 2-4.

WHITE, R. A. (1997a) (Ed.) Exceptional Human Experience: Special Issue. Background Papers II. The EHE EHE Exceptional Human Experience
EHE Errare Humanum Est (Latin: To Err Is Human)
EHE Enterprise in Higher Education
EHE Extremely High Energy
 Network, 1995-1998: Progress and Possibilities. New Bern New Bern, city (1990 pop. 17,363), seat of Craven co., E N.C., a port and trading center at the junction of the Neuse and Trent rivers; inc. 1723. There is lumbering and food processing, and textiles and clothing, pharmaceuticals, asphalt, metal and plastic products, , NC: Exceptional Human Experience Network.

WHITE, R. A. (1997b). Exceptional human experiences: The generic connection. Exceptional Human Experience: Special Issue, 15, 26-33.

WHITE, R. A. (1997c). Exceptional human experiences and the experiential paradigm. In C. T. Tart (Ed.), Body, mind, spirit (pp. 83-100). Charlottesville, VA: Hampton Roads.

WILBER, K. (2000). A theory of everything: An integral vision for business, politics, science, and spirituality. Boston: Shambhala.

WOODWARD, K. L. (2000). The book of miracles: The meaning of the miracle stories in Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam. New York: Simon & Schuster Simon & Schuster

U.S. publishing company. It was founded in 1924 by Richard L. Simon (1899–1960) and M. Lincoln Schuster (1897–1970), whose initial project, the original crossword-puzzle book, was a best-seller.

ZUSNE, L., & JONES, W. H. (1989). Anomalistic psychology: A study of magical thinking (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

ZWEIG, C. (2003). The holy longing: The hidden power of spiritual yearning. New York: Tarcher/Putnam.

Broomfield, CO, USA
COPYRIGHT 2005 Parapsychology Press
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2005 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

 Reader Opinion




Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Kennedy, J.E.
Publication:The Journal of Parapsychology
Article Type:Viewpoint essay
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Sep 22, 2005
Previous Article:Solar-periodic full moon effect in the Fourmilab RetroPsychoKinesis Project experiment data: an exploratory study.
Next Article:Paranormal belief and religiosity.

Related Articles
A common thread underlying belief in the paranormal, creative personality, mystical experience and psychopathology.
Intelligence and paranormal belief: examining the role of context.
Fact or Fiction? Series & ESP & Ghosts and poltergeists & UFOs. (Current Topics).

Terms of use | Copyright © 2014 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters