Persecution of the Church in Mexico."Garrido, the governor of Tabasco List of governors of the Mexican state of Tabasco
Name Party Start End
Andrés Rafael Granier Melo PRI Governor-elect
Manuel Andrade Díaz PRI 2002 incumbent
Enrique Priego Oropeza PRI 2001 2002
Roberto Madrazo Pintado PRI 1999 2000 , had destroyed every church; he had organized a militia of Red Shirts (his private army of 6,000 young men) in his hunt for a church or a priest. Private houses were searched for religious emblems and prison was the penalty for possessing them. Every priest was hunted down or shot, except one who existed for ten years in the forests and swamps, venturing out only at night. 'In Tabasco there was no priest left, she said, 'no church left standing except one--now used as a school.'
'And when you die?' I asked. 'Oh,' she said, 'we die like dogs.' No religious ceremony was allowed at the grave."
Thus spoke the renowned English writer, Graham Greene, in his book The Lawless Roads, written in 1940. Was this Russia at the height of the Stalinist years? Or Spain at the depths of the Spanish Civil War Spanish civil war, 1936–39, conflict in which the conservative and traditionalist forces in Spain rose against and finally overthrew the second Spanish republic. ? It was neither. It was Mexico in the early part of the 20th-century. According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. Robert Royal
Freemasonry Freemasonry, teachings and practices of the secret fraternal order officially known as the Free and Accepted Masons, or Ancient Free and Accepted Masons. Organizational Structure
also played a significant role in this persecution. The British writer Evelyn Waugh Noun 1. Evelyn Waugh - English author of satirical novels (1903-1966)
Evelyn Arthur Saint John Waugh, Waugh noted at the time that "the legal position of the Church in Mexico has no parallel in any country except Soviet Russia" (namely that it was completely illegal). G. Norman in her book, The Life and Martyrdom of Fr. Miguel Pro Miguel Agustín Pro, S.J. (January 13 1891–November 23 1927) was a Mexican Roman Catholic Jesuit priest, executed during the persecution of the Catholic Church under the presidency of Plutarco Calles after trumped up charges of involvement in an assassination attempt against , points out that "the position in Mexico was much akin to that of Soviet Russia." Reportedly, the Soviet ambassador assured Mexican President Plutarco Elias Calles (termed the "Modern Nero" by his opponents) that he had perfectly "understood and carried out" the Soviet doctrines.
The New Catholic Encyclopedia The New Catholic Encyclopedia is a multivolume reference work on Roman Catholic history and belief edited by the faculty of The Catholic University of America and originally published by McGraw-Hill in 1967 with supplements issued in 1974, 1979, 1989, and 1996. refers to this time in its history as "a time of anguish" for the Catholic Church in Mexico. The persecution intensified exponentially when President Calles (an avowed a·vow
tr.v. a·vowed, a·vow·ing, a·vows
1. To acknowledge openly, boldly, and unashamedly; confess: avow guilt. See Synonyms at acknowledge.
2. To state positively. Mason) came to power in 1924. Although there was sporadic hatred displayed against the Church throughout the previous century (sparked by the 1810 Revolution of Independence), it was minor compared to the "persecution brutale" of the 1920s. The years 1926 to 1929 are now known as the "Years of the Martyrs" in the history of the Mexican Republic.
During the years 1926 to 1929 thousands of men, women and even children (one of these, the 14-year-old "Cristero Boy Martyr," Blessed Jose Luis Sanchez Luis Sanchez or Luis Sánchez can refer to various people:
tr.v. be·at·i·fied, be·at·i·fy·ing, be·at·i·fies
1. To make blessedly happy.
2. Roman Catholic Church in Nov. 2005) were murdered; scores of priests were executed. Religious orders and religious vows Religious vows are the public vows made by the members of the religious life – cenobitic and eremitic – of the Roman Catholic, Anglican and Eastern Orthodox Churches, whereby they confirm their public profession of the Evangelical Counsels or Benedictine equivalent. were forbidden. All Church property was confiscated con·fis·cate
tr.v. con·fis·cat·ed, con·fis·cat·ing, con·fis·cates
1. To seize (private property) for the public treasury.
2. To seize by or as if by authority. See Synonyms at appropriate.
adj. by the State or destroyed. All Catholic charitable organizations were terminated. Schools were taken over by the State and secularized.
Article 24 of the new 1917 Constitution decreed all of religious worship to be regulated by the State. Churches were closed, although a few were left open, but no priest was allowed to enter. A priest was not allowed to give absolution absolution
In Christianity, a pronouncement of forgiveness of sins made to a person who has repented. This rite is based on the forgiveness that Jesus extended to sinners during his ministry. or even say a prayer over a dying Mexican soldier. Such acts were considered criminal and punishable by law. In 1925 a law was passed stating that priests must marry and must have studied in official (i.e. "anti-religious") schools. The Constitution denied legal status to any religion. Marriage was declared solely a civil contract. The list is a long one.
In the words of Graham Greene (an atheist until his conversion to Catholicism at the age of 22), the Church in Mexico under its Socialist dictators suffered "the fiercest persecution of religion anywhere since the reign of Elizabeth." Pope Pius XI Pope Pius XI (Latin: Pius PP. XI; Italian: Pio XI; May 31, 1857 – February 10, 1939), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, reigned as Pope from February 6, 1922 and as sovereign of Vatican City from 1929 until his death on February 10, 1939. , the reigning Pontiff at the time (1922-1939) went even further; he declared that the persecutions in Mexico "exceeded the most bloody persecutions of the Roman emperors
This is a list of the Roman Emperors with the dates they ruled, or claimed to rule, all or part of the Roman Empire, until the final demise of the Western Empire in 476 or to the death of ." His 1926 encyclical encyclical, originally, a pastoral letter sent out by a bishop, now a solemn papal letter, meant to inform the whole church on some particular matter of importance. Benedict XIV circulated the first known encyclical in 1740. , Iniquis Afflictisque, deplores the extent of the atrocities perpetrated against the Catholic Church in Mexico. He refers to the barbarity as "without equal, cruelties and atrocities scarcely credible in the 20th century." (As late as 1984, the Chicago Tribune Chicago Tribune
Daily newspaper published in Chicago. The Tribune is one of the leading U.S. newspapers and long has been the dominant voice of the Midwest. Founded in 1847, it was bought in 1855 by six partners, including Joseph Medill (1823–99), who made the paper , commenting on Pope John Paul's recent visit to Mexico City, referred to Mexico as the most "officially anti-religious country in the hemisphere," Dec. 14, 1984.)
In 1938, Graham Greene was authorized to travel to Mexico and report on the religious persecution in that country. The result was two books: The Lawless Roads, which documents his travels through Mexico, and the follow-up masterpiece novel, The Power and the Glory, a "modern Crucifixion story." (Based on an actual event, it was the story of a priest who was "hunted down like a hare" and eventually executed.)
In his travel book Greene speaks of a land of "ruined churches" and "headless statues." "In Chiapas the churches still stand, shuttered and ruined and empty, but they fester--the whole village festers." He tells of villagers weeping while their churches are being desecrated des·e·crate
tr.v. des·e·crat·ed, des·e·crat·ing, des·e·crates
To violate the sacredness of; profane.
[de- + (con)secrate. : "the statues were carried out of the church while the inhabitants
The game is based loosely on the concepts from SameGame. watched, sheepishly sheep·ish
1. Embarrassed, as by consciousness of a fault: a sheepish grin.
2. Meek or stupid.
sheep , and saw their own children encouraged to chop up the images, in return for little presents of candy."
Greene's biographer, Norman Sherry, records that animals would be displayed in churches: one animal would be called "God," a donkey would be named "Christ," a cow referred to as "Our Lady of Guadalupe
Our Lady of Guadalupe, also called the Virgin of Guadalupe (Spanish: Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe or Virgen de Guadalupe) is a 16th century Roman Catholic Mexican icon depicting ," a pig would be called "The Pope." Sherry, in reference to the aforementioned governor of Tabasco, states that Garrido "replaced the worship of God with the worship of the Yucca plant or a pineapple;" it is informative to note that he also called one of his sons, Lenin; and a nephew was named Lucifer.
In 1926 the bishops of Mexico were forced to take extraordinary and unprecedented measures: they ordered the removal of the Blessed Sacrament (and the priests themselves) from the churches rather than submit the Church to government control. With approval from the Holy See, all Masses, all Sacraments would be suspended in all the churches of the Republic. The Bishops spoke out with anguished eloquence: "The life of the Church is that of its Founder. The Church of Mexico is abandoned today to its worst enemies; she is mocked, she is scourged, she is reduced to a state like death." In the words of author Sherry, "the great Good Friday for Mexico had begun."
There was no Mass on Sunday mornings, no Confessions were heard, there was no Blessed Sacrament in any of the churches. But--there was Mass. There were Confessions. The Sacraments were administered--Masses were held in "underground churches" in private homes, in garages, in forests. Secret Masses were held all over Mexico. Children were baptized bap·tize
v. bap·tized, bap·tiz·ing, bap·tiz·es
1. To admit into Christianity by means of baptism.
a. To cleanse or purify.
b. To initiate.
3. . "The consecrated con·se·crate
tr.v. con·se·crat·ed, con·se·crat·ing, con·se·crates
1. To declare or set apart as sacred: consecrate a church.
a. hosts were carried hither and thither Adv. 1. hither and thither - from one place or situation to another; "we were driven from pillar to post"
from pillar to post in secret by the hands of priest at the risk of their lives." The history of the catacombs, of the Elizabethan persecutions, was repeated."
Fr. Miguel Pro, the most famous of the Mexican martyrs (dressing in various disguises, such as a mechanic, a baker, or a "lady's man"), organized what he called "Eucharistic stations" in private houses where he said Mass every day. A password would be whispered at the door. Guards would be posted at the entrance. On one First Friday he distributed 1,200 Communions; his daily "distribution" was never less than 300.
Such a scene is vividly described in The Power and the Glory:
"It had been five years since the people had seen a priest.
A voice whispered urgently to him 'Father.'
'The police are on the way. They are only a mile off, coming through the forest.' This was what he was used to: were they on horseback or on foot? If they were on foot he had 20 minutes left to finish Mass and hide ... the Consecration was in silence: no bell rang. Somebody opened the door: a voice whispered urgently, 'They're here.... They are all around the village.'"
The priest was arrested and shot by a firing squad shortly thereafter.
And then there was the all-important matter of education: Article 3 of the 1917 constitution secularized all education: religious education was forbidden in both private and public schools. One clause in this article stipulates: "The education imparted by the state shall be a socialist one." Further along we read: "No one connected with any religious society shall be allowed to teach or assist the schools financially."
Francis F. Kelley, Bishop of Oklahoma and Tulsa, discusses this matter in his aptly named book, Blood Drenched drench
tr.v. drenched, drench·ing, drench·es
1. To wet through and through; soak.
2. To administer a large oral dose of liquid medicine to (an animal).
3. Altars (1935). He revealed the oath that teachers in the state of Yucatan were forced to sign in that same year: "I solemnly declare myself an atheist, an irreconcilable enemy of the Roman, Apostolic, Catholic religion and that I will exert my efforts to destroy it ... and be ready to fight against the clergy in whatever field may be necessary ... and take a leading part in attacking the Roman, Apostolic, Catholic religion wherever it manifest itself.... lastly I will not permit any of my household to take part in any religious act whatsoever."
Kelley refers to the case of the Minister of Education, a close friend of President Calles, whose "particular educational fad was sexual instruction. He sent out indecent pamphlets to the teachers"--"the consequences of them cannot be described."
Not all teachers complied: many refused to cooperate with the authorities. In the city of Aquascalientes all resigned. In the state of Michoacan "60 public school teachers resigned rather than teach as prescribed."
The laity did not remain silent: Catholic Action sprang into action. Because teachers had to be regulated by the state, secret underground schools were formed to impart the faith. Clandestine colleges were set up to train Catholic laity in Catechetics Cat`e`chet´ics
n. 1. The science or practice of instructing by questions and answers.
catechetics . At the height of the persecution, 56,000 laypeople lay·peo·ple or lay people
Laymen and laywomen. had been trained in Catholic theology. In 1926, there were only a handful of people trained for such tasks.
One of these catechists was Anacleto Gonzalez Flores Flores, town, Guatemala
Flores (flōrəs), town (1990 est. pop. 2,200), capital of Petén department, N Guatemala. Flores was built on an island in the southern part of Lake Petén Itzá and on the site of the . He was the founder of The Catholic Association of Mexican Youth of Guadalajara as well as an organizer and President of the Union Popular, a group whose goal was the union of Catholics for the defence of the faith. The flag of the Union bore the words "Viva Cristo Rey" ("Long live Christ the King") on one side and a picture of Our Lady of Guadalupe on the other with these words: "Humbly we ask that you confound the enemies of the Church and hear our prayer. Queen of Martyrs, pray for us and for the Union Popular."
Anacleto also wrote articles on the faith and founded the newspaper La Palabra (The Word), which defended the Church against the 1917 Constitution. At this time he wrote the following words, "We are in the midst Adv. 1. in the midst - the middle or central part or point; "in the midst of the forest"; "could he walk out in the midst of his piece?"
midmost of an infamous problem--the country is a jail for the Catholic Church." (Saintly saint·ly
adj. saint·li·er, saint·li·est
Of, relating to, resembling, or befitting a saint.
saintli·ness n. Men, by Joan Cruz Carroll).
At the age of 38 on March 31, 1927, he was martyred: he was hung by his thumbs while being tortured to death. He refused to disclose the location of the Archbishop of Guadalajara and the leaders of the Cristero movement, defenders who fought for the faith. He was beatified along with 13 other martyrs on November 20, 2005.
Throughout this severe persecution the clergy were heroic. As well, the Catholic people of Mexico remained overwhelmingly faithful and loyal to the Church: Greene reports on his trip to Las Casas during Holy Week, that, on Holy Thursday, "The Indians were pouring in from the mountains--they came in the thousands (italics, mine) to see the crucified Christ."
Father Pro gives examples of this loyalty, writing in his own words: "On October 12, 1926, 50,000 people tramped out to Guadalupe." He wrote in astonishment at the crowds who came to the Basilica of Guadalupe on the feast of Christ the King
The Feast of Christ the King (or properly, the Solemnity of Christ the King , on October 31--the pilgrimage to the Basilica began at 4 in the morning and ended at 7:30 at night. An uninterrupted stream of people--80 or 84 percent of the inhabitants--passed before the blessed image of Our Lady of Guadalupe--it was impossible to tear myself away--everyone was singing hymns and shouts for Christ the King, the Pope, the Bishops--the terrible trial through which we are passing has only increased the number of resolute Catholics."
It was in the elegant city of Zacatecas (in the state of the same name) that I had my first encounter with a Mexican martyr. Zacatecas, described in guidebooks as "a true colonial gem" is considered one of Mexico's most photogenic photogenic /pho·to·gen·ic/ (-jen´ik)
1. produced by light, as photogenic epilepsy.
2. producing or emitting light.
1. cities. It was declared a World Heritage site by Unesco in 1993. Its cathedral is considered one of the most beautiful in the country.
After the Sunday evening Mass in the cathedral I noticed a small crowd gathering in one of the side chapels. They were all kneeling and praying with intense devotion. I was curious. "Why were they praying there?" I wondered, "What was the object of their devotion?" One woman seemed to sense my bewilderment and pointed to a casket in the chapel. "Santo! Santo!" she whispered. "Muchos Milagros!" (many miracles). I stepped closer and peered inside. There, before me, were the remains of Zacatecas' newest saint, Saint Mateo Correa Magallenes, a priest of the diocese of Zacatecas. Ordained or·dain
tr.v. or·dained, or·dain·ing, or·dains
a. To invest with ministerial or priestly authority; confer holy orders on.
b. To authorize as a rabbi.
2. a priest in 1893, he was martyred on February 6, 1927.
His story, written on a nearby plaque, was moving beyond words: taken prisoner by the revolutionary troops he was allowed to hear the Cristeros' soldiers' confessions. He happily obliged. All was not well, however; he was ordered to divulge the contents of the confessions he had just heard. He refused. "I will shoot you if you don't tell me" screamed the revolutionary, gun pointed at Fr. Mateo's head. "I will never do it," said Fr. Mateo. "I would rather die first. I am ready to die rather than violate the seal of Confession." "Then you will die!" retorted his adversary. At dawn on February6, he was taken to the cemetery, far from town, and shot through the head. He was canonized can·on·ize
tr.v. can·on·ized, can·on·iz·ing, can·on·iz·es
1. To declare (a deceased person) to be a saint and entitled to be fully honored as such.
2. To include in the biblical canon.
3. by Pope John Paul II Pope John Paul II (Latin: Ioannes Paulus PP. II, Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan Paweł II) born on May 21, 2001. The Holy Father had visited this very cathedral on May 12, 1990; there is a picture and plaque to commemorate this event near the main altar. Even more startling star·tle
v. star·tled, star·tling, star·tles
1. To cause to make a quick involuntary movement or start.
2. To alarm, frighten, or surprise suddenly. See Synonyms at frighten. was a nearby portrait of Fr. Miguel Pro, "Martir de Cristo" which bore a sign declaring: "Here lie the relics of Fr. Miguel Augustin Pro." Fr. Pro was born and raised in the state of Zacatecas.
A few days later we visited the city of Guadalajara, the second largest city in Mexico. Jalisco, the state of which Guadalajara is the capital, was a stronghold of the Cristero movement. It was a very good time to be there, for it was during this period on November 20, 2005, that the Vatican proclaimed the beatification beatification: see canonization. of 13 Mexican martyrs, one of whom was the aforementioned Anacleto Flores. Banners were flying over all the churches of the city proclaiming the "Martires." Several of the 13 came from this city or its environs. The portraits of these "native sons" were proudly and solemnly displayed in the individual parish churches. There is a Franciscan church, that of Santa Anita, outside the city of Guadalajara, that houses a unique and exquisite chapel to honour the Mexican martyrs. One of these was a 28-year-old married man, Manuel Morales. Before he died he declared loudly, "I die but God, does not die!" He was one of four laymen and 22 clergy to be canonized on May 21, 2000.
Fr. David Uribe Velacco, also now canonized, was martyred at the age of 39 on April 2, 1927. In prison he wrote the following words: "What joy it is to die defending the rights of God! I am in Your hands, Oh Lord, and in those of Our Lady of Guadalupe."
The canonized priest, Fr. Augustin Caboca Cortes, martyred at the age of 29 on May 25, 1927, declared shortly before his death: "For God we live, and for Him we die." Toribio Romo Gonzalez, a 28-year-old canonized priest from the town of Tequila, Jalisco, prayed: "Lord, I offer my blood for the peace of the Church." Later he was murdered in the middle of the night. These words were spoken by the soldiers: "This is the priest. Let us kill him."
Saint Miguel de la Mora MORA, In civil law. This term, in mora, is used to denote that a party to a contract, who is obliged to do anything, has neglected to perform it, and is in default. Story on Bailm. Sec. 123, 259; Jones on Bailm. 70; Poth. Pret a Usage, c. 2, Sec. 2, art. 2, n. , pastor of the cathedral in Colima, Jalisco ("full of love for the poor"), decided to remain with his parishioners (when all the priests were expelled from the area). He was shot while praying the Rosary.
The newest Mexican saint is Bishop Rafael Guizar Valencia Saint Rafael Guizar Valencia, born April 26, 1878 and died on June 6, 1938, was a Catholic bishop who cared for the wounded and dying in Mexico's 1910-17 revolution. Named bishop of Veracruz, he was driven out of his home diocese and forced to live the remainder of his life in , known as the "Bishop of the Poor." He was canonized by Pope Benedict XVI Editing of this page by unregistered or newly registered users is currently disabled due to vandalism. on October 15, 2006, and became the first bishop to be canonized in Latin America. Although he was not martyred, he carried out his apostolate a·pos·to·late
1. The office, duties, or mission of an apostle.
2. An association of individuals for the dissemination of a religion or doctrine. as priest and bishop "amid almost constant persecution and situations of danger." He lived for many years in exile. He uttered repeatedly, "I will give my life for the salvation of souls."
One would have to ask the question: "What became of the church property?" There are those who say that the persecution was largely engineered for financial reasons. Kelley titles a chapter in his book "The Great Steal." He answers this question succinctly: "That which could not be sold for cash was left empty or used for State purposes."
Royal states that between 1931 and 1936 alone, "480 churches, schools, orphanages and hospitals were closed by the government or converted to other uses." Dire consequences followed: higher education ceased to exist, hospitals were closed, the elderly and orphaned were left to fend for themselves. Even today a casual perusal of travel guidebooks to Mexico reveal that many museums, art galleries, government buildings or even movie theatres were once churches, convents or monasteries.
Fr. Miguel Pro, S.J.
Fr. Pro, who had the "devotion of the saints to Our Lady," paid a visit to Lourdes shortly before his return to Mexico in 1926, a time when the persecution was reaching its peak. He was studying in Europe at the time. While at Lourdes he composed this prayer to Mary: "May I spend my days near thee. What I ask on my road of life is not the joy of Bethlehem--I ask the slow agony of thy Son, the contempt, the ignominy IGNOMINY. Public disgrace, infamy, reproach, dishonor. Ignominy is the opposite of esteem. Wolff, Sec. 145. See Infamy. of the Cross--strengthen my soul by thy tears, consummate my sacrifice by thy martyrdom." Padre Pro had offered his life for the Catholic Church in Mexico.
His prayer was answered. He was executed by firing squad at dawn on that grey November day in 1927. He was 36 years old. On the morning of his death he said this prayer. Before he was killed, in front of many members of the world press who were invited to see just how "cowardly these Catholic priests are," he stretched out his arms in the form of a Cross and declared for all to hear "Viva Cristo Rey! Viva Cristo Rey!" In one hand he held his crucifix, in the other, the rosary which he had used at Lourdes. Before he was shot he said to his executors, "May God forgive you! With all my heart I forgive my enemies! May God have mercy on you!" The shots then rang out. He was beatified by Pope John Paul II on September 25, 1988.
Three of his companions were murdered on the same day: one was his brother Humberto, "superbly cool and self-possessed," another was the 23-year-old engineer, Luis Segura Vilchis, who went to his death "unfalteringly, more like a young athlete who goes to receive his prize." As he addressed his persecutors he stated in a conversational tone, "I am ready, gentlemen." The fourth was a "poor boy" by name of Tirado who was so ill with pneumonia he could not stand upright. The fifth prisoner was Fr. Pro's youngest brother, Roberto. He received a reprieve at the last minute and was released.
More than 20,000 people joined the funeral cortege, risking their lives in the process. The funeral procession took three hours to reach the cemetery. Shouts resounded through the city "Viva Cristo Rey! Long live the martyrs! Long live the Pope! Long live our Bishops! Long live our priests! Lord, if you wish martyrs, here is our blood, here are our lives."
The following, item was reported by Christopher House in his column "Presswatch," The Tablet, April 28, 2007.
A strange tale of clashing cultures came from Mexico. The dress chosen for Miss Mexico to wear at the Miss Universe pageant was denounced for being too revealing--not of the wearer but of Mexican history. According to The Times, "Rosa Maria Ojeda's billowing bil·low
1. A large wave or swell of water.
2. A great swell, surge, or undulating mass, as of smoke or sound.
v. bil·lowed, bil·low·ing, bil·lows
1. , floor-length dress recounted scenes from the 1926-9 Cristero uprising. Among the images on the bullet studded dress: a man facing a firing squad and Catholic rebels shown hanging from lamp posts."
The committee choosing the dress had settled for a modest garment with accessories that included "rosaries hanging from a bullet-studded belt, a crucifix necklace, and a scapulary scap·u·lar
1. A monk's sleeveless outer garment that hangs from the shoulders and sometimes has a cowl.
2. A badge worn by affiliates of certain religious orders, consisting of two pieces of cloth joined by shoulder bands ," The Times unhelpfully glossed this as "the neck part of a nun's or monk's habit;" in fact, it was the humbler label on a string favoured by devotees of Our Lady of Mount Carmel This article is about a title given to Mary, mother of Jesus. For the church in Toxteth, Liverpool, see Our Lady of Mount Carmel RC Church. .
"It would be like Miss USA wearing a dress showing images of the Klu Klux Klan in the Deep South, with their hoods, their burning crosses and beer cans," wrote a columnist in La Jornada newspaper, ignoring the fact that in this case the dress depicted victims, not the persecutors. In 2000 Pope John Paul II canonized 25 martyrs of the period. The case of one, Fr. Rodgrio Auilar, was less like the KKK and more like Billie Holiday's song "Strange Fruit" for he was hanged from a mango tree but managed to gasp out three times "Cristo Rey y Santa Maria de Guadalupe."
"The design committee is to commission another dress in time for the Miss Universe show in Mexico City."
Mary Hansen, M.Ed, M. Div. writes from North Bay, ON. She is a retired teacher and was involved in the RCIA RCIA Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults
RCIA Rite of Catholic Initiation for Adults
RCIA Retail Clerks International Association
RCIA Richmond Creative Investors Association
RCIA Request for Clarity, Information & Assistance program at her parish for seven years.