Printer Friendly
The Free Library
22,710,190 articles and books

Perceived erotic value of homosexuality and sex-role attitudes as mediators of sex differences in heterosexual college students' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men.

Two of the most consistent findings in attitude research have been that heterosexuals' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men are negative and that American society finds this negativity to be acceptable. Whether this research is conducted using convenience samples of college students (e.g., Herek, 1984, 1986; Kite kite, in aviation and recreation
kite, in aviation, aircraft restrained by a towline and deriving its lift from the aerodynamic action of the wind flowing across it.
, 1994) or national survey samples (e.g., Herek, 1991; Herek & Capitanio, 1996; Herek & Glunt, 1993), it reveals widespread anti-gay prejudice. This line of research has also uncovered a number of factors associated with anti-gay prejudice. For example, people who hold negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men are typically higher in authoritarianism authoritarianism

Principle of unqualified submission to authority, as opposed to individual freedom of thought and action. As a political system, authoritarianism is antidemocratic in that political power is concentrated in a leader or small elite not constitutionally
, more traditional in their sex-role attitudes, less well educated, and more negative toward members of other minority groups than are their less prejudiced peers (see reviews by Herek, 1984, 1991).

Research on the factors associated with attitudes toward lesbians and gay men also has shown that heterosexual heterosexual /het·ero·sex·u·al/ (-sek´shoo-al)
1. pertaining to, characteristic of, or directed toward the opposite sex.

2. one who is sexually attracted to persons of the opposite sex.
 men hold more negative views than do heterosexual women. (For simplicity, in the rest of this article the terms men and women refer to heterosexual men and women except when it is necessary to distinguish between people of heterosexual and homosexual orientation.) For example, in a meta-analysis of 109 studies of the relationship between sex of respondent and attitudes toward lesbians and gay men, Kite and Whitley (1996) found that sex differences averaged .38 standard deviations In statistics, the average amount a number varies from the average number in a series of numbers.

(statistics) standard deviation - (SD) A measure of the range of values in a set of numbers.
, with men's attitudes more negative than women's. Kite and Whitley also found that the sex of the attitude target (i.e., lesbian or gay man) interacted with respondent sex to affect attitudes: Men were more negative than women when rating gay men, but there were no sex differences in the ratings of lesbians. Within the male and female respondent groups, women made approximately equal ratings of lesbians and gay men, but men's ratings of lesbians were less negative than their ratings of gay men.

To provide a theoretical context for understanding these sex differences, Kite and Whitley (1996) drew on the concept of a generalized gen·er·al·ized
adj.
1. Involving an entire organ, as when an epileptic seizure involves all parts of the brain.

2. Not specifically adapted to a particular environment or function; not specialized.

3.
 gender belief system, defined by Deaux and Kite (1987) as "a set of beliefs and opinions about males and females and about the purported pur·port·ed  
adj.
Assumed to be such; supposed: the purported author of the story.



pur·ported·ly adv.
 qualities of masculinity masculinity /mas·cu·lin·i·ty/ (mas?ku-lin´i-te) virility; the possession of masculine qualities.

mas·cu·lin·i·ty
n.
1. The quality or condition of being masculine.

2.
 and femininity Femininity
Belphoebe

perfect maidenhood; epithet of Elizabeth I. [Br. Lit.: Faerie Queene]

Darnel, Aurelia

personification of femininity. [Br. Lit.
" (p. 97). This belief system includes such factors as stereotypes about men and women, attitudes toward appropriate roles for the sexes, and perceptions of those who presumably pre·sum·a·ble  
adj.
That can be presumed or taken for granted; reasonable as a supposition: presumable causes of the disaster.
 violate the traditional pattern of sex roles, including lesbians and gay men. Research on gender-associated beliefs suggests that people's responses to others are based on an assumption that what is not feminine is masculine and vice versa VICE VERSA. On the contrary; on opposite sides. . People expect others to fit into a relatively stable set of gender roles, traits, and physical attributes, generally believing, for example, that a person who is either masculine or feminine in one aspect of behavior is similarly masculine or feminine in other aspects of behavior.

Kite and Whitley (1996) suggested that the gender belief system contributes to sex differences in attitudes toward homosexuality by defining appropriate behaviors for women and men. Because gender-associated norms are more rigidly defined for men than for women (Herek, 1986; Hort, Fagot, & Leinbach, 1990), society tends to have a more negative reaction toward men who have more feminine traits than to women who have more masculine traits (e.g., Page & Yee, 1985). Thus, a man's breaking out of the mold of the traditional male role is a much more serious sex-role violation than a woman breaking out of her mold. Because society expects men to avoid female traits or activities and because gay men are often thought to possess inappropriate sex roles (e.g., Kite & Deaux, 1987), men may feel pressured by society to have negative feelings toward homosexuality and especially toward gay men. Because women may feel less pressured continually to validate their femininity, they may be less motivated to make differential ratings of lesbians and gay men.

One implication of Kite and Whitley's (1996) analysis is that people who are more strongly invested in the gender belief system should have more negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men because homosexuality violates the norms of that belief system. A second implication is that because of the socialization socialization /so·cial·iza·tion/ (so?shal-i-za´shun) the process by which society integrates the individual and the individual learns to behave in socially acceptable ways.

so·cial·i·za·tion
n.
 pressures induced by the system, men are more invested in it than are women and so hold more negative attitudes toward homosexuality. Therefore, sex differences in factors associated with the gender belief system, such as traditional sex-role attitudes, may mediate MEDIATE, POWERS. Those incident to primary powers, given by a principal to his agent. For example, the general authority given to collect, receive and pay debts due by or to the principal is a primary power.  sex differences in attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. The results of Kite and Whitley's meta-analysis supported these predictions: Men held more traditional sex-role attitudes than did women, with an average correlation of .33 between sex of respondent and traditional sex-role attitudes; people holding more traditional sex-role attitudes held more negative attitudes toward homosexuality, with an average correlation of .44, and with sex-role attitudes controlled, sex differences in attitudes toward homosexuality virtually disappeared: The mean partial correlation Noun 1. partial correlation - a correlation between two variables when the effects of one or more related variables are removed
statistics - a branch of applied mathematics concerned with the collection and interpretation of quantitative data and the use of
 was .02.

Although Kite and Whitley's (1996) results explain the main effect relationship between respondent sex and attitudes toward homosexuality, they do not explain the sex of respondent by sex of attitude target interaction. To do so, we call on another aspect of the gender belief system, the sexualization This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject.
Please help recruit one or [ improve this article] yourself. See the talk page for details.
 of women by men in American society (e.g., DeLamater, 1987; Sprecher & McKinney, 1993). As DeLamater (1987) noted, "Generally, men seem more likely than women to perceive persons of the opposite sex in sexual terms" (p. 134). For example, a number of studies (reviewed by Sprecher & McKinney, 1993) have found that men are more likely than women to attribute sexual intent to friendly behavior by members of the other sex. In addition, surveys have consistently found that men are more likely to be consumers of erotica erotica - pornography  in all its forms than are women (Fisher, 1983). Men's tendency to view women in sexual terms may lead them to eroticize e·rot·i·cize  
tr.v. e·rot·i·cized, e·rot·i·ciz·ing, e·rot·i·ciz·es
To make erotic.



e·rot
 the idea of a woman making love to another woman.

Although a number of writers have alluded to the idea that lesbianism lesbianism: see homosexuality.
lesbianism
 also called sapphism or female homosexuality,

the quality or state of intense emotional and usually erotic attraction of a woman to another woman.
 has erotic erotic /erot·ic/ (e-rot´ik)
1. charged with sexual feeling.

2. pertaining to sexual desire.


e·rot·ic
adj.
1. Of or concerning sexual love and desire.
 value for heterosexual men (e.g., Reiss, 1986), researchers have conducted only a few studies to address this question. These researchers have used two methodological approaches to investigating this issue. Some researchers had participants rate slides or films that depicted de·pict  
tr.v. de·pict·ed, de·pict·ing, de·picts
1. To represent in a picture or sculpture.

2. To represent in words; describe. See Synonyms at represent.
 heterosexual and homosexual sexual activity (e.g., Gaughan & Gaynor, 1973; Greendlinger, 1985; Hatfield, Sprecher, & Traupmann, 1978; Levitt & Brady, 1965; Turnbull & Brown, 1977). Turnbull and Brown's results were typical: Although both male and female respondents rated homosexual acts more negatively than heterosexual acts, men rated lesbian sexual activity more positively than did women; there was no sex difference for gay male sexual activity. Using the other approach, Nyberg and Alston (1977) asked their respondents to rate the ideas of men making love to men and of women making love to women as being either erotic or non-erotic. Their results showed that only 7% of both male and female respondents found the idea of a man making love to another man erotic. However, 33% of their male respondents found the idea of a woman making love to another woman erotic, compared to only 10% of their female respondents.

These studies demonstrate that lesbianism does hold erotic value for at least some heterosexual men. The positive erotic value thus assigned to lesbianism may counteract the general stigma stigma: see pistil.
Stigma
mark of Cain

God’s mark on Cain, a sign of his shame for fratricide. [O. T.: Genesis 4:15]

scarlet letter
 associated with homosexuality, resulting in attitudes toward lesbians that are less negative than those toward gay men. However, women are less likely to sexualize sex·u·al·ize  
tr.v. sex·u·al·ized, sex·u·al·iz·ing, sex·u·al·iz·es
To make sexual in character or quality:
 men in the same way, and the research on the perceived erotic value of homosexuality suggests that they do not tend to sexualize male homosexuality. Consequently, there is no differential ameliorative a·mel·io·rate  
tr. & intr.v. a·me·lio·rat·ed, a·me·lio·rat·ing, a·me·lio·rates
To make or become better; improve. See Synonyms at improve.



[Alteration of meliorate.
 influence on women's attitudes toward lesbians and gay men and, as Kite and Whitley's (1996) meta-analysis showed, they hold similar attitudes toward members of the two groups.

This analysis of the role of the gender belief system in sex differences in attitudes toward homosexuality led us to make the following hypotheses:

1. Attitudes toward lesbians and gay men are an interactive function of sex of respondent and sex of attitude target such that women hold similar attitudes toward lesbians and gay men, but men hold less negative attitudes toward lesbians than gay men.

2. Men place a high erotic value on lesbianism and a low erotic value on male homosexuality, whereas women place a low erotic value on both male and female homosexuality.

3. Men hold more traditional sex-role attitudes than do women.

4. Differences in men's ratings of lesbians and gay men will be mediated me·di·ate  
v. me·di·at·ed, me·di·at·ing, me·di·ates

v.tr.
1. To resolve or settle (differences) by working with all the conflicting parties:
 by the perceived erotic value of homosexuality. That is, with perceived erotic value controlled, men will hold similar attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. However, because of men's greater investment in the gender belief system, these attitudes will be more negative than those held by women.

5. Sex differences in heterosexuals' attitudes toward homosexuality will be mediated by sex-role attitudes. That is, controlling for traditional sex-role attitudes will reduce or eliminate any main effect for sex in heterosexuals' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men.

6. Simultaneously controlling for both perceived erotic value of homosexuality and sex-role attitudes will eliminate both the main effect for sex of participant and the sex of participant by sex of attitude target interaction.

Method

Participants

One hundred fourteen female and 60 male introductory psychology students from a Midwestern university The P.A. Program is a 2-year program that starts in the summer. The D.O.,Pharm D., and Psy.D are 4-year programs. The D.O. degree is the legal and professional equivalent of the M.D.  participated in this research in partial fulfillment of a course requirement. Only the data from the 109 female and 58 male participants reporting a completely heterosexual sexual orientation sexual orientation
n.
The direction of one's sexual interest toward members of the same, opposite, or both sexes, especially a direction seen to be dictated by physiologic rather than sociologic forces.
 were used in the analysis. The ages of these participants ranged from 17 to 25 years, with a mean of 18.7 years.

Measures

Attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Attitudes toward lesbians and gay men were assessed using Herek's (1988) Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men (ATLGM) Scale. The ATLGM consists of 20 items, each rated on a 9-point scale. Ten items assess attitudes toward lesbians (ATL (Active Template Library) A set of software routines from Microsoft that provide the basic framework for creating ActiveX and COM objects. Stemming from the standard template library (STL) that comes with C++ compilers, ATL includes an object wizard that sets up ), and 10 assess attitudes toward gay men (ATGM ATGM antitank guided missile (US DoD)
ATGM antitank guided munition (US DoD)
ATGM Astegmen (3rd Lieutenant in Turkish Army)
ATGM All Tube Gamma Monitor
), providing separate attitude scores for each group. ATL items include "Lesbians just can't fit into our society" and "Female homosexuality in itself is no problem, but what society makes of it can be a problem." ATGM items include "Male homosexual couples should be allowed to adopt children the same as heterosexual couples" and "I think male homosexuality is disgusting." For this research the scale was scored so that high values indicated positive attitudes. The ATLGM has been found to have high degrees of reliability and construct validity construct validity,
n the degree to which an experimentally-determined definition matches the theoretical definition.
 (Herek, 1994). In the current sample the ATL had an internal consistency In statistics and research, internal consistency is a measure based on the correlations between different items on the same test (or the same subscale on a larger test). It measures whether several items that propose to measure the same general construct produce similar scores.  reliability (Cronbach's alpha Cronbach's (alpha) has an important use as a measure of the reliability of a psychometric instrument. It was first named as alpha by Cronbach (1951), as he had intended to continue with further instruments. ) of .91, and the ATGM had a reliability of .94.

Perceived erotic value of homosexuality. Perceived erotic value of homosexuality was assessed using eight items that we wrote for this study. Four items referred to gay male sexuality, and four parallel items referred to lesbian sexuality: "I find the idea of a man (woman) making love to another man (woman) erotic," "I find the idea of a man (woman) making love to another man (woman) repulsive re·pul·sive  
adj.
1. Causing repugnance or aversion; disgusting. See Synonyms at offensive.

2. Tending to repel or drive off.

3. Physics Opposing in direction: a repulsive force.
" (reverse scored), "I think that I would be sexually aroused by watching two men (women) make love," and "I have viewed pornographic por·nog·ra·phy  
n.
1. Sexually explicit pictures, writing, or other material whose primary purpose is to cause sexual arousal.

2. The presentation or production of this material.

3.
 materials involving male homosexual (lesbian) acts." The first item was based on that used by Nyberg and Alston (1977); we wrote the other items as variations on that theme. All statements were rated on nine-point scales; the first three items were rated on scales ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (9) and the last item on a scale ranging from never (1) to frequently (9). These eight items were interspersed with those of the ATLGM scale. The perceived erotic value of lesbianism scale had a reliability of .88, and the perceived erotic value of male homosexuality scale had a reliability of .65.

Sex-role attitudes. Sex-role attitudes were assessed using the Attitudes Toward the Roles of Men and Women (ATRMW) Scale (Whitley, 1987). The ATRMW is composed of 15 items from Spence n. 1. A place where provisions are kept; a buttery; a larder; a pantry.
In . . . his spence, or "pantry" were hung the carcasses of a sheep or ewe, and two cows lately slaughtered.
- Sir W. Scott.
 and Helmreich's (1972) Attitudes Toward Women Scale (AWS AWS Amazon Web Services
AWS American Welding Society
AWS Advanced Warning System
AWS Advanced Wireless Services
AWS Automatic Weather Station
AWS Alien Workshop (skateboard company)
AWS Austria Wirtschaftsservice GmbH
) and 15 items from Doyle and Moore's (1978) Attitudes Toward the Male's Role Scale (AMR (1) (Adaptive Multi-Rate) A variable rate speech codec selected by the 3GPP for the 3G evolution of the GSM cellphone system (WCDMA). Using the Algebraic CELP (ACELP) compression technology, AMR provides toll quality sound at transmission rates from 4.75 to 12. ). The ATRMW is thus balanced in the sense that it asks about the roles of both men and women rather than about the roles of only men (AMR) or women (AWS). Items from the AWS include "Swearing and obscenity obscenity, in law, anything that tends to corrupt public morals by its indecency. The moral concepts that the term connotes vary from time to time and from place to place. In the United States, the word obscenity is a technical legal term. In the 1950s the U.S.  are more repulsive in the speech of a woman than in the speech of a man" and "There should be a strict merit system System used by federal and state governments for hiring and promoting governmental employees to civil service positions on the basis of competence.

The merit system uses educational and occupational qualifications, testing, and job performance as criteria for selecting,
 in job appointment and promotion without regard to sex." Items from the AMR include "The man should always pay the expenses while out on a date" and "A man who accepts criticism from a woman is being weak and unmanly." Both the AWS and the AMR have been found to have high degrees of reliability and construct validity (Beere, 1990). Items were rated using a nine-point agree-disagree scale; higher scores indicate more traditional sex-role attitudes. The reliability of the scale was .93 in the current sample.

Sexual orientation. Participants indicated their sexual orientations using a nine-point scale ranging from completely heterosexual (1) through bisexual bisexual /bi·sex·u·al/ (-sek´shoo-al)
1. pertaining to or characterized by bisexuality.

2. an individual exhibiting bisexuality.

3. pertaining to or characterized by hermaphroditism.

4.
 (5) to completely homosexual (9).

Procedure

Participants completed a booklet composed of the measures in same-sex groups of 5 to 20 individuals in a classroom setting. Individuals were separated so that they could not see others' responses. All data-collection sessions were conducted by the same 21-year-old female undergraduate researcher.

Results

Data analyses were conducted using a 2 (sex of research participant) x 2 (sex of attitude target) between-subjects factorial factorial

For any whole number, the product of all the counting numbers up to and including itself. It is indicated with an exclamation point: 4! (read “four factorial”) is 1 × 2 × 3 × 4 = 24.
 design. Although all participants completed both the gay man and lesbian sections of the ATLGM and perceived erotic value of homosexuality scales, except as otherwise specified, participants were randomly assigned after data collection to either a lesbian or gay man attitude target condition. We used this procedure rather than a within-subjects design because the assumption of homogeneity Homogeneity

The degree to which items are similar.
 of regression slopes underlying analysis of covariance Covariance

A measure of the degree to which returns on two risky assets move in tandem. A positive covariance means that asset returns move together. A negative covariance means returns vary inversely.
, one technique used to analyze the data, can only be tested in a between-subjects design (Tabachnick & Fidell, 1996). Percentages of variance accounted for by the independent variables were calculated as omega squared (Kirk, 1982); all post-hoc analyses were conducted using Tukey's HSD HSD Human Services Department
HSD High Speed Data
HSD Hillsboro School District (Hillsboro, OR)
HSD Hybrid Synergy Drive (Toyota/Lexus)
HSD High School Diploma
HSD Historical Society of Delaware
 test at the .05 level of significance. Fifty-three women and 29 men were in the lesbian attitude target condition, and 56 women and 29 men were in the gay man attitude target condition.

For the entire sample, the mean ATL score was 5.8 and the mean ATGM score was 5.0. Both means were near the midpoints of the scales; however, mean scores varied as a function of the interaction between sex of respondent and sex of attitude target.

Sex Differences in Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men

The first row of Table 1 shows the means of the homosexuality attitude scores organized by sex of respondent and sex of attitude target (Hypothesis 1). As predicted, a sex of participant by sex of attitude target interaction that accounted for 12.5% of the variance, F(1, 163) = 26.48, p [is less than] .001, qualified a main effect for sex of participant that accounted for 2.3% of the variance, F(1, 163) = 5.62, p = .02, and a main effect for sex of attitude target that accounted for 3.4% of the variance, F(1, 163) = 7.84, p = .006. Post-hoc analyses showed that, as predicted, women held similar attitudes toward lesbians and gay men, but men held less negative attitudes toward lesbians than toward gay men.

Table 1 Means and Standard Deviations for Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men, Perceptions of the Erotic Value of Male and Female Homosexuality, and Sex-role Attitudes Organized by Sex of Participant and Sex of Attitude Target Condition
                                           Female Participants

                                          Lesbians       Gay Men
                                           n = 53        n = 56

Unadjusted Means(a)
  Homosexuality attitude(b)                 5.5(a)        5.7(a)
                                           (1.5)         (1.9)
  Erotic value(b)                           2.3(a)        2.4(a)
                                           (1.3)         (1.2)
  Sex-role attitude(c)                      2.9(a)        2.7(a)
  (0.7)                                    (0.9)         (1.3)

Adjusted Homosexuality Attitude Means
  Adjusted for erotic value(c)              5.8(a)        6.0(a)
  Adjusted for sex-role attitude(b)         5.1(a)        5.2(a)
  Adjusted for both covariates              5.4           5.5

                                            Male Participants

                                          Lesbians       Gay Men
                                           n =29          n = 29

Unadjusted Means(a)
  Homosexuality attitude(b)                6.2(a)         3.7(b)
                                          (1.5)          (1.6)
  Erotic value(b)                          6.0(b)         1.5(c)
                                          (2.1)          (0.9)
  Sex-role attitude(c)                     3.9(b)         4.2(b)
  (0.7)                                   (0.7)

Adjusted Homosexuality Attitude Means
  Adjusted for erotic value(c)             5.0(b)         4.4(b)
  Adjusted for sex-role attitude(b)        6.6(b)         4.2(c)
  Adjusted for both covariates             5.4            4.9


(a) Standard deviations are shown in parentheses See parenthesis.

parentheses - See left parenthesis, right parenthesis.
.

(b) Means with different subscripts differ at the .05 level of significance by Tukey's HSD test.

(c) Differing subscripts for means indicate the main effect of sex of participant.

We obtained similar results using a within-subjects analysis. A sex of participant by sex of attitude target interaction that accounted for 12.6% of the variance, F(1, 163) = 96.46, p [is less than] .001, qualified a main effect for sex of attitude target that accounted for 23.7% of the variance, F(1, 163) = 207.18, p [is less than] .001. Women held similar attitudes toward lesbians (M = 5.7) and gay men (M = 5.4), whereas men held less negative attitudes toward lesbians (M = 6.0) than toward gay men (M = 4.2). Post-hoc analyses showed that men's attitudes toward gay men were more negative than the other groups, which did not differ from one another. There was no statistically significant main effect for sex of participant, F(1, 163) = 3.83, p = .07.

Prerequisites for Mediational Analyses

Hypotheses 4, 5, and 6 propose that the sex differences in attitudes toward lesbians and gay men are mediated by the perceived erotic value of homosexuality and sex-role attitudes. Mediational analyses require that the data meet certain conditions. First, for a third variable to mediate the relationship between two variables, it must be related to both variables (Baron & Kenny, 1986). Second, mediational analyses in factorial designs are conducted by performing an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA ANCOVA Analysis of Covariance ), controlling for the relationships between the proposed mediating variables and the independent and dependent variables. Use of ANCOVA requires that the slopes of the regression of the dependent variable on the covariate are equal in all cells of the design (e.g., Tabachnick & Fidell, 1996). We therefore analyzed an·a·lyze  
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.

2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.

3.
 perceived erotic value scores and sex-role attitude scores by sex of participant and sex of attitude target (Hypotheses 2 and 3), calculated their correlations with attitude scores, and tested the equality of the regression slopes based on those correlations in the four cells of the design.

Perceived erotic value of homosexuality. The second row of Table 1 shows the mean perceived erotic value of homosexuality scores organized by sex of participant and sex of attitude target (Hypothesis 2). As predicted, perceived erotic value varied as an interactive function of sex of participant and sex of attitude target that accounted for 28.5% of the variance, F(1, 163) = 100.68, p [is less than] .001, qualifying a main effect for sex of participant that accounted for 10.4% of the variance, F(1, 163) = 37.40, p [is less than] .001, and a main effect for sex of attitude target that accounted for 13.1% of the variance, F(1, 163) = 46.99, p [is less than] .001. Post-hoc analyses indicated that women attributed similarly low erotic values to male and female homosexuality, whereas men attributed a high erotic value to lesbianism and a low erotic value to male homosexuality.

We obtained similar results using a within-subjects analysis. A sex of participant and sex of attitude target interaction accounted for 29.8% of the variance, F(1, 163) = 285.11, p [is less than] .001, qualifying a main effect for sex of participant that accounted for 26.6% of the variance, F(1, 163) = 54.98, p [is less than] .001, and a main effect for sex of attitude target that accounted for 31.6% of the variance, F(1, 163) = 308.81, p [is less than] .001. Women attributed similarly low erotic values to male and female homosexuality (M = 2.4 and 2.3, respectively), whereas men attributed a high erotic value to female homosexuality (M = 6.0) and a low erotic value to male homosexuality (M = 1.7). Post-hoc analyses showed that men's ratings of female homosexuality were greater than women's ratings of both male and female homosexuality, which were greater than men's ratings of male homosexuality.

Participants who attributed a higher erotic value to homosexuality held more favorable fa·vor·a·ble  
adj.
1. Advantageous; helpful: favorable winds.

2. Encouraging; propitious: a favorable diagnosis.

3.
 attitudes toward lesbians and gay men, r = .36, p [is less than] .001. The test for equality of regression slopes found no differences among the four conditions of the design, F(3, 159) = 1.75, p = .16.

Sex-role attitudes. The third row of Table 1 shows the mean sex-role attitude scores organized by sex of participant and sex of attitude target (Hypothesis 3). As predicted, men held more traditional attitudes than did women, F(1, 163) = 69.76, p [is less than] .001, with sex of participant accounting for 29.0% of the variance. Neither the main effect for sex of attitude target, F(1, 163) = .06, nor the interaction, F(1, 163) = 2.10, was statistically significant.

Participants who held more traditional sex-role attitudes expressed less favorable attitudes toward lesbians and gay men, r = -.43, p [is less than] .001. The test for equality of regression slopes indicated no differences among the four conditions of the design, F(3, 159) = 1.33, p = .26.

Mediational Analyses

Perceived erotic value of homosexuality. The fourth row of Table 1 shows the adjusted means for the ANCOVA of homosexuality attitude scores controlling for perceived erotic value (Hypothesis 4), which accounted for 11.9% of the variance. As predicted, the difference between men's attitudes toward lesbians and their attitudes toward gay men was eliminated when perceived erotic value was controlled and women's attitudes toward these groups remained similar, so that the sex of participant by sex of attitude target interaction was no longer statistically significant, F(1, 162) =1.99, p = .16. However, a main effect for sex of participant accounted for 8.3% of the variance, F(1, 162) = 18.15, p [is less than] .001, with men holding more negative attitudes than women toward both lesbians and gay men. The main effect for sex of attitude target was not statistically significant, F(1, 162) = .63, p = .43.

Sex-role attitudes. The fifth row of Table 1 shows the adjusted means for the ANCOVA of homosexuality attitude scores controlling for sex-role attitudes (Hypothesis 5), which accounted for 17.3% of the variance. As predicted, the main effect for sex differences in ratings of lesbians and gay men was eliminated when sex-role attitudes were controlled, F(1, 162) = 1.00, p = .32. However, there was a main effect for sex of attitude target that accounted for 8.3% of the variance, F(1, 162) = 21.18, p [is less than] .001, qualified by a sex of participant by sex of attitude target interaction that accounted for 9.8% of the variance, F(1, 162) = 25.00, p [is less than] .001: Men held more negative attitudes toward gay men than toward lesbians, whereas there was no difference in these ratings for women.

Sex-role attitudes and perceived erotic value of homosexuality. The last row of Table 1 shows the adjusted means for the ANCOVA of homosexuality attitude scores controlling for both perceived erotic value and sex-role attitudes (Hypothesis 6). The two covariates accounted for 28.3% of the variance. AS predicted, the sex difference in attitudes toward lesbians and gay men was eliminated when both the perceived erotic value of homosexuality and sex-role attitudes were controlled. There was no main effect for either sex of participant, F(1, 161) = .96, p = .33, or sex of attitude target, F(1, 161) = .55, p = .46, and there was no interaction, F(1, 161) = .86, p = .35.

Discussion

We investigated the roles played by two aspects of the gender belief system in mediating sex differences in heterosexuals' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men: heterosexual men's eroticization of lesbianism and sex-role attitudes. We found that men place a high erotic value on lesbianism relative to male homosexuality and relative to the erotic value women placed on both female and male homosexuality. As predicted, this erotic view of lesbianism ameliorated men's attitudes toward lesbians relative to their attitudes toward gay men: With level of erotic value controlled, men's attitudes toward lesbians were virtually identical with their attitudes toward gay men. As further predicted, the sex difference in attitudes toward homosexuality that remained was almost totally accounted for by attitudes toward sex roles: With these attitudes and perceived erotic value controlled, sex of participant and its interaction with sex of attitude target accounted for less than .1% of the variance in attitudes toward lesbians and gay men, compared to the 17.1% of the variance accounted for by those variables when perceived erotic value and sex-role attitudes were uncontrolled. Thus, the perceived erotic value of homosexuality and sex-role attitudes are important mediators of sex differences in attitudes toward lesbians and gay men.

Our finding that men placed a high erotic value on lesbianism is consistent with the findings in other studies conducted during the past 30 years (Gaughan & Gaynor, 1973; Greendlinger, 1985; Hatfield et al., 1978; Levitt & Brady, 1965; Nyberg & Alston, 1977; Turnbull & Brown, 1977). The temporal stability of these findings indicates that heterosexual men's eroticization of lesbianism is a longstanding component of the American gender belief system, one so long standing that Levitt and Brady (1965) cited their results as "verification of a well-worn clinical belief' (p. 352). This set of findings also points to the role of beliefs about male and female sexuality in the gender belief system, a role that Deaux and Kite (1987) characterized as being generally ignored.

What is the source of the erotic value that lesbianism has for heterosexual men? One possibility is the modeling of lesbianism as an erotic concept for men via sexually explicit materials Sexually explicit material (video, photography, creative writing) presents sexual content without deliberately obscuring or censoring it. The term sexually explicit media is often used as euphemism for pornography. . Reiss (1986) noted the presence of female-female sexual themes in erotic materials marketed to heterosexual men, and content analyses of erotic videos have shown that about 10% of sex scenes in erotic videos depict de·pict  
tr.v. de·pict·ed, de·pict·ing, de·picts
1. To represent in a picture or sculpture.

2. To represent in words; describe. See Synonyms at represent.
 such activities (e.g., Brosius, Weaver, & Staab, 1993; Palys, 1986). Thus, the erotic media may socialize so·cial·ize  
v. so·cial·ized, so·cial·iz·ing, so·cial·iz·es

v.tr.
1. To place under government or group ownership or control.

2. To make fit for companionship with others; make sociable.
 heterosexual men into perceiving sex between women as erotic. In addition, because scenes depicting sex between women in the erotic media often conclude with a male character joining the women for group sex (Brosius et al., 1993; Palys, 1986), viewers may form the impression that sex between women represents a bisexual rather than a completely lesbian sexual orientation. That is, viewers may gain the impression that women who are sexually interested in women also have an erotic interest in men, and so see lesbians as potential sex partners. Some evidence in support of this media socialization hypothesis can be found in our data: For our male respondents, the correlation between responses on the item concerning frequency of viewing erotica that depicted lesbian acts and the sum of other lesbian erotic value items was .71, p [is less than] .001. The sexual socialization provided by the erotic media thus dovetails with the gender belief system's teaching that men should view all women in sexual terms (DeLamater, 1987; Sprecher & McKinney, 1993).

The erotic socialization of sex between women via the sexual media also could explain an apparent contradiction in heterosexual men's belief systems concerning lesbians and lesbianism: Why should men perceive lesbianism as erotic and yet stereotype stereotype (stĕr`ĕətīp'), plate from which printing is done, made by casting metal in a mold, usually of paper pulp. The process was patented in 1725 by the Scottish inventor William Ged.  lesbians as physically unattractive (e.g., Dew dew, thin film of water that has condensed on the surface of objects near the ground. Dew forms when radiational cooling of these objects during the nighttime hours also cools the shallow layer of overlying air in contact with them, causing the condensation of some , 1985; Unger, Hilderbrand, & Madar, 1982) and thus undesirable as sexual objects (e.g., Hatfield & Sprecher, 1986)? Because the sexual media use young and physically attractive models and performers almost exclusively (e.g., Bogaert, Turkovich, & Hafer, 1993; Brosius et al., 1993), women who have a sexual interest in other women are portrayed to heterosexual men as youthful, physically attractive, and erotic. Thus, the image elicited e·lic·it  
tr.v. e·lic·it·ed, e·lic·it·ing, e·lic·its
1.
a. To bring or draw out (something latent); educe.

b. To arrive at (a truth, for example) by logic.

2.
 by verbal stimuli such as "a woman making love to another woman" is probably an image of the physically attractive women found in sexually explicit materials, not the unattractive image of the stereotypical lesbian.

With perceived erotic value of homosexuality controlled, men held more negative attitudes toward both lesbians and gay men than did women. However, with sex-role attitudes also controlled, this difference was reduced to nonsignificance. This finding is consistent with the results of Kite and Whitley's (1996) meta-analysis and provides further confirmation of the role of the gender belief system in attitudes toward homosexuality. As other researchers have done, we assessed sex-role attitudes in terms of beliefs about the proper social roles of women and men in such areas as employment and household management. If sex-role beliefs and beliefs about homosexuality were not part of the same generalized belief system, one would not expect attitudes toward the social roles of women and men to be related to attitudes toward women and men based on their sexual orientations.

How are sex differences in sex-role attitudes related to sex differences in attitudes toward homosexuality? As we noted in the introduction, men may be more heavily invested in the gender belief system because society views sex-role violations as more serious for men than for women (e.g., Herek, 1986; Hort et al., 1990). Because these rigidly enforced norms require men to avoid feminine traits and activities, and because gay persons are commonly viewed as deviants from appropriate sex roles (e.g., Kite & Deaux, 1987), men may feel more pressured to display anti-gay attitudes. Also, because men hold higher status than women in American society, it is in their best interests to maintain the normative nor·ma·tive  
adj.
Of, relating to, or prescribing a norm or standard: normative grammar.



nor
 structure that provides the foundation for their higher status (e.g., Feinman, 1984). One way to do so is through the derogation The partial repeal of a law, usually by a subsequent act that in some way diminishes its Original Intent or scope.

Derogation is distinguishable from abrogation, which is the total Annulment of a law.


DEROGATION, civil law.
 of people, such as lesbians and gay men, who are perceived to violate those norms.

The place that attitudes toward homosexuality holds in the gender belief system suggests that these attitudes might be highly resistant to change. The gender belief system is a complex network of associations among interrelated in·ter·re·late  
tr. & intr.v. in·ter·re·lat·ed, in·ter·re·lat·ing, in·ter·re·lates
To place in or come into mutual relationship.



in
 sets of attitudes, norms, and behaviors. Attitudes that are embedded Inserted into. See embedded system.  in such complex associational networks are harder to change than less embedded attitudes. Because a change in one part of the system implies that changes are required in other parts of the system, a form of cognitive inertia inertia (ĭnûr`shə), in physics, the resistance of a body to any alteration in its state of motion, i.e., the resistance of a body at rest to being set in motion or of a body in motion to any change of speed or change in direction of  may promote attitudinal stability (e.g., Eagly & Chaiken, 1993). This resistance to change may be further reinforced to the extent to which attitudes toward homosexuality fulfill important value-expressive, social-expressive, and ego-defensive functions for individuals (e.g., Herek, 1992). Changing such attitudes requires replacing them with more prosocial attitudes that can perform the same psychological functions, a task that may be difficult to accomplish (e.g., Eagly & Chaiken, 1993). Factors such as these may contribute to the wide variation in outcomes that Stevenson (1988) found in his review of studies of the effectiveness of interventions designed to change anti-gay attitudes.

Although the results of our study provide evidence for the roles of the perceived erotic value of homosexuality and sex-role attitudes as mediators of sex differences in attitudes toward lesbians and gay men, these results must be interpreted in light of a few limitations on their generalizabity. First, our research was conducted using a relatively small sample of students from one Midwestern university. Consequently, our results may not be applicable to members of other populations or to college students in other geographic areas. Second, the participants in our research rated the erotic value of homosexuality as an abstract concept; they did not view pictorial examples of male-male or female-female sexual interactions. However, the pattern of results that we obtained for these ratings was similar to those obtained by researchers who had their participants rate the erotic value of slides or films depicting such activities (Gaughan & Gaynor, 1973; Greendlinger, 1985; Hatfield et al., 1978; Levitt & Brady, 1965; Turnbull & Brown, 1977). Therefore, the abstract nature of the ratings probably did not have a material impact on our results. Finally, although much of our discussion dealt with the erotic value that lesbianism has for heterosexual men, we do not mean to imply that lesbianism has a unique erotic value; that is, female homosexuality has about the same erotic value for heterosexual men as does female heterosexuality het·er·o·sex·u·al·i·ty
n.
Erotic attraction, predisposition, or sexual behavior between persons of the opposite sex.


heterosexuality 
 (e.g., Hatfield et al., 1978). However, our results do indicate that because female homosexuality does have an erotic value for heterosexual men, it ameliorates their attitudes toward lesbians relative to their attitudes toward gay men.

In closing, we want to reiterate re·it·er·ate  
tr.v. re·it·er·at·ed, re·it·er·at·ing, re·it·er·ates
To say or do again or repeatedly. See Synonyms at repeat.



re·it
 a point that others have made (e.g., Herek, 1994): It is essential to distinguish between attitudes toward lesbians and attitudes toward gay men. Kite and Whitley's (1996) meta-analysis showed that in only 7% of the studies reviewed did researchers specifically examine attitudes toward lesbians. However, making a distinction between the two sets of attitudes is important both empirically and theoretically. Empirically, our research and that of others have shown a clear interaction between sex of participant and sex of attitude target: Men and women hold similar attitudes toward lesbians, but men were more negative toward gay men. Consequently, researchers must control both sex of respondent and sex of attitude target to gain an accurate picture of the meaning of their results; research conducted with only male or only female participants rating only lesbians or only gay men may not generalize generalize /gen·er·al·ize/ (-iz)
1. to spread throughout the body, as when local disease becomes systemic.

2. to form a general principle; to reason inductively.
 to other combinations of participants and attitude targets. Theoretically, the processes underlying men's and women's attitudes toward lesbians and gay men may differ. For example, our research shows that men's less negative attitudes toward lesbians may result from men's eroticization of lesbianism. Both theoretical and empirical requirements therefore indicate the necessity of distinguishing between attitudes toward lesbians and attitudes toward gay men. Such well-focused research and theory can only increase our understanding of attitudes toward both lesbians and gay men and can point to better interventions aimed at alleviating the negative aspects of those attitudes.

References

Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The mediator-moderator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology The Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (often referred to as JPSP) is a monthly psychology journal of the American Psychological Association. It is considered one of the top journals in the fields of social and personality psychology. , 51, 1173-1182.

Beere, C. A. (1990). Gender roles: A handbook of tests and measures. New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
: Greenwood Greenwood.

1 City (1990 pop. 26,265), Johnson co., central Ind.; settled 1822, inc. as a city 1960. A residential suburb of Indianapolis, Greenwood is in a retail shopping area. Manufactures include motor vehicle parts and metal products.
.

Bogaert, A. F., Turkovich, D. A., & Hafer, C. L. (1993). A content analysis of Playboy Playboy

monthly magazine renowned for nude photographs. [Am. Pop. Cult.: Misc.]

See : Eroticism
 centre-folds from 1953 through 1990: Changes in explicitness, objectification ob·jec·ti·fy  
tr.v. ob·jec·ti·fied, ob·jec·ti·fy·ing, ob·jec·ti·fies
1. To present or regard as an object: "Because we have objectified animals, we are able to treat them impersonally" 
, and model's age. The Journal of Sex Research, 30, 135-139.

Brosius, H.-B., Weaver, J. B. III, & Staab, J. F. (1993). Exploring the social and sexual "reality" of contemporary pornography pornography

Depiction of erotic behaviour intended to cause sexual excitement. The word originally signified any work of art or literature depicting the life of prostitutes.
. The Journal of Sex Research, 30, 161-170.

Deaux, K., & Kite, M. E. (1987). Thinking about gender. In B. B. Hess & M. M. Ferree (Eds.), Analyzing gender: A handbook of social science research (pp. 92-117). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

DeLamater, J. (1987). Gender differences in sexual scenarios. In K. Kelley (Ed.), Females, males and sexuality: Theories and research (pp. 127-139). Albany: State University of New York Press The State University of New York Press (or SUNY Press), founded in 1966, is a university press that is part of State University of New York system. External link
  • State University of New York Press
.

Dew, M. A. (1985). The effect of attitudes on inferences of homosexuality and perceived physical attractiveness Physical attractiveness is the perception of the physical traits of an individual human person as pleasing or beautiful. It can include various implications, such as sexual attractiveness, cuteness, and physique.  in women. Sex Roles, 12, 143-155.

Doyle, J. A., & Moore, R. J. (1978). Attitudes Toward the Male's Role Scale (AMR): An objective instrument to measure attitudes toward the male's sex role in contemporary society. JSAS JSAS Joomla Stand Alone Server
JSAS Journal of Southern African Studies
JSAS JFACC Situational Awareness System
JSAS Joint Situational Awareness System
JSAS Java allied Secure Agent Server
 Catalog catalog, descriptive list, on cards or in a book, of the contents of a library. Assurbanipal's library at Nineveh was cataloged on shelves of slate. The first known subject catalog was compiled by Callimachus at the Alexandrian Library in the 3d cent. B.C.  of Selected Documents in Psychology, 8, 35. (Ms. No. 1678).

Eagly, A. H., & Chaiken, S. (1993). The psychology of attitudes. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich.

Feinman, S. (1984). A status theory evaluation of sex-role and age-role behavior. Sex Roles, 10, 445-456.

Fisher, W. A. (1983). Gender, gender-role identification, and response to erotica. In E. R. Allgeier & N. B. McCormick (Eds.), Changing boundaries: Gender roles and sexual behavior sexual behavior A person's sexual practices–ie, whether he/she engages in heterosexual or homosexual activity. See Sex life, Sexual life.  (pp. 261-284). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.

Gaughan, E. J., & Gaynor, M. W. (1973). College student ratings of arousal arousal /arous·al/ (ah-rou´z'l)
1. a state of responsiveness to sensory stimulation or excitability.

2. the act or state of waking from or as if from sleep.

3.
 value of pornographic photographs. Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. Description and history
The association has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m.
, 8, 409-410.

Greendlinger, V. (1985). Authoritarianism as a predictor of response to heterosexual and homosexual erotica. High School Journal, 68, 183-186.

Hatfield, E., & Sprecher, S. (1986). Mirror, mirror ...: The importance of looks in everyday life. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Hatfield, E., Sprecher, S., & Traupmann, J. (1978). Men's and women's reactions to sexually explicit films: A serendipitous ser·en·dip·i·ty  
n. pl. ser·en·dip·i·ties
1. The faculty of making fortunate discoveries by accident.

2. The fact or occurrence of such discoveries.

3. An instance of making such a discovery.
 finding. Archives of Sexual Behavior Archives of Sexual Behavior is an academic sexology journal and the official publication of the International Academy of Sex Research.

Contributions consist of empirical research (both quantitative and qualitative), theoretical reviews and essays, clinical case
, 7, 583-592.

Herek, G. M. (1984). Beyond "homophobia homophobia Psychology An irrationally negative attitude toward those with homosexual orientation, or toward becoming homosexual. See Closet, Gay-bashing, Heterosexism. Cf Gay, Homosexual, Phobia. ": A social psychological perspective on attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Journal of Homosexuality The Journal of Homosexuality (ISSN 0091-8369) is a long-standing peer-reviewed academic journal (founding editor Charles Silverstein) published by The Haworth Press, Inc., in New York. , 10, 1-21.

Herek, G. M. (1986). On heterosexual masculinity: Some psychical psy·chic  
n.
1. A person apparently responsive to psychic forces.

2. See medium.

adj. also psy·chi·cal
1.
 consequences of the social construction of gender and sexuality. American Behavioral Scientist, 29, 563-577.

Herek, G. M. (1988). Heterosexuals' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men: Correlates and gender differences. The Journal of Sex Research, 25, 451-477.

Herek, G. M. (1991). Stigma, prejudice, and violence against lesbians and gay men. In J. C. Gonsiorek & J. D. Weinrich (Eds.), Homosexuality: Research implications for public policy (pp. 60-80). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Herek, G. M. (1992). Psychological heterosexism heterosexism Psychology The belief that heterosexual activities and institutions are better than those with a genderless or homosexual orientation. See Homophobia.  and anti-gay violence: The social psychology of bigotry Bigotry
See also Anti-Semitism.

Beaumanoir, Sir Lucas de

prejudiced ascetic; Grand Master of Templars. [Br. Lit.: Ivanhoe]

Bunker, Archie

middle-aged bigot in television series.
 and bashing bash  
v. bashed, bash·ing, bash·es

v.tr.
1. To strike with a heavy, crushing blow: The thug bashed the hood of the car with a sledgehammer.

2.
. In G. M. Herek & K. T. Berrill (Eds.), Hate crimes: Confronting violence against lesbians and gay men (pp. 149-169). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Herek, G. M. (1994). Assessing heterosexuals' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men: A review of research with the ATGL ATGL Adipose Triglyceride Lipase
ATGL Antitank Grenade Launcher
ATGL Air Transportable Galley/Lavatory
ATGL Antitank Gun Launcher
ATGL Afloat Training Group, US Atlantic Fleet
 scale. In B. Greene & G. M. Herek (Eds.), Lesbian and gay psychology: Theory, research, and clinical applications (pp. 206-228). Thousand Oaks Thousand Oaks, residential city (1990 pop. 104,352), Ventura co., S Calif., in a farm area; inc. 1964. Avocados, citrus, vegetables, strawberries, and nursery products are grown. , CA: Sage.

Herek, G. M., & Capitanio, J. P. (1996). "Some of my best friends Some of My Best Friends is a short-lived comedy shown on CBS from February 28 until April 11, 2001. The series starred Jason Bateman as Warren, a gay writer living in Greenwich Village, at 36 Christopher Street, and Danny Nucci as Frankie, his straight roommate. ": Intergroup in·ter·group  
adj.
Being or occurring between two or more social groups: intergroup relations; intergroup violence. 
 contact, concealable stigma, and heterosexuals' attitudes toward gay men and lesbians. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin is a scientific journal published by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology (SPSP). It publishes original empirical papers on subjects like social cognition, attitudes, group processes, social influence, intergroup relations, , 22, 412-424.

Herek, G. M., & Glunt, E. K. (1993). Interpersonal contact and heterosexuals' attitudes toward gay men: Results from a national survey. The Journal of Sex Research, 30, 239-244.

Hort, B. E., Fagot, B. I., & Leinbach, M. D. (1990). Are people's notions of maleness more stereotypically ster·e·o·type  
n.
1. A conventional, formulaic, and oversimplified conception, opinion, or image.

2. One that is regarded as embodying or conforming to a set image or type.

3.
 framed than their notions of femaleness? Sex Roles, 23, 197-212.

Kirk, R. E. (1982). Experimental design (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Kite, M. E. (1994). When perceptions meet reality: Individual differences in reactions to lesbians and gay men. In B. Greene & G. M. Herek (Eds.), Lesbian and gay psychology: Theory, research, and clinical applications (pp. 25-53). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Kite, M. E., & Deaux, K. (1987). Gender belief systems: Homosexuality and implicit inversion inversion /in·ver·sion/ (in-ver´zhun)
1. a turning inward, inside out, or other reversal of the normal relation of a part.

2. a term used by Freud for homosexuality.

3.
 theory. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 11, 83-96.

Kite, M. E., & Whitley, B. E., Jr. (1996). Sex differences in attitudes toward homosexual persons, behaviors and civil rights: A meta-analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 336-352.

Levitt, E. E., & Brady, J. P. (1965). Sexual preferences in young adult males and some correlates. Journal of Clinical Psychology The Journal of Clinical Psychology, founded in 1945, is a peer-reviewed forum devoted to psychological research, assessment, and practice. Published eight times a year, the Journal , 21, 347-354.

Nyberg, K. L., & Alston, J. P. (1977). Homosexual labeling by university youths. Adolescence, 12, 541-546.

Page, S., & Yee, M. (1985). Conception of male and female homosexual stereotypes among university undergraduates. Journal of Homosexuality, 12, 109-118.

Palys, T. S. (1986). Testing the common wisdom: The social content of video pornography. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 27, 22-35.

Reiss, I. L. (1986). Journey into sexuality: An exploratory voyage. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Prentice Hall is a leading educational publisher. It is an imprint of Pearson Education, Inc., based in Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA. Prentice Hall publishes print and digital content for the 6-12 and higher education market. History
In 1913, law professor Dr.
.

Spence, J. T., & Helmreich, R. L. (1972). The Attitudes Toward Women Scale: An objective instrument to measure attitudes toward the rights and roles of women in contemporary society. JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 2, 66. (Ms. No. 153).

Sprecher, S., & McKinney, K. (1993). Sexuality. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Stevenson, M. R. (1988). Promoting tolerance for homosexuality: An evaluation of intervention strategies. The Journal of Sex Research, 25, 500-511.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (1996). Using multivariate statistics Multivariate statistics or multivariate statistical analysis in statistics describes a collection of procedures which involve observation and analysis of more than one statistical variable at a time. Sometimes a distinction is made between univariate (e.g.  (3rd ed.). New York: Harper Collins.

Turnbull, D., & Brown, M. (1977). Attitudes towards homosexuality and male and female reactions to homosexual and heterosexual slides. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science behavioural science
Noun

the scientific study of the behaviour of organisms
, 9, 68-80.

Unger, R. K., Hilderbrand, M., & Madar, T. (1982). Physical attractiveness and assumptions about social deviance Conspicuous dissimilarity with, or variation from, customarily acceptable behavior.

Deviance implies a lack of compliance to societal norms, such as by engaging in activities that are frowned upon by society and frequently have legal sanctions as well, for example, the
: Some sex-by-sex comparisons. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 8, 293-301.

Whitley, B. E., Jr. (1987). The relationship of sex-role orientation to heterosexuals' attitudes toward homosexuals. Sex Roles, 17, 103-113.

Manuscript accepted September 4, 1996

We thank Christine A. Smith, Mary Kite, Michael Wiederman, and three anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on earlier versions of this article.

Address correspondence to Bernard E. Whitley, Jr., Ph.D., Department of Psychological Science, Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306. Telephone: 765-285-1696. Fax: 765-285-8980. Internet: 00BEWhitley@bsu.edu.
COPYRIGHT 1997 Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality, Inc.
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 1997, Gale Group. All rights reserved. Gale Group is a Thomson Corporation Company.

 Reader Opinion

Title:

Comment:



 

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Whitley, Bernard E., Jr.
Publication:The Journal of Sex Research
Date:Mar 22, 1997
Words:6731
Previous Article:Extramarital sex: prevalence and correlates in a national survey.
Next Article:The Princess at the Window: A New Gender Morality.
Topics:



Related Articles
The amazing invisible men of show business.
The sexual blur.
"Not with him you don't!": gender and emotional reactions to sexual infidelity during courtship.
Coming Out IN DANCE: Paths to Understanding.
Sex Differences in How Heterosexuals Think About Lesbians and Gay Men: Evidence From Survey Context Effects.
Attributions of Victim Responsibility, Pleasure, and Trauma in Male Rape.
Revisiting Cass' Theory of Sexual Identity Formation: A Study of Lesbian Development.
Biological sex, adherence to traditional gender roles, and attitudes toward persons with mental illness: an exploratory investigation.
Correlates of negative attitudes toward gay men: sexism, male role norms, and male sexuality.

Terms of use | Copyright © 2014 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters