Paul Hendrickson. Sons of Mississippi: a Story of Race and Its Legacy.Mississippi holds a peculiar place in the history of race relations race relations
the relations between members of two or more races within a single community
race relations npl → relaciones fpl raciales
in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. . Paul Hendrickson has given us a book, Sons of Mississippi: A Story of Race and Its Legacy, that explores some of this history in a remarkably personal way. Hendrickson uses the aging and sick James Meredith Noun 1. James Meredith - United States civil rights leader whose college registration caused riots in traditionally segregated Mississippi (born in 1933)
James Howard Meredith, Meredith , the first black to integrate the University of Mississippi The University of Mississippi, also known as Ole Miss, is a public, coeducational research university located in Oxford, Mississippi. Founded in 1848, the school is composed of the main campus in Oxford and three branch campuses located in Booneville, Tupelo, and Southaven. , to introduce the text. He shows photographs of white sheriffs to Meredith, who remarks, what ever happened to them? In this very powerful book the author attempts to show what happened to the descendants of these white supremacist white supremacist
One who believes that white people are racially superior to others and should therefore dominate society.
white supremacy n.
Noun 1. law officials. Subsequently, the book moves through the lives and times of some of the key segregationists of the Civil Rights Era as a means of telling a story of legal and cultural transformation.
The State of Mississippi was well known as one of the most segregated states of the South. It is the state where some of the most violent crimes against Africans took place during the Civil Rights Era. It was here that the young Emmett Till Emmett Louis "Bobo" Till (July 25 1941 – August 28 1955) was a fourteen year old African-American boy from Chicago, Illinois brutally murdered  in Money, Mississippi, a small town in the state's Delta region. met his death at the hands of a white mob in 1955. The mob believed that the fourteen-year-old black boy had insulted a twenty-one-year-old white store clerk named Carolyn Bryant by wolf-whistling at her. This was never proved, and though young Emmett Till from Chicago was murdered, his killers were never convicted. They lived to reap benefits from telling their stories about the murder to various magazines and news outlets. Yet Mississippi has emerged in the twenty-first century as a state with one of the highest numbers of African people The term African people can be used in two ways. First, it may refer to all people who live in Africa, see also demographics of Africa. Second, it is commonly used to describe people who trace their recent ancestry to indigenous inhabitants of Africa, in particular Sub-Saharan in positions of leadership. Thus, the history of the state is complex to say the least.
In Mississippi, the home of Fannie Lou Hamer Fannie Lou Hamer (born Fannie Lou Townsend on October 6, 1917 – March 14, 1977) was an American voting rights activist and civil rights leader.
She was instrumental in organizing Mississippi's "Freedom Summer" for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee , one of the champions of women, African American African American Multiculture A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. See Race. voting rights Voting rights
The right to vote on matters that are put to a vote of security holders. For example the right to vote for directors.
The type of voting and the amount of control held by the owners of a class of stock. , and justice, we see ideas, movements, and relationships that are indicative of the situation in American society generally. Mississippi is unique in the sense that it is the place where Till, Cheyney, Schwerner, and Goodman were murdered and where the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party The Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party was an American political party created in the state of Mississippi in 1964, during the civil rights movement. It was organized by black and white Mississippians, with assistance from the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, to win challenged the five "representatives" from Mississippi at the Atlantic City National Democratic Convention in August 1964. It is also the state where Medgar Evers was assassinated as·sas·si·nate
tr.v. as·sas·si·nat·ed, as·sas·si·nat·ing, as·sas·si·nates
1. To murder (a prominent person) by surprise attack, as for political reasons.
2. . Thus, Mississippi is shadowed in illusions, complicated schemes of racial privilege, and the concealment of history.
The publication of Sons of Mississippi marks a serious challenge to the concealment of the historical record. Hendrickson writes with in a deft, precise style about some of the most notorious sons of the state: Sheriff John Henry Spencer of Pittsboro, Sheriff James Ira Grimsley of Pascagoula, Sheriff Bob Waller of Hattiesburg, Sheriff Billy Ferrell of Natchez, Sheriff Jimmy Middleton of Port Gibson, Deputy Sheriff James Wesley Garrison of Oxford, and Sheriff John Ed Cothan of Greenwood.
The book is in three parts. The first part is called aptly "The Deeds of the Fathers." The second part is "Filling up the Frame," and it offers a serious examination of the legacies of James Meredith, perhaps the most famous African "son" of Mississippi. Hendrickson is particularly interested in the life and activities of Joseph Meredith, one of Meredith's sons, who is a highly intelligent and well-trained young man dealing with lupus lupus (l`pəs), noninfectious chronic disease in which antibodies in an individual's immune system attack the body's own substances. and the rigors of getting a doctorate from the University of Mississippi, the school his father integrated. Of course, Joseph Meredith bears much of the burden of his father's history while trying to make his own. In the third part of the book, "Hopes of the Sons" Hendrickson brings the book to an optimistic end. Indeed, the final chapter is "Hope and History Rhyming."
In some ways this is an odd book because it deals mainly with men when Mississippi has had a strong presence of women such as Ida B. Wells Ida B. Wells, also known as Ida B. Wells-Barnett (July 16, 1862 – March 25, 1931), was an African American civil rights advocate and an early women's rights advocate active in the Woman Suffrage Movement. and Fannie Lou Hamer for a long time. I thought that the organizing of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party should have been mentioned in connection with the history of the state through the eyes of black people. It seems common to consider the MFDP MFDP Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (Civil Rights movement)
MFDP Ministry of Finance and Development Planning (Botswana)
MFDP Minority Faculty Development Program
MFDP Mark Foehringer Dance Project as a group of uneducated farmers or unlettered peasants, yet it was this party and these people who put their lives on the line in one of the most courageous acts of African political expression. In some respects, the acts of the mothers, particularly Fannie Lou Hamer, may be said to rival those of the black fathers, and the daughters truly are a major part of the transformation of the state.
Nevertheless, I believe that Hendrickson has demonstrated, though this was not his objective, that the movement for justice in Mississippi was accomplished without looking to the office of the President, the Congress, or the local white officials in Mississippi. In fact, effective political power was achieved by fight, the will, and the struggle of African Americans who were brave enough to confront injustice and white domination supported by white officials. The victory for justice in Mississippi was a worldwide victory for oppressed op·press
tr.v. op·pressed, op·press·ing, op·press·es
1. To keep down by severe and unjust use of force or authority: a people who were oppressed by tyranny.
2. people, and it suggested that blacks in South Africa could also win their freedom and liberation. One can never underestimate the symbolic power of James Meredith's bravery in confronting the political authority of Mississippi. And Sons of Mississippi has placed the activities of the white sheriffs and the black people, as expressed by James Meredith and his family, right down front.
When you have a white elite, such as the sheriffs of Mississippi, whose main objective in politics is the perpetuation and maintenance of black subjugation Subjugation
king to whom God sold Israelites. [O.T.: Judges 3:8]
consigned to servitude in retribution for trickery. [O.T.: Joshua 9:22–27]
curses him and progeny to servitude. [O. , you can predict that there will eventually be an uprising. What you cannot predict, and must examine carefully, as Hendrickson has done, is what will become of their children and followers.
One might say, as the author indicates, that the attitude of the old white sheriffs toward the African American was one of warfare. The fact of the matter is that, regardless of the national pronouncements of justice, the aim of the oppressing power at the local level was to completely suppress any type of effective response from the black population. Furthermore, the sheriff's office, rather than supporting the black community, was meant to perpetuate racism through threats, violence, and intimidation. Of course, in the end, as Hendrickson knows, this could not work.
The tragedy of America is that few people know the history of this country well. In the 1960s, as blacks began a sustained political action against the white supremacists by articulating the right to vote, the white reaction was to create the White Citizens Council. These groups received money from the State of Mississippi through the Sovereignty Commission for the purpose of maintaining white supremacy. Tax money, collected from black citizens who would later be denied the use of tax money for reparations reparations, payments or other compensation offered as an indemnity for loss or damage. Although the term is used to cover payments made to Holocaust survivors and to Japanese Americans interned during World War II in so-called relocation camps (and used as well to for the work of their black ancestors, was used to support the White Citizens Councils.
A number of the white officials, given responsibility for protecting and serving all the people of the state, were members of the White Citizens Council. Their sins were visited upon other generations, and though there is now a rhyming toward hope, the legacy of the fathers will be visited upon the state for a long time to come. This is an important book, written by an outstanding author, who has taken the time to give us a painstakingly clear and full account of the Sons of Mississippi. I recommend that this book be read and studied by all who believe in a common humanity.