Pathophysiology and laboratory identification of pneumonia.
Each year, more than 4 million cases of pneumonia cost the U.S. somewhere between $20 billion and $30 billion. There are a number of ways to classify these pneumonias. Community-acquired pneumonia occurs when a person catches the disease outside the hospital and is admitted for treatment. Hospital-acquired pneumonia occurs when a person is admitted to the hospital for some other ailment, and then acquires pneumonia 48 hours or more after admission. The third classification, ventilator-associated pneumonia, is diagnosed in patients that that acquire pneumonia within 48 to 72 hours after being intubated and placed on a ventilator.
Pneumonia can be classified by the mechanisms through which patients acquire the disease. Did they inhale organisms that are known to cause pneumonia, or were they aspirated? Perhaps organisms were spread from the patient's own blood to their lungs or spread from adjacent organs such as the heart or abdomen. The final way, and the one most important to care providers and patients, is what organism is responsible for the pneumonia.
Normally, pulmonary defense mechanisms such as the immune response, cough reflex, sneezing and mucociliary clearance protect individuals from pneumonia. When one of these defenses is compromised, that is prime time for pneumonia to take hold.
Pneumonia is often bacterial in etiology with Streptococcus pneumoniae leading the way with up to 70 percent or more of the infections we see in the hospital. Haemophilus influenzae, a Gram negative coccobacilli, is the cause of approximately 10 percent, as well as other enteric Gram negative rods also being responsible for about 10 percent. Other contributors are viruses, Chlamydia sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Legionella Legionella /Le·gion·el·la/ (le?jah-nel´ah) a genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (family Legionellaceae), normal inhabitants of lakes, streams, and moist soil; they have often been isolated from cooling-tower water, sp., Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycoplasma sp. and Moraxella sp.
After the organisms enter the lung, they multiply and trigger pulmonary inflammation. Alveolar air spaces fill with an exudative exudative
of or pertaining to a process of exudation.
a disease of young pigs and chickens caused by a nutritional deficiency of vitamin E. Characterized by severe edema of the subcutaneous tissues. fluid, and inflammatory cells invade the alveolar septa septa /sep·ta/ (sep´tah) [L.] plural of septum.
Septum (plural, septa)
The dividing partition in the nose that separates the two nostrils. It is composed of bone and cartilage. . Bacterial pneumonia may be associated with significant V/Q mismatch and hypoxemia hypoxemia /hy·pox·emia/ (hi?pok-sem´e-ah) deficient oxygenation of the blood.
Insufficient oxygenation of arterial blood. because inflammatory exudates collect in the alveolar spaces. These alveolar exudates tend to consolidate and become difficult to expectorate ex·pec·to·rate
1. To eject saliva, mucus, or other body fluid from the mouth; spit.
2. To clear out the chest and lungs by coughing up and spitting out matter. . Viral pneumonia generally does not produce exudative fluids unless there is a superinfection superinfection /su·per·in·fec·tion/ (-in-fek´shun) a new infection occurring in a patient having a preexisting infection, such as bacterial superinfection in viral respiratory disease or infection of a chronic hepatitis B carrier with with a secondary bacterial pneumonia.
Typical clinical manifestations include cough, often with sputum production of varying colors (yellow, green, blood-tinged), fever, dyspnea, pleuritic pleu·rit·ic
Of or relating to pleurisy.
pertaining to or emanating from pleurisy. See also pleural.
pleuritic ridge chest pain and gastrointestinal symptoms with nausea, diarrhea and vomiting. Some patients present with fever only. Crackles and bronchial breath sounds may be heard over the affected lung tissue. Patients may also have chills and an abnormal chest x-ray.
Consolidation may be seen with Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella klebsiella
Any of the rod-shaped bacteria that make up the genus Klebsiella. They are gram-negative (see gram stain), thrive better without oxygen than with it, and do not move. K. pneumoniea, and Legionella species. Patchy infiltrates can be seen with Streptococcus pneumoniae. In addition to infiltrates, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli infections may also show pleural effusions. Anaerobic organisms that cause pneumonia will tend to show infiltrates In dependent lung fields. An interesting organism is Mycoplasma pneumoniae, also called atypical pneumonia, because the chest X-ray can have very diffuse infiltrates or appear normal.
Laboratory identification of pneumonia generally consists of four common procedures: the complete blood count, blood and sputum cultures, and the chest x-ray. A very quick and helpful test is the Gram stain, which is part of the sputum culture.
Characteristics that are important to note on the sputum Gram stain are very few squamous epithelial cells Squamous epithelial cells
Thin, flat cells found in layers or sheets covering surfaces such as skin and the linings of blood vessels and esophagus.
Mentioned in: Heartburn (less than 25 per low per field, or one to two per high oil field). This is a good indication that you actually have sputum and not a spit specimen. Neutrophils (more than 25 per low power field or three to five per high oil field) are a good indicator that you have a bacterial infection.
Macrophages (more than one in any field) are a good indicator of an immune response. But the most significant part of the Gram stain is the presence of a homogenous distribution of bacteria, not a collection for three to five different types of organisms. This usually indicates a contaminated specimen. A good amount is a strong indication that what you are seeing in the microscope is actually causing the pneumonia.
Small Gram positive cocci cocci /coc·ci/ (kok´si) plural of coccus.
[L.] plural of coccus. in pairs are typical of Streptococcus pneumonia, Gram positive cocci in long chains are characteristic of Streptococcus pyogenes. Large Gram positive cocci in clusters like grapes are characteristic of Staphylococcus aureus. Gram negative short coccobacilli are indicative of Haemophilus influenzae. All enteric bacteria such as Klebsiella sp., Proteus sp., E. coli, Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp., all tend to have very uniform Gram negative rod structures. Acinetobacter sp. is the one exception being anaerobic anaerobic /an·aer·o·bic/ (an?ah-ro´bik)
1. lacking molecular oxygen.
2. growing, living, or occurring in the absence of molecular oxygen; pertaining to an anaerobe. and having a very thread-like appearance on Gram stain.
Anearobic sp are also Gram positive or Gram negative, but only the culture will tell you whether they are aerobic or anaerobic. Yeast and fungus tend to be Gram positive in staining properties but vary morphologically depending on the species. On the Gram stain, they are big structures compared to the bacteria that may also be present on the slide.
The utility of the Gram stain is that the results can be available with 30 minutes of sputum collection. The physician can often make a presumptive diagnosis and start treatment at this point. Sputum cultures can give the definitive diagnosis but final results are available usually in three to five days (presumptive in one day) in the case of bacterial infections.
Different type of media are required to grow most bacteria since they can often be very fastidious in there grown pattern and nutritional requirements. The more fastidious organisms generally require longer incubation periods as well as more specialized media for growth. This will slow down the identification process.
In certain cases such as viral fungal infections, serologic tests may be indicated rather than culture. Viral and fungal cultures may take up to two weeks, and tuberculosis cultures up to six weeks.
The blood cell count blood cell count,
n an estimation of the number and types of circulating blood cells (e.g., red blood cells [erythrocytic series], white blood cells, differential). is useful in differentiating between bacterial and viral infections. Bacterial infections will show an elevated white blood cell count white blood cell count,
n a diagnostic clinical laboratory test to determine the number and types of leukocytes present in a measured sample of blood. Overall the normal number of leukocytes ranges from 5000 to 10,000/mm3. with an increase in the percentage of neutrophils on the differential. The white blood count in viral pneumonia may be normal or elevated with an increase in lymphocytes on the differential with neutrophils generally being within normal range.
For pneumonias other than bacterial, the serology section of the chart can be useful. For example, patients with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections, the presence of cold agglutinins is useful in diagnosis. A titer of 1 to 32 or greater can be seen in 50 percent to 90 percent of patients with confirmed Mycoplasma pneumoniae lower pulmonary tract infections.
Changes in antibody titer such as elevated IgG levels between acute and convalescent samples are useful to help incriminate To charge with a crime; to expose to an accusation or a charge of crime; to involve oneself or another in a criminal prosecution or the danger thereof; as in the rule that a witness is not bound to give testimony that would tend to incriminate him or her. a particular organism as the cause for the patient's pneumonia. These types of titers, however, can take weeks (two to eight weeks or more) to obtain results. Complement fixation, ELISA ELISA (e-li´sah) Enzyme-Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay; any enzyme immunoassay using an enzyme-labeled immunoreactant and an immunosorbent.
n. and immunofluorescent assays are commonly employed for this purpose. Legionella sp. and pneumococcal pneumococcal /pneu·mo·coc·cal/ (-kok´al) pertaining to or caused by pneumococci. sp. antigens can be found in the patient's urine and help identify these difficult organisms.
PCR PCR polymerase chain reaction.
polymerase chain reaction
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (polymerase chain reaction polymerase chain reaction (pŏl`ĭmərās') (PCR), laboratory process in which a particular DNA segment from a mixture of DNA chains is rapidly replicated, producing a large, readily analyzed sample of a piece of DNA; the process is ) is another tool used in the laboratory to amplify the amount of DNA DNA: see nucleic acid.
or deoxyribonucleic acid
One of two types of nucleic acid (the other is RNA); a complex organic compound found in all living cells and many viruses. It is the chemical substance of genes. from a small sample of microorganisms isolated from sputum culture or other body sources. Then, DNA sequencing can be done to give information about the genus and species of the organisms in question. EIA (Electronic Industries Alliance, Arlington, VA, www.eia.org) A membership organization founded in 1924 as the Radio Manufacturing Association. It sets standards for consumer products and electronic components. (enzyme immunoassay) is also useful in identifying enzyme patterns in microorganisms. The patient presenting with suspected pneumonia can be a challenge to the health care provider in terms of identifying a causative agent. Once identified, antibiotic sensitivity tests are performed to pinpoint the best antimicrobial agent to use in treating the pneumonia. Current medications include penicillin, macrolides, cephalosporins Cephalosporins Definition
Cephalosporins are medicines that kill bacteria or prevent their growth.
Cephalosporins are used to treat infections in different parts of the body—the ears, nose, throat, lungs, sinuses, and or quinolones.
In closing, it is important to mention one new pneumonia on the scene: severe acute respiratory syndrome Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Definition
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is the first emergent and highly transmissible viral disease to appear during the twenty-first century. . We know this one better by the name SARS, which first appeared in Asia in 2003. That year, the disease spread to more than two dozen countries in North America, South America, Europe and Asia before the global outbreak was contained. According to the World Health Organization, a total of 8,089 people became sick with SARS worldwide, and 774 died. Only eight confirmed SARS cases occurred in the U.S. during the epidemic.
SARS is caused by a coronavirus called SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). The primary mode of transmission appears to be through close person-to-person contact, most likely through respiratory droplets that are produced when a person coughs or sneezes. The virus also can spread through contact with contaminated objects or surfaces followed by touching the mouth, nose, or eyes.
Patients present with viral pneumonia symptoms. The common laboratory tests that appear to be abnormal in this disease are lymphopenia with a normal or low white blood cell count, elevated liver enzymes, elevated creatine kinase, elevated lactate dehydrogenase and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time Activated partial thromboplastin time
Partial thromboplastin time test that uses activators to shorten the clotting time, making it more useful for heparin monitoring. . Definitive diagnosis requires laboratory confirmation of the virus from respiratory specimens, blood and stool. Current treatment is supportive in nature.
Pneumonia is a disease that has been around for decades, but it still has the ability to present a challenge to the health care practitioner.
Don Steinert MA, RRT, MT, CLS
Don Steinert is an Associate Professor in the Department of Nursing and a faculty member in the RT Program at the Univ. of the District of Columbia District of Columbia, federal district (2000 pop. 572,059, a 5.7% decrease in population since the 1990 census), 69 sq mi (179 sq km), on the east bank of the Potomac River, coextensive with the city of Washington, D.C. (the capital of the United States). .