Parent support and African American adolescents' career self-efficacy.
The National Model for Comprehensive School Counseling Programs calls for career development services to become an integral piece of each school's educational mission (American School Counselor Association, 2002). The model identifies professional school counselors as leaders in the systematic guidance of students, providing students with the knowledge and skills required to establish personal goals and develop future plans. The model promotes the development of students' self-knowledge and interpersonal skills, career exploration and decision-making skills, and knowledge of the relationships between education and work. The model also invites the collaboration and involvement of parents in their children's and adolescents' career planning and educational development. Following the guidelines established by ASCA's National Standards for School Counseling Programs, the national model emphasizes equity and access in the work force preparation of adolescents from all racial and ethnic groups (Hatch & Bowers, 2002).
Research bas shown that African American adolescents are not being prepared to enter the workforce at the same rates as adolescents from other ethnic groups. While educational and career options were unavailable to African Americans in previous eras, today educational and career opportunities abound, yet many young African Americans are not in a position to take advantage of these opportunities (Walsh, Bingham, Brown, & Ward, 2001). Instead, African Americans continue to experience lower high school graduation rates than rates in the overall population (56% for African Americans compared to 71% overall; Kaufman, Kwon, & Klein, 2000), to be over-represented in service and labor-related jobs, and to be underrepresented in professional occupations (U.S. Department of Labor, 1997).
Various theories have been proposed to help us understand the reasons that many African Americans are still undereducated and underemployed. For example, the application of Expectancy Value Theory (Feather & Newton, 1982) proposes that because of the current social and economic conditions of many in the African American community, African American adolescents may tend to devalue school and occupational achievement (Graham & Taylor, 2002). Identit3T theory (Helms, 1990) postulates that African American adolescents' minority group identification may cause them to have lower educational and career expectations than adolescents in the majority community (Gainor & Lent, 1998). Additionally, researchers have found evidence that African American adolescents perceive both subtle and overt discrimination in their classrooms and social environments, causing them to lose confidence in their abilities and limit their consideration of specific career options (Brown, 1995;Gainor & Lent, 1998; Hackett & Byars, 1996; Ogbu, 1991).
Despite these obstacles, many young African American adolescents continue to aspire to the same educational and career opportunities as adolescents from other ethnic and racial groups (Bobo, Hildreth, & Durodoye, 1998.). Further, researchers have shown that supportive influences in the environments of adolescents from all ethnic groups, especially parents' support, have a mediating affect, serving as a buffer against the negative effects of social obstacles. Researchers have shown, for example, that parents play an essential part in the total educational and career development services offered by professional school counselors (Evans & Hines, 1997; Williamson, 1997). Other researchers have demonstrated that parents' support of African American adolescents' educational and career development is associated with increases in their academic performance (Linnehan, 2001), their mastery of such career development competencies as career decision-making skills (Otto, 2000), and their persistence in pursuing educational and career-related goals (Pearson & Bieschke, 2001). This increase in performance, competence, and persistence has been hypothesized to lead to a "trickle-up" effect whereby the educational and career development of these young people may supercede those of their parents and grandparents (Hackett & Byars, 1996; Pearson & Bieschke).
Although educational researchers and theorists agree on the positive effects of parental support in the educational and career development processes of African American adolescents, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of parental influence or how these mechanisms affect African American adolescents' pursuit of their educational and career-related goals. Bandura (1977) proposed a theory to help us understand how parents can successfully support their adolescents' educational and vocational development. According to Bandura, adolescents tend to pursue those activities for which they are most efficacious (i.e., self-confident). For example, adolescents who are efficacious about their abilities to successfully pursue their educational development and broaden their vocational options are more likely to engage in tasks related to those pursuits. Self-efficacy is a learned behavior that is predicted by adolescents' responses to four sources of experiential learning: (a) personal performance accomplishments, (b) vicarious learning (modeling by significant others), (c) the emotional support of others, and (d) others' verbal encouragement. The development of adolescents' self-efficacy leads to their choice of academic and career-related pursuits, their persistence toward successfully accomplishing these pursuits, and their successful performance of these pursuits (Bandura, 1999; Bandura, Barbaranelli, Vittorio Caprara, & Pastorelli, 2001). We argue that, for young adolescents, parents are the most salient providers of self-efficacy information (Turner & Lapan, 2002).
Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between African American parents' provision of self-efficacy information along each of the four dimensions hypothesized by Bandura, and their adolescents' self-efficacy to pursue their educational and career-related goals. We examined this efficacy in terms of the confidence adolescents have for those competencies that experts in the field of school counseling have identified as being the most salient for adolescents' further vocational development (Fouad, Smith, & Enochs, 1997; Gysbers, Lapan, Blair, Starr, & Wilmes, 1999; Lapan, 2001). In addition, because gender differences have been observed in young African Americans' educational and career-related achievements (with girls attaining greater educational achievement than boys; Osborne, 1997), we investigated the associations between these variables for boys and girls separately.
Specifically, we hypothesized that parents' provision of instrumental assistance (to engage in performance accomplishments), career-related modeling, emotional support, and verbal encouragement would significantly predict adolescents' efficacy and outcome expectations in these four areas: career planning and exploration, knowledge of self; school-to-career transitions, and career decision making for both African American boys and African American girls (Hypothesis 1). In addition, we hypothesized that there would be significant differences in the provision of each of these types of parent support as a function of gender (Hypothesis 2). Because parental support in each of these four areas has not been previously examined empirically among African American adolescents, we did not hypothesize specifically about the effects of the predictor variables, nor the direction of our predictions.
Participants were 81 African American girls (mean age = 13.16, SD = .93) and 81 African American boys (mean age = 13.19, SD = .91) in the eighth grade. They attended one public school in a large Metropolitan community with a population of greater than 2 million. School profiles indicated that approximately 50% of these students lived at or below the poverty level, and approximately 50% lived at middle-income level. School profiles also indicated that that less than 50% of the participants were predicted to graduate from high school on-time. All participants were recruited by their teachers from classes in which career development curriculum was being taught. Research materials were completed as part of the participants' regular classroom instruction. All participants who were recruited chose to participate.
Data collection was done during the school day in the first month of the Spring semester. Research materials, which consisted of a demographic form and two research questionnaires, were administered in alternating sequence by the authors and two undergraduate research assistants. Participants who lived with one or both parents were instructed to think of how their parents supported them as they considered their responses to the questionnaires. Participants who lived with extended family members or in foster care were instructed to think of how the adult person or persons they lived with supported them as they considered their responses. Participants completed all materials in approximately 45 minutes to one hour. Upon completion, participants were each provided with a summary report of their survey results. No further incentives were provided to the participants.
Instruments Measuring Parent Support
Instrumental Assistance (IA) is a 7-item subscale of the Career-Related Parent Support Scale (CRPS; Turner, Alliman-Brissett, Lapan, Udipi, & Ergun, 2003). The CRPS, which is a measure of parent support for each of Bandura's sources of self-efficacy information for adolescents' educational and vocational development, contains four subscales, each of which are used in this study. Each of the CRPS subscales is scored on a 5-point Likert scale (1 = Strongly Disagree 3 = Neither Agree or Disagree, 5 = Strongly Agree), with higher scores indicating more agreement. The LA subscale measures parents' support of their adolescents' performance accomplishments leading to their career-related skill development. Sample items are: My parents teach me things that I will someday be able to use at my job; My parents help me pick out classes that will help me in my career; and My parents help me do my homework. In the original sample, internal consistency estimates were [alpha] = .80. In the current sample internal consistency estimates were [alpha] = .71 for boys and [alpha] = .71 for girls.
Career-Related Modeling (CM) is a 7-item scale of the CRPS. This scale measures parents' provision of career-related modeling behavior. Sample items are: My parents have taken me to their work; My parents tell me about things that happen to them at work; and, My parents show me the kinds of things they do at work. In the original sample, internal consistency estimates were [alpha] = .80. In the current sample internal consistency estimates were [alpha] = .78 for boys and [alpha] = .80 for girls.
Emotional Support (ES) is a 7-item subscale of the CRPS. This scale measures parents' support of the affect experienced by adolescents in relationship to their educational and career development. Sample items are: My parents talk to me when I am worried about my future career; My parents talk to me about what fun my future job could be; and My parents know I am sometimes scared about my future career. In the original sample, internal consistency estimates were [alpha] = .85. In the current sample internal consistency estimates were [alpha] = .85 for boys and [alpha] = .83 for girls.
Verbal Encouragement (VE) is a 6-item subscale of the CRPS. The VE scale measures parents' praise and encouragement for adolescents' pursuit or their educational and career goals. Sample items are: My parents encourage me to learn as much as I can; My parents encourage me to make good grades; and, My parents told me they expect me to finish school. In the original sample, internal consistency estimates were [alpha] = .82. In the current sample internal consistency estimates were [alpha] = .77 for boys and [alpha] = .65 for girls.
Instruments Measuring Educational and Vocational Development
Career Planning and Exploration Self-Efficacy Scale (CPEE) is one of three subscales of the Missouri Comprehensive Guidance Survey (MCGS; Gysbers, Multon, Lapan, & Lukin, 1992). The MCGS was designed to measure adolescents' efficacy for three types of educational and vocational development competencies. It consists of three subscales, each of which was used in this study, that are measured on a 7-point Likert scale (1 = Low Efficacy, 7 = High Efficacy), with higher scores indicating greater efficacy. The MCGS subscales were originally normed in a sample of 3,447 middle school students (Lapan, Gysbers, Multon, & Pike, 1997). Internal consistency estimates for these subscales within the original norming sample ranged from .71 to .88.
The CPEE is a 10-item subscale designed to measure adolescents' confidence to engage in career planning and exploration. Sample items for this scale are: I am confident that I understand how to prepare for careers in which I am interested, and I am confident that I know how to explore careers in which I may be interested. Internal consistency estimates within the current sample were [alpha] = .79 for boys and [alpha] = .80 for girls.
Knowledge of Self and Others Scale (KSOS) is a 31-item subscale from the MCGS designed to measure middle school adolescents' efficacy to know themselves and others in educational and career situations. Sample items for this scale are: "I am confident that I know how to handle my problems and where to get help; and, I am confident that I know how to make good decisions." Internal consistency estimates within this current sample were [alpha] = .96 for boys and [alpha] = .96 for girls.
Educational and Vocational Development Self-Efficacy (EVDS) is a 21-item subscale of the MCGS designed to measure middle-school adolescents' School-to-Career Transitions Efficacy (SCTE). The SCTE construct represents adolescents' confidence to understand the relationships between education and work, and to transition from school to a variety of post-secondary options, including college. Sample items for this scale are: "I am confident that I know what jobs are available locally; and, I am confident that I know how academic skills such as math, reading, and science relate to my future career goals." Internal consistency estimates within this current sample were [alpha] = .92 for boys and [alpha] = .95 for girls.
Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale (CDMSE) is one of two Middle School Self-Efficacy Scales (MSSE; Fouad et al., 1997) used in this study. The MSSE is used to assess middle-school adolescents' career decision-making self-efficacy and outcome expectations. The MSSE subscales are measured on a 5-point Likert scale (1 = Strongly Disagree, 3 = Uncertain, 5 = Strongly Agree), with higher scores indicating greater confidence or more positive outcome expectations.
The CDMSE is a 12-item subscale that measures career decision-making efficacy. Sample items for this scale are: "I am confident that I can describe the jobs skills of a career I might like to enter; and, I am confident that I can describe what I value most in an occupation." In the original norm sample of the MSSE (Fouad et al., 1997), internal consistency estimates were [alpha] = .79. Internal consistency estimates within the current sample were [alpha] = .90 for boys and [alpha] = .64 for girls.
Career Decision-Making Outcome Expectations (CDMOE) is a 10 item subscale of the MSSE (Fouad et al., 1997) used to measure middle school adolescents' positive outcome expectancies when engaging in career decision making. Sample items are: "I am confident that if I know my interests and abilities I will be able to choose a good career for me; and, I am confident that I will be able to make a better career decision." In the original sample, internal consistency estimates were [alpha] = .74. Internal consistency estimates within the current sample were [alpha] = .90 for boys and [alpha] = .89 for girls.
Hypothesis 1 stated that parents' provision of instrumental assistance, career-related modeling, emotional support, and verbal encouragement would significantly predict adolescents' efficacy and outcome expectations in these four areas: career planning and exploration, knowledge of self and others, school-to-career transitions, and career decision making for both African American boys and African American girls. To test this hypothesis, we conducted Stepwise Regression Analyses with the four parent support variables as independent variables and each of the self-efficacy and outcome expectations scales as the dependent variables.
As reported in Table 3 (p. 129), for girls, parents' Emotional Support predicted their Knowledge of Self and Others Efficacy (F = 7.32, p < .021), and their Career Decision-Making Outcome Expectations (F = 7.22, p < .021). Both parents' Emotional Support and parents' Career-Related Modeling predicted girls' School-to-Career Transitions Efficacy (F = 6.43, p < .017), with parents' Emotional Support entering the equation first.
For boys, parents' Career Related Modeling predicted their Career Planning and Exploration Efficacy (F = 5.35, p < .037), their Career Decision Making Efficacy (F = 23.78, p < .001), their Career Decision-Making Outcome Expectations (F = 18.00, p < .001), and their School-to-Career Transitions Efficacy (F = 6.22, p < .022). Parents' Career-Related Modeling, their Instrumental Assistance, and their Emotional Support also predicted boys' Knowledge of Self and Others Self-Efficacy (F = 19.95, p < .001), with Career-Related Modeling entering the equation first. Means and Standard Deviations for all variables for both boys and girls are shown in Table 1. Correlation matrices corresponding to the regression equations are shown in Table 2.
Hypothesis 2 stated that there would be significant differences in the provision of each of these types of parent support as a function of gender. Results of a One-Way ANOVA, with gender as the independent variable and the scores for each of the parent support measures as the dependent variables indicated that there were no significant differences in boys' and girls' perceptions of parent support for any of the four learning sources of self-efficacy information (see Table 1).
The purpose of this research was to examine the relationships between parents' support for African American adolescents' educational and vocational development and their educational and vocational development self-efficacy and outcome expectations. Using Bandura's theory as a rubric for examining different types of parental support, we found that African American boys and girls did not perceive different amounts of parent support across the four learning sources. However, African American boys and girls did respond differently to the types of parent support we studied, with girls being more responsive to their parents' emotional support, and boys being more responsive to their parents' career-related modeling.
For African American girls, 40% of the variance in their confidence to know themselves and others in the context of their educational and career endeavors, and 38% of the variance in their career decision-making outcome expectations were predicted by their parents' emotional support. This suggests that when girls receive their parents' emotional support, they perceive that they will be able to make effective career choices, and that their career decisions will yield positive consequences. Fifty-six percent of the variance in African American girls' confidence to transition from school to work, or to further post-high school training, was predicted by their parents' emotional support (accounting for 33% of the variance) as well as their parents' career-related modeling (accounting for 24% of the variance). This suggests that in addition to receiving emotional support from their parents, African American girls' confidence to transition from school to work will increase as they observe their parents engaged in their own occupations, or as their parents show them how they pursue their own educational and career development. For each of these competencies, parents' emotional support was either the only or the primary predictor of African American girls' efficacy and outcome expectations. Parental support did not predict girls' career planning and exploration efficacy or their career decision-making efficacy, suggesting that for girls' to obtain greater confidence in these areas, they may need greater skills training by school counselors.
For African American boys, 25% of the variance in their confidence to engage in career planning and exploration, 29% of the variance in their confidence to transition from school to career, 56% of the variance in their confidence to engage in career decision-making, and 49% of the variance in their positive career decision-making expectations were predicted by their parents' career-related modeling. For boys, 82% of the variance in their confidence to know themselves and others was predicted by their parents' career-related modeling (accounting for 57% of the variance), their parents' instrumental assistance as they practice career-related skills (accounting for 11% of the variance), and their parents' emotional support as they learn about themselves (accounting for 14% of variance). For each of these competencies, parents' career-related modeling was either the only or the primary predictor of African American boys' efficacy and outcome expectations. Taken together, our findings suggest that African American girls are more responsive to their parents' emotional support, boys are more responsive to their parents' career related modeling; and, whereas girls may need more support to make school-to-career transitions, boys may need more support to understand themselves and others in school and career-related situations.
Our findings clearly support relationships between three of the four learning sources hypothesized by Bandura and African American adolescents' educational and vocational development efficacy. Only African American parents' verbal praise and encouragement did not predict either their boys' or girls' self-efficacy and outcome expectations in these domains. Our findings also extend Bandura's theory by demonstrating differences in the relative importance of these antecedents to African American boys' and girls' educational and career development efficacy, and by revealing the significance of parents as providers of this self-efficacy information. In addition, our results confirm previous research (Parham & Austin, 1994; Post, Stewart, & Smith, 1991), which suggests that the effect of having significant adult role models in African American boys' lives increases their competency skills in educational and career development tasks. For African American girls, our results confirm research that demonstrates an association between parental support and their sense of self-efficacy to strive for advanced professional careers (Gainor & Lent, 1998). In summary, our research findings highlight the importance of specific types of parent support as corresponding variables to the educational and vocational development self-efficacy of African American adolescent boys and girls.
LIMITATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
A limitation of this study is that reliability estimates of less than .70 were found for girls on the CDMSE scale. Therefore, the generalizability of results based on African American girls' CDMSE scores should be interpreted with caution. The results of this study are also limited by the self-report nature of the instruments. We suggest that future research also examine associations between parents' support of their African American middle-school adolescents' educational and vocational development and non-self-report measures such as grade point average, retention, progression through school, and further participation in high school career development activities.
IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE
National statistics show that many African American adolescents face immense challenges in their educational and vocational development. This research underscores the importance of engaging African American parents as allies, particularly for this group of adolescents. As shown in the results of this study, as the instrumental assistance, emotional support, and career related modeling of African American parents increase, so does their adolescents' educational and career-related efficacy.
Therefore, we suggest that professional school counselors provide collaborative support and training in these areas to parents of African American children. We maintain that professional school counselors, because of their education, skills, and position within the school community, are in a unique position to assess the needs of adolescents, and the skills and stressors of their parents.
Thus, we suggest that school counselors support African American parents as they provide instrumental assistance to their adolescents by helping their adolescents learn skills that could be used in future jobs, helping their adolescents connect what they are learning currently to possible future occupations, or helping their adolescents choose classes in which future job skills are taught. School counselors can assist parents in learning how to provide emotional support by helping them understand the emotions that adolescents experience when faced with difficult educational and vocational challenges, by helping parents talk to their adolescents about what fun their future job could be, or by encouraging parents to share about their own excitement when considering their adolescents' future educational and career opportunities. School counselors can assist parents in providing career-related modeling for their adolescents by showing them how to talk to their adolescents about their own occupations as well as about other occupations that are available in the world of work.
Within parent consultation sessions, school counselors can provide this support and assistance by using role playing, video tapes, and coaching. School counselors can role play the part of the parent to demonstrate effective ways to talk with adolescents about their occupations. School counselors can show video tapes in which other parents are demonstrating effective career-related communication skills with their adolescents. School counselors can meet jointly with both adolescents and parents in order to provide parental coaching in interpersonal skills. Through school counselors providing these types of professional assistance, the career-support skills of African American parents can be increased, and their adolescents' commitment to their own continued educational and career development may be strengthened.
As we said at the beginning of this article, recent research shows that there are more career opportunities for African American adolescents than in previous years (Walsh et al., 2001). However, some African American adolescents are not in a strong position to take advantage of these opportunities. In this research, we have found that very specific methods of career development matter for African American adolescents. We encourage school counselors to help parents utilize these methods to increase the abilities of African American adolescents to take advantage of these emerging opportunities.
Table 1. Descriptive Statistics for Parent Support and Educational and Vocational Development Efficacy Variables Parent Support Variables Mean SD IA Girls 4.24 .81 Boys 3.99 .98 CM Girls 4.18 .71 Boys 4.01 .95 ES Girls 3.90 .90 Boys 3.93 .91 VE Girls 4.47 .52 Boys 4.30 .83 Ed. & Voc. Dev. Efficacy Variables Mean SD CPEE Girls 5.78 .75 Boys 5.52 .99 KSOS Girls 6.14 .69 Boys 5.55 .99 SCTE Girls 5.92 .85 Boys 5.45 .81 CDMSE Girls 4.22 .32 Boys 4.01 .73 CDMSO Girls 4.02 .57 Boys 4.02 .76 Note. n = 81 boys, n = 81 girls; IA = Instrumental Assistance; CM = Career-Related Modeling; ES = Emotional Support; VE = Verbal Encouragement; CPEE = Career Planning and Exploration Efficacy; KSOS = Knowledge of Self and Others Efficacy; SCTE = School-to-Career Transitions Efficacy; CDMSE = Career Decision Making Efficacy; CDMOE = Career Decision Making Outcome Expectations Table 2: Correlations among the Parent Support Variables, and the Educational and Vocational Development Variables for African American Boys and Girls African American Girls IA CM EA VE CPEE KSOS SCTE IA 1.000 .772 .380 .489 -.053 .162 .053 CM 1.000 .308 .577 -.107 -.034 -.288 EA 1.000 .383 .372 .632 .570 VE 1.000 -.260 .295 .248 CPEE 1.000 .645 .686 KSOS 1.000 .918 SCTE 1.000 CDMSE CDMOE African American Boys IA 1.000 .887 .460 .528 .318 .519 .335 CM 1.000 .650 .668 .497 .756 .539 EA 1.000 .702 .240 .305 .203 VE 1.000 .344 .529 406 CPEE 1.000 .743 .615 KSOS 1.000 .635 SCTE 1.000 CDMSE CDMOE African American Girls CDMSE CDMOE IA -.431 .033 CM -.373 -.069 EA .261 .613 VE .284 .386 CPEE .387 -.071 KSOS .219 .552 SCTE .145 .582 CDMSE 1.000 .484 CDMOE 1.000 African American Boys IA .714 .661 CM .746 .698 EA .415 .314 VE .660 .602 CPEE .631 .642 KSOS .712 .633 SCTE .593 .590 CDMSE 1.000 .851 CDMOE 1.000 Note. n = 81 boys, n = 81 girls; IA = Instrumental Assistance; CM Career-Related Modeling; ES = Emotional Support; VE = Verbal Encouragement; CPEE = Career Planning and Exploration Efficacy; KSOS = Knowledge of Self and Others Efficacy; SCTE = School-to-Career Transitions Efficacy; CDMSE = Career Decision Making Efficacy; CDMSE = Career Decision Making Outcome Expectations. Table 3: Results of Stepwise Regression Analyses Showing the Amount of Unique Variance in the Efficacy and Outcome Expectations for Career Development Competencies Girls [DELTA] R [R.sup.2] [R.sup.2] Career Planning & Exploration Eff. No Predictors Knowledge of Self & Others Eff. .63 .40 Emotional Support .40 School to Career Transitions Eff. .75 .57 Emotional Support .33 Career-Related Modeling .24 Career Decision-Making Eff. No Predictors Career Decision-Making Out. Exp. .61 .38 Emotional Support .38 Boys Career Planning & Exploration Eff. .50 .25 Career-Related Modeling .25 Knowledge of Self & Others Eff. .90 .82 Career-Related Modeling .57 Instrumental Assistance .10 Emotional Support .14 School to Career Transitions Eff. .54 .29 Career-Related Modeling .29 Career Decision-Making Eff. .75 .56 Career-Related Modeling .56 Career Decision-Making Out. Exp. .70 .49 Career-Related Modeling .49 Girls F [beta] t Career Planning & Exploration Eff. No Predictors Knowledge of Self & Others Eff. 7.32 Emotional Support .63 2.71 * School to Career Transitions Eff. 6.42 Emotional Support .73 3.31 ** Career-Related Modeling -.51 -2.33 * Career Decision-Making Eff. No Predictors Career Decision-Making Out. Exp. 7.22 Emotional Support .39 2.69 * Boys Career Planning & Exploration Eff. 5.25 Career-Related Modeling .47 2.29 * Knowledge of Self & Others Eff. 19.95 Career-Related Modeling 2.17 6.20 *** Instrumental Assistance -1.06 3.64 ** Emotional Support -.60 -3.15 ** School to Career Transitions Eff. 6.55 Career-Related Modeling .46 2.56 * Career Decision-Making Eff. 23.78 Career-Related Modeling .58 4.88 *** Career Decision-Making Out. Exp. 18.00 Career-Related Modeling .56 4.24 *** Note. n = 81 boys, n = 81 girls; [DELTA][R.sup.2] = [R.sup.2] Change; Eff. = Efficacy; Out. Exp. = Outcome Expectations; * p < .05, ** p < .01, *** p <.001.
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Annette E. Alliman-Brissett is a doctoral candidate.
Sherri L. Turner, Ph.D., is an assistant professor. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Thomas M. Skovholt, Ph.D., is a professor. All are with the Department of Educational Psychology, Counseling and Student Personnel Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.
This research was funded by a grant from the Vice President for Research at the University of Minnesota.
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|Author:||Skovholt, Thomas M.|
|Publication:||Professional School Counseling|
|Date:||Feb 1, 2004|
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