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Parent and Family Involvement in Education: 2002-03.

This report presents data on parents' and families' involvement in their children's education in the United States. The data are from the Parent and Family Involvement in Education Survey of the 2003 National Household Education Surveys Program (PFI-NHES:2003). The survey was completed by parents of over 12,000 children in kindergarten through grade 12. Data highlights are shown below, along with examples of questions for each topic area of the questionnaire.

The NHES:2003 sample was selected using random digit dial (RDD) methods, and the data were collected using computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) technology. The sample for the 2003 survey is nationally representative of all children in kindergarten through grade 12 enrolled in regular school or homeschooled in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. A screener was used to collect information on household composition and interview eligibility. Screener interviews had a weighted screener unit response rate of 65 percent. In households with one eligible child, the child was selected for PFI with certainty. In households with two eligible children, both were selected for PFI with certainty. If there were more than two eligible children or youth, then two were sampled with equal probability. The parent interview had a weighted unit response rate of 83 percent using base weights. The overall unit response rate for the Parent and Family Involvement in Education Survey in 2003 was 54 percent. A unit nonresponse bias analysis was undertaken for NHES:2003 (see Montaquila, Brick, and Brock forthcoming). The analysis of unit nonresponse bias showed no evidence of bias in estimates computed with nonresponse adjusted weights from PFI-NHES:2003.

The results presented below were chosen to highlight some of the findings in the tables. To test the differences between estimates, Student's t statistics were calculated. All differences reported were significant at the .05 level. (More information about the statistical test used is in the Technical Notes section of the full report, along with a discussion of sampling methodology.)

Many of the tables include estimates for students in kindergarten through grade 12. However, some tables are divided into estimates for students in kindergarten through grade 5 or in grades 6 through 12. This is because for some topic areas (e.g., home activities), different questions were asked of parents of younger children than of parents of older children. Similarly, while a common set of selected school, household, and student characteristics is repeated across most tables, there are occasional variations in either the characteristics, the population, or both that are designed to fit particular data items. Students who were homeschooled were excluded from all of the tables.

School Practices Encouraging Parents' Involvement

Parents were asked about school communication with families, such as sending the family personal notes or e-mails specifically about their child; sending newsletters, memos, or notices; and calling the family on the telephone. Parents were also asked about school practices to provide information to parents, such as information about their child's performance and their opportunities to volunteer at the school.

* As the student's grade level increased, relatively fewer parents reported that schools sent home notes or e-mails. Relatively more parents of fourth- and fifth-graders reported that schools sent home notes or e-mails specifically about their children (55 percent) than parents of students in sixth to eighth grade (49 percent). Similarly, more parents of students in 6th to 8th grade reported that schools sent home notes or e-mails specifically about their children (49 percent) than parents of students in 9th and 10th grade (42 percent).

Parents' Involvement in Their Children's School

Parents were asked if they had attended a general school meeting, a regularly scheduled parent-teacher conference, or a school or class event. They were also asked if they had acted as a volunteer or served on a school committee and if they had participated in fundraising for the school.

* The percentage of students in kindergarten through grade 12 whose parents reported (in a single-item question) that they had acted as a volunteer at their children's schools or served on a school committee was higher for students in private schools that were either church related or not church related (70 and 63 percent) than for students in public schools that were either assigned or selected by parents* (38 and 40 percent) (table A).

* The percentage of students whose parents had attended a general school meeting was higher in households where parents had completed higher levels of education. Specifically, the percentage of students whose parents reported that they had attended a general school meeting was higher for children whose parents had attended graduate or professional school (93 percent) or completed college (93 percent) than for children whose parents had completed only a high school education or the equivalent (84 percent), and children whose parents had completed less than a high school education (70 percent) (table A).

Parents' Involvement in Their Children's Homework

Parents were asked about the frequency with which the student did homework at home and the number of hours the student spent doing homework. They were also asked if there is a place in their home set aside for the student to do homework, if an adult in the household checks that homework is done, and the number of days per week that persons inside or outside the household help with homework.

* In kindergarten through grade 12, 95 percent of children had parents who reported they assisted with homework. In addition, 85 percent of children in kindergarten through grade 12 had parents who reported that an adult in the household checked that homework was done.

* Overall, 90 percent of students in kindergarten through grade 12 had a place in their homes set aside for doing homework. Relatively fewer children of parents with less than a high school diploma had a place in their homes set aside for homework (80 percent), compared to children whose parents had completed a high school education or more--90 percent for high school education or the equivalent, 91 percent for vocational/technical education after high school or some college, 89 percent for completed college, and 92 percent for attended graduate or professional school.

Parents' Involvement With Their Children in Nonschool Activities

Parents of students in kindergarten through grade 3 were asked how often someone in the family had read to the student in the past week. Parents of students in kindergarten through grade 12 were asked about home activities with the student in the past week and outings with the student in the past month.

* In kindergarten through grade 5, the percentage of students whose parents reported they had played sports, active games, or exercised with them increased as parents' education level increased. Specifically, the percentage of students in kindergarten through grade 5 whose parents reported that they had played sports, active games, or exercised with their children was lower for children whose parents had completed less than a high school education (68 percent) than for children whose parents' highest educational attainment was a high school education or the equivalent (77 percent), children whose parents had completed vocational or technical education after high school or some college (80 percent), children whose parents had completed college (84 percent), and children whose parents had attended graduate or professional school (87 percent).

* The percentage of students in kindergarten through grade 12 whose parents reported taking them to a public library in the past month was higher for Asian students (65 percent) than for White, non-Hispanic (41 percent), Black, non-Hispanic (49 percent), or Hispanic students (44 percent).

Student Experiences With Their Schools

Parents were asked about the extent to which they agreed or disagreed with statements about whether the student finds his or her schoolwork challenging, whether the student enjoys school, whether most students and teachers in the student's school respect each other, and whether the school makes it easy for the family to be involved.

* The percentage of students in kindergarten through grade 12 whose parents reported that they "strongly agreed" that the student's school makes it easy for the family to be involved was higher for students in households above the poverty level (45 percent) than for students in households at or below the poverty level (35 percent).

Parents' Expectations and Planned Financial Support for Their Children's Postsecondary Education

Parents were asked about the highest education level they expected their children to attain. Those who expected their children to continue education after high school were also asked questions about their plans to help pay for their children's education after high school.

* The percentage of students in kindergarten through grade 12 whose parents expected their children to earn a graduate or professional degree was higher among students in private schools that were not church related (48 percent) than in other types of private and public schools (28 to 41 percent) (table B).

* Among students in kindergarten through grade 12 whose parents expected them to continue their education after high school, the percentage whose parents planned to help pay for their children's postsecondary education was higher in households where parents had completed higher levels of education. Specifically, the percentage of students whose parents reported that they planned to help their children pay for education after high school was higher for children whose parents had attended graduate or professional school (93 percent) or completed college (91 percent) than for children whose parents' highest educational attainment was vocational or technical education after high school or some college (81 percent), children whose parents had completed only a high school education or the equivalent (75 percent), and children whose parents had completed less than a high school education (59 percent) (table B).

Student Activities in and out of School

Parents were asked whether the student participated in school activities. They were also asked about student participation in a variety of out-of-school activities, such as music lessons, sports, and educational programs.

* In kindergarten through grade 12, the percentage of students who reportedly participated in school activities increased as parents' education level increased. Specifically, the percentage of students in kindergarten through grade 12 whose parents reported that their children participated in school activities was higher for students whose parents had attended or completed graduate or professional school (70 percent) than for students whose parents' highest level of education completed was a vocational or technical education after high school or some college (58 percent), only a high school education or the equivalent (49 percent), and less than a high school education (35 percent).

Parents' Satisfaction With School

Parents were asked how well the school did at providing information in various areas related to the child and the school (e.g., their child's performance, opportunities to volunteer at the school). Parents were also asked about their satisfaction with the school, their children's teachers in 2002-03, the academic standards of the school, and order and discipline at the school. In addition, parents were asked about the amount of homework assigned and the amount of standardized testing at the school.

* The percentage of students in kindergarten through grade 12 whose parents reported their children's school did "very well" at providing information about the student's performance was lower among students in public, assigned schools (58 percent) than in public schools selected by parents and private schools (64 to 76 percent).

* The percentage of students in kindergarten through grade 12 whose parents reported being "very satisfied" with their school was higher for students whose parents had graduated from college (64 percent) or attended graduate or professional school (64 percent) than for students whose parents' highest education was a high school education or the equivalent (59 percent) or less than a high school education (56 percent).

School Choice

Parents of public school students were asked if their children were in a regularly assigned school or a school that they chose. They were also asked whether the family had moved to the neighborhood so that the student would be eligible for the school.

* The percentage of public school students in kindergarten through grade 12 whose parents reported that their children attended a public school of choice was higher for Black, non-Hispanic students (25 percent) and Asian or Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic students (22 percent) than for White, non-Hispanic students (13 percent) (table C). The percentage of public school students in kindergarten through grade 12 whose parents reported their children attended a public school of choice was also higher for Black, non-Hispanic students (25 percent) than for Hispanic students (14 percent).

* The percentage of public school students in kindergarten through grade 12 whose parents reported they moved to the neighborhood so that their child would be eligible for the school was higher for students whose parents had graduated from college (29 percent) or attended graduate or professional school (35 percent) than for children whose parents had completed vocational or technical education after high school or some college (24 percent), children whose parents' highest education was a high school education or the equivalent (24 percent), or children whose parents had less than a high school education (22 percent) (table C).

Services Provided for Students With Disabilities

Parents of students with disabilities were asked about the sources of services received for their children's special health needs (e.g., the local school district, a doctor, a clinic, or other health care provider), Individualized Education Program (IEP) services, and their children's participation in special education.

* The percentage of students with disabilities in kindergarten through grade 12 whose parents reported that their children received services through an IEP and that the family worked with the school to develop or change the student's IEP was lowest for students whose parents did not have a high school diploma (71 percent) and highest for students whose parents had attended graduate or professional school (96 percent).

* The percentage of students with disabilities in kindergarten through grade 12 whose parents reported that their children received services through an IEP and that the family worked with the school to develop or change the student's IEP was higher for White, non-Hispanic students (92 percent) than for Black, non-Hispanic students (81 percent), and higher for both White, non-Hispanic (92 percent) and Asian or Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic students (93 percent) than for Hispanic students (75 percent).

Reference

Montaquila, J.M., Brick, J.M., and Brock, S.P. (forthcoming). Potential Nonresponse Bias in Estimates From the National Household Education Surveys Program of 2003. U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

Footnotes

* The analysis in this report divides private school students into those attending private, church-related and private, not church-related schools. Public school students are divided into those attending public assigned and public chosen schools.

Data source: The Parent and Family Involvement in Education Survey of the 2003 National Household Education Surveys Program (PFI-NHES:2003).

For technical information, see the complete report:

Vaden-Kiernan, N., and McManus, J. (2005). Parent and Family Involvement in Education: 2002-03 (NCES 2005-043).

Author affiliations: N. Vaden-Kiernan and J. McManus, Westat.

For questions about content, contact Chris Chapman (chris.chapman@ed.gov).

To obtain the complete report (NCES 2005-043), call the toll-free ED Pubs number (877-433-7827) or visit the NCES Electronic Catalog (http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch).
Table A. Percentage of students in grades K through 12 whose parents
reported participation in school-related activities, by activity type
and selected characteristics: 2002-03

Characteristic Participation in school
 activities by parent or
 other household member

 Attended
 Number of regularly
 students in Attended scheduled
 grades K a general parent-
 through 12 school teacher
 (thousands) meeting conference

Total 51,388 88 77

 School type

Public, assigned 37,875 87 75
Public, chosen 7,915 85 80
Private, church 4,317 96 87
 related
Private, not 1,280 95 84
 church-related

 School schedule

Traditional 47,768 88 77
Year-round 3,620 84 82

 Household poverty status

Above poverty 41,418 90 78
 level
At or below 9,970 79 75
 poverty level

 Parents' highest education level

Less than high school 3,638 70 68
High school graduate 12,891 84 75
 or equivalent
Vocational/technical 16,186 89 78
 education after
 high school or
 some college 9,877 93 80
College graduate 8,797 93 79
Graduate or
 professional school

 Parents' language

Both/only parent(s) 45,505 89 77
 speak(s) English
One of two parents 1,090 83 79
 speaks English
No parent speaks 4,793 79 78
 English

 Student's grade level (1)

K-1st grade 7,823 93 92
2nd-3rd grade 7,696 94 91
4th-5th grade 8,368 94 91
6th-8th grade 12,170 88 75
9th-10th grade 7,783 83 59
11th-12th grade 7,543 74 53

 Student's race/ethnicity

White, non-Hispanic 31,931 89 76
Black, non-Hispanic 8,165 89 79
Hispanic 8,250 83 78
Asian or Pacific 1,453 89 78
 Islander,
 non-Hispanic
Other, non-Hispanic 1,588 87 78

 Student's sex

Male 26,328 87 78
Female 25,060 88 76

 Student experiences in school

Student participated 29,616 91 78
 in school
 activities
Teacher or school 9,856 86 83
 contacted parent
 about behavior
 problems
Teacher or school 13,307 88 83
 contacted parent
 about schoolwork
 problems

 Student grades or marks (2)

Mostly A's or 20,868 91 77
 excellent
Mostly B's or 18,673 87 76
 above average
Mostly C's or 9,785 82 78
 average
Mostly D's or 2,062 81 81
 lower, or below
 average or
 failing

Characteristic Participation in school activities by parent or
 other household member

 Attended Acted as Participated
 a school volunteer in school
 or class or served fundraising
 event on school
 committee

Total 70 42 62

 School type

Public, assigned 68 38 60
Public, chosen 66 40 61
Private, church 88 70 84
 related
Private, not 80 63 63
 church-related

 School schedule

Traditional 71 42 63
Year-round 60 35 49

 Household poverty status

Above poverty 73 45 66
 level
At or below 57 27 46
 poverty level

 Parents' highest education level

Less than high school 42 16 33
High school graduate 62 30 56
 or equivalent
Vocational/technical 70 39 63
 education after
 high school or
 some college 80 55 70
College graduate 80 60 71
Graduate or
 professional school

 Parents' language

Both/only parent(s) 72 44 65
 speak(s) English
One of two parents 62 31 44
 speaks English
No parent speaks 52 21 34
 English

 Student's grade level (1)

K-1st grade 71 54 70
2nd-3rd grade 77 53 70
4th-5th grade 78 50 70
6th-8th grade 70 35 61
9th-10th grade 63 30 50
11th-12th grade 59 31 50

 Student's race/ethnicity

White, non-Hispanic 74 48 67
Black, non-Hispanic 63 32 59
Hispanic 61 28 45
Asian or Pacific 65 34 61
 Islander,
 non-Hispanic
Other, non-Hispanic 72 40 57

 Student's sex

Male 67 41 59
Female 73 42 65

 Student experiences in school

Student participated 84 48 69
 in school
 activities
Teacher or school 63 34 55
 contacted parent
 about behavior
 problems
Teacher or school 67 36 59
 contacted parent
 about schoolwork
 problems

 Student grades or marks (2)

Mostly A's or 78 50 69
 excellent
Mostly B's or 69 40 61
 above average
Mostly C's or 60 32 53
 average
Mostly D's or 43 21 43
 lower, or below
 average or
 failing

(1) Students whose parents reported that their classes were "ungraded"
were excluded from the analyses of grade level.

(2) Parents were asked whether overall, across all subjects, the
student got mostly A's, mostly B's, mostly C's, mostly D's or lower,
or whether the student's school did not give those grades. If the
student's school did not give letter grades (e.g., A, B, C), parents
were asked whether they would describe the student's work at school
as excellent, above average, average, below average, or failing. The
two questions about grades or marks were combined for the table.

NOTE: Students who were homeschooled were excluded from the table.
Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education
Statistics, Parent and Family Involvement in Education Survey of the
2003 National Household Education Surveys Program (PFI-NHES:2003).
(Originally published as table 3 on pp. 11-12 of the complete report
from which this article is excerpted.)

Table B. Percentage of students in grades K through 12 whose parents
reported educational expectations and plans to help pay for education
after high school, by educational attainment expectation and selected
characteristics: 2002-03

Characteristic Number of Parent expects student to ...
 students
 in grades K Receive Graduate Attend
 through 12 less than from vocational
 (thousands) a high high or
 school school technical
 diploma school
 after high
 school

Total 51,388 # 7 7

School type
Public, assigned 37,875 # 8 8
Public, chosen 7,915 1 9 7
Private, church- 4,317 # 2 2
 related
Private, not 1,280 1 6 6
 church-related

School schedule
Traditional 47,768 # 7 7
Year-round 3,620 1 11 8

Household poverty status
Above poverty 41,418 # 6 7
 level
At or below 9,970 1 15 9
 poverty level

Parents' highest education level
Less than high 3,638 1 23 10
 school
High school 12,891 1 14 11
 graduate or
 equivalent
Vocational/ 16,186 # 6 9
 technical
 education after
 high school or
 some college
College graduate 9,877 # 2 3
Graduate or 8,797 # 1 3
 professional
 school

Parents' language
Both/only 45,505 # 7 8
 parent(s)
 speak(s)
 English
One of two 1,090 0 6 4
 parents
 speaks
 English
No parent speaks 4,793 1 9 4
 English

Student's grade level (2)
K-1st grade 7,823 # 6 4
2nd-3rd grade 7,696 # 7 5
4th-5th grade 8,368 # 7 7
6th-8th grade 12,170 # 8 8
9th-10th grade 7,783 1 10 10
11th-12th grade 7,543 1 7 11

Student's race/ethnicity
White, non- 31,931 1 7 8
 Hispanic
Black, non- 8,165 # 9 7
 Hispanic
Hispanic 8,250 # 8 6
Asian or Pacific 1,453 # 2 1
 Islander,
 non-Hispanic
Other, non- 1,588 1 10 8
 Hispanic

Student's sex
Male 26,328 1 9 10
Female 25,060 # 6 5

Student grades or marks (3)
Mostly A's or 20,868 # 3 2
 excellent
Mostly B's or 18,673 # 6 7
 above average
Mostly C's or 9,785 1 16 14
 average
Mostly D's or 2,062 5 25 23
 lower, or
 below
 average or
 failing

Characteristic Parent expects student to ...

 Attend 2 Finish 4- Earn a Family plans
 or more or 5- year graduate to help pay
 years of college or for student
 college degree professional education
 degree after high
 school (1)

Total 16 39 30 83

School type
Public, assigned 17 39 28 82
Public, chosen 16 35 33 79
Private, church- 9 45 41 91
 related
Private, not 7 32 48 92
 church-related

School schedule
Traditional 15 39 31 83
Year-round 17 34 29 66

Household poverty status
Above poverty 15 41 32 86
 level
At or below 20 30 26 64
 poverty level

Parents' highest education level
Less than high 20 27 20 59
 school
High school 25 30 20 75
 graduate or
 equivalent
Vocational/ 18 39 27 81
 technical
 education after
 high school or
 some college
College graduate 8 55 33 91
Graduate or 4 38 54 93
 professional
 school

Parents' language
Both/only 16 39 29 85
 parent(s)
 speak(s)
 English
One of two 14 27 49 66
 parents
 speaks
 English
No parent speaks 10 36 41 61
 English

Student's grade level (2)
K-1st grade 13 44 34 [dagger]
2nd-3rd grade 15 40 33 [dagger]
4th-5th grade 16 39 30 [dagger]
6th-8th grade 15 37 31 83
9th-10th grade 17 35 27 82
11th-12th grade 17 38 27 83

Student's race/ethnicity
White, non- 15 42 27 87
 Hispanic
Black, non- 17 30 36 76
 Hispanic
Hispanic 16 36 34 72
Asian or Pacific 9 30 56 76
 Islander,
 non-Hispanic
Other, non- 20 31 29 85
 Hispanic

Student's sex
Male 15 38 28 82
Female 16 39 33 83

Student grades or marks (3)
Mostly A's or 9 40 45 85
 excellent
Mostly B's or 19 43 24 83
 above average
Mostly C's or 22 31 15 76
 average
Mostly D's or 17 20 10 75
 lower, or
 below
 average or
 failing

([dagger]) Not applicable.

(#) Rounds to zero.

(!) Interpret data with caution.

(1) This question was only asked of parents of children in grades 6
through 12 who expected their children to continue education after high
school.

(2) Students whose parents reported that their classes were "ungraded"
were excluded from the analyses of grade level.

(3) Parents were asked whether overall, across all subjects, the student
got mostly A's, mostly B's, mostly C's, mostly D's or lower, or whether
the student's school did not give those grades. If the student's school
did not give letter grades (e.g., A, B, C), parents were asked whether
they would describe the student's work at school as excellent, above
average, average, below average, or failing. The two questions about
grades or marks were combined for the table.

NOTE: Students who were homeschooled were excluded from the table.
Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education
Statistics, Parent and Family Involvement in Education Survey of the
2003 National Household Education Surveys Program (PFI-NHES:2003).
(Originally published as table 10 on pp. 33-34 of the complete report
from which this article is excerpted.)

Table C. Percentage distribution of public school students in grades K
through 12 by school choice and percent of students whose families
moved to neighborhood for students to attend school, by household and
student characteristics: 2002-03

Characteristic Number of Enrollment by school choice
 students in
 grades K Student is Student is
 through 12 in assigned in chosen
 (thousands) school school

Total 45,790 83 15

Household poverty
 status
Above poverty 36,181 83 15
 level
At or below 9,609 82 17
 poverty level

Parents' highest education level
Less than high 3,535 80 18
 school
High school 12,262 83 15
 graduate or
 equivalent
Vocational/ 14,822 83 15
 technical
 education
 after high
 school or
 some college
College graduate 8,144 83 14
Graduate or 7,028 83 16
 professional
 school

Parents' language
Both/only 40,298 83 16
 parent(s)
 speak(s)
 English
One of two 991 76 22
 parents speaks
 English
No parent speaks 4,501 85 13
 English

Student's grade level (1)
K-1st grade 6,798 82 16
2nd-3rd grade 6,770 81 17
4th-5th grade 7,436 81 16
6th-8th grade 10,903 84 15
9th-10th grade 7,058 83 15
11th-12th grade 6,819 85 14

Student's race/ethnicity
White, non- 27,955 85 13
 Hispanic
Black, non- 7,472 74 25
 Hispanic
Hispanic 7,672 84 14
Asian or 1,252 78 22
 Pacific
 Islander,
 non-Hispanic
Other, non- 1,439 79 21
 Hispanic

Student's sex
Male 23,496 83 15
Female 22,295 83 15

Characteristic Enrollment Family moved
 by school to
 choice neighborhood
 so student
 Student's eligible for
 assigned school
 school is
 school of
 choice

Total 2 26

Household poverty
 status
Above poverty 2 27
 level
At or below 2 22
 poverty level

Parents' highest education level
Less than high 2 (!) 22
 school
High school 2 24
 graduate or
 equivalent
Vocational/ 2 24
 technical
 education
 after high
 school or
 some college
College graduate 2 29
Graduate or 2 35
 professional
 school

Parents' language
Both/only 2 26
 parent(s)
 speak(s)
 English
One of two 3 (!) 30
 parents speaks
 English
No parent speaks 1 29
 English

Student's grade level (1)
K-1st grade 2 26
2nd-3rd grade 2 26
4th-5th grade 2 27
6th-8th grade 1 27
9th-10th grade 2 24
11th-12th grade 1 27

Student's race/ethnicity
White, non- 2 28
 Hispanic
Black, non- 1 19
 Hispanic
Hispanic 2 26
Asian or (#) 33
 Pacific
 Islander,
 non-Hispanic
Other, non- 1 (!) 19
 Hispanic

Student's sex
Male 2 26
Female 2 26

(#) Rounds to zero.

(!) Interpret data with caution.

(1) Students whose parents reported that their classes were "ungraded"
were excluded from the analyses of grade level.

NOTE: Students who were homeschooled were excluded from the table.
Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education
Statistics, Parent and Family Involvement in Education Survey of the
2003 National Household Education Surveys Program (PFI-NHES:2003).
(Originally published as table 14 on p. 49 of the complete report
from which article is excerpted.)
COPYRIGHT 2006 ED.gov
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2006 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

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Title Annotation:Elementary and Secondary Education
Author:Vaden-Kiernan, Nancy; McManus, John
Publication:Education Statistics Quarterly
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Feb 1, 2006
Words:4714
Previous Article:2004 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty (NSOPF:04) report on faculty and instructional staff in fall 2003.
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