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Paperweights by the greats; Christopher Proudlove admires the matchless glass produced when the French took up Italian innovation.

THE paperweight sitting on my desk is something of an excuse for one. It's a cheap Victorian novelty job with a picture of an elephant stuck on the bottom, the distinctly odd-looking creature with its trunk wrapped around a zoo keeper. But its appeal lies in its oddness - clearly the man who drew the elephant had never been to a zoo in his life.

Quality 19th century glass paperweights, on the other hand, usually sell for around pounds 300, but the one illustrated here is something entirely different. It sold for a staggering pounds 10,000, underlining the fervour with which collectors chase the rarities by the three French leading makers: La Compagnie de Cristalleries Baccarat baccarat (bä`kərä', băk`–, Fr. bäkärä`), French card game formerly widely played in European casinos but now supplanted in popularity by chemin de fer. , at Baccarat, and the Cristallerie de St. Louis, at Louis-les-Bitche, both in the Lorraine area of France' and makers of the weight illustrated, the Cristalleries de Clichy, near Paris.

Key to their success lay in the term millefiori Millefiori is a glasswork technique which produces distinctive decorative patterns on glassware.

The term millefiori is a combination of the Italian words "mille" (thousand) and "fiori" (flowers). A.
, literally "a thousand flowers", and the adaptation of the process by one Pietro Bigaglia. A member of an old Venetian family of glass artists, he is generally credited with the manufacture of the first glass paperweight in 1845.

The Venetians had been making millefiori glass since the 15th century. Briefly, and in its simplest form, this involved fusing together rods of different coloured glass which were then reheated and stretched. The resulting long, thin stick was then chopped into dozens of short sticks or canes, numerous colour combinations of which were possible.

To make a paperweight, Pietro placed a selection of the canes in a mould in the desired pattern and fused them within a globule globule /glob·ule/ (glob´ul)
1. a small spherical mass or body.

2. a small spherical drop of fluid or semifluid substance.

3. a little globe or pellet, as of medicine.
 of clear molten glass held by a steel rod called a pontil pon·til  
n.
See punty.



[French, possibly from Italian puntello, diminutive of punto, point, from Latin p
. The dome was formed by shaping the molten glass to cover the exposed canes, the magnification effect being enhanced by the shaping and subsequent polishing achieved by rolling the dome over a wet, wooden block. Once cut from the pontil rod, the area around it was similarly smoothed and polished to form the flat base of the weight.

It sounds simple but, in truth, it was a highly skilled and time-consuming process. Recognition came when a quick-thinking representative of the then ailing French glass industry saw Pietro's efforts at a Viennese exhibition. Here was a product to put some commercial sparkle back into the business. The St Louis glassworks glass·work  
n.
1.
a. The manufacture of glassware or glass.

b. The cutting and fitting of glass panes; glaziery.

2. See glassware.

3. glassworks (used with a sing.
 was the first to adopt the idea, although Clichy and Baccarat were quick to follow. Soon, French genius and artistry had overtaken the comparatively simple Bigaglia weights.

Numerous strikingly beautiful patterns were devised. Some rare examples even include dates and initials, often hidden in the intricate designs. The earliest dated weight was made in 1846, while one I've seen was dated 1853.

Baccarat weights sometimes include a letter B, while Clichy used a particular rose-shaped cane as a trademark, occasionally set with the letters C L. St Louis weights can be found bearing the initials S L. Bear in mind, however, that dated and marked weights are rarities. The authenticity of those in which such features appear to be too good to be true should be questioned with an expert before hard-earned cash is exchanged.

The expert would also be best able to point out the distinct characteristics of colouring and design employed by the three glass companies. St Louis, for example, specialised in a coloured overlay technique that covered the clear glass weight with blue, pink or green glass. The layer was then cut with windows - or "printies" to give them their technical term - through which the pattern or glass flowers in the centre of the weight could be seen.

Crossed garlands of millefiore and canes arranged in a way that look like mushrooms were other hallmarks of St Louis weights, while tightly packed canes covering the base, known as "close millefiore" was popular with Baccarat, as were butterflies. Clichy, on the other hand, excelled at flowers, particularly their rose trademark, attractive swirl designs and an easily identifiable moss green ground often studded with canes arranged in concentric circles.

Arguably the finest makers, Clichy were the only French glasshouse to be invited to exhibit paperweights at the Great Exposition at the Crystal Palace in London in 1851, and again, at the New York Crystal Palace New York Crystal Palace was an exhibition building constructed for the Exhibition of the Industry of All Nations in New York City in 1853. The building stood in Reservoir Square and was originally built for the World's Fair held in the summer of 1853.  in 1853. As a result, a great many were purchased as souvenirs by Victorian tourists and they continue to turn up in the salerooms. The key to success is being able to recognise them.

Another rarity you might care to search out features a green snake with red markings coiled around the weight. The creature sits on canes arranged to represent rocks or latticino, a lace-like cane arrangement either in a corkscrew swirl or as broken pieces known as "upset muslin." Even rarer versions have not a snake but a salamander salamander, an amphibian of the order Urodela, or Caudata. Salamanders have tails and small, weak limbs; superficially they resemble the unrelated lizards (which are reptiles), but they are easily distinguished by their lack of scales and claws, and by their moist, .

If early French paperweights are out of your reach, versions produced in Bohemia, America and this country can come cheaper. Talented Englishman William T Gillander founded the New England Glass Co in America in 1853 and Frederick Carder founded the Steuben Glassworks at Corning, New York Corning, New York is the name of two places in Steuben County, New York, although it most frequently means the City of Corning.
  • Corning (city), New York
  • Corning (town), New York, adjacent to the city
For other places with this name, see Corning.
, in 1903.

Both made paperweights in the UK and US but don't expect the same quality as the French. Failing that, you could buy new ones - one day they'll be collectors' items just like their great-grandfathers.

PSSST! Wanna buy an honour? No, this is not a sales pitch from a dodgy politician, but an invitation to an auction of medals, orders and decorations from a collection of the American Numismatic nu·mis·mat·ic  
adj.
1. Of or relating to coins or currency.

2. Of or relating to numismatics.



[French numismatique, from Late Latin numisma, numismat-,
 Society in London on Wednesday and Thursday (May 24 and 25).

Leading the sale is a magnificent 19th century sash badge of the Most Noble Order of the Garter in gold and enamels. Membership of this exclusive club is limited to the reigning sovereign and 25 Christian Knights, plus selected royal heads of state who are admitted as Extra Knights or Ladies of the Garter The Most Noble Order of the Garter was founded by King Edward III of England in 1348 as "a society, fellowship and college of knights." It is now the oldest and highest order of chivalry in the British honours system. . So this is likely to be your only chance, but it will cost around pounds 18,000-22,000.

At the other end of the price range there are countless gallantry medals expected to fetch from pounds 80.

For further details call auctioneers Morton & Eden on 020 7493 5344.

CAPTION(S):

The magnificent 19th century sash badge of the Most Noble Order of the Garter in gold and enamels - yours for pounds 18-22,000... but no seat in the Lords' This fine Clichy paperweight (above) sold recently for pounds 10,000 Picture: CAPES DUNN, MANCHESTER' Six of the best... (top, left to right) a St Louis weight, the bouquet centred by an African violet' a miniature Clichy weight decorated with sylised flowers' (middle) a pretty St Louis bouquet weight' a St Louis weight with a tiny bouquet in the centre magnified when viewed through its facetted windows' (bottom) a stylish Baccarat weight with star-cut base' a Baccarat Clematis clematis (klĕm`ətĭs, kləmăt`ĭs), any plant of the large genus Clematis (sometimes subdivided into three or four genera), widely distributed herbs or vines of the family Ranunculaceae (buttercup family), many of them  weight, also with a star-cut base
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Title Annotation:Features
Publication:Daily Post (Liverpool, England)
Date:May 20, 2006
Words:1142
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