P.E.P. up your muscle development program.The Pre-Exhaustion Principle (double sets) will maximize your effort simply and efficiently
Athletes and coaches interested in maximizing muscular development Muscular Development is an American fitness and bodybuilding magazine first published in 1964. It was founded by Bob Hoffman, the owner and founder of the York Barbell Company. Its editor from 1964 to its sale in 1986 was John Grimek. in a safe and efficient fashion must have a thorough understanding of the two types of exercise movements - single joint and multi-joint.
A single-joint (or primary) exercise involves the movement of only one joint, enabling the athlete to isolate a single muscle. For example, a leg extension will straighten a bent leg at the knee joint, thus isolating the quadriceps muscle on the front of the thigh.
A multi-joint (or secondary) exercise involves two or more joints. A lat pulldown, for example, will involve both the shoulder and elbow joints. The movement of the upper back (or lats) will stretch the upper arm from the shoulder joint, while the biceps will bend the arm at the elbow very near; at hand.
See also: Elbow joint.
Multi-joint exercises are advantageous in that they allow a relatively large amount of muscle mass to be used in one movement. However, just as a chain is only as strong as its weakest link, a multi-joint movement can create a problem in cases of muscular fatigue.
When an athlete experiences fatigue while exercising, it is generally because he has exhausted the smaller, weaker muscle involved in the multi-joint movement.
This will happen well before the larger and stronger muscle has taken on a sufficient workload.
In an exercise such as a lat pulldown, the biceps is the smaller muscle and will therefore fatigue long before the upper back. In fact, the athlete's grip strength Grip strength is the force applied by the hand to pull on or suspend from objects. Optimum-sized objects permit the hand to wrap around a cylindrical shape with a diameter from one to three inches. may be the first to go.
In any multi-joint movement for the upper back, such as a lat pulldown or a seated row, the lifter will quickly notice that the biceps and forearms have worked much harder than the upper back. Ergo Latin, therefore; hence; because.
ergo (air-go) conj. Latin for therefore, often used in legal writings. Its most famous use was in "Cogito, ergo sum:" "I think, therefore I am" principle by French philosopher Rene Descartes (1596-1650). , the biceps and forearms will get a pretty good workout, but the upper back - the real target of the exercise - won't get much of a workload.
As a rule of thumb, the arms are the weak link in multi-joint movements for the upper body, while the legs are the weak link in the multi-joint movements for the gluteals (hips and buttocks buttocks /but·tocks/ (but´oks) the two fleshy prominences formed by the gluteal muscles on the lower part of the back. ).
These weak links limit the athlete's potential for developing larger, more powerful muscular structures.
P.E.P. It Up
Question: How can our athletes avoid this problem?
Answer: Try the Pre-Exhaustion Principle, a training technique that was popularized in the early 1970s. The P.E.P. employs a "double set" - a single-joint movement followed quickly by a multi-joint moment.
The idea is to pre-exhaust the target muscles by performing a single-joint exercise - bypassing the weak link - then quickly performing a second exercise to activate the surrounding muscles, thus helping work the pre-fatigued muscle to a point beyond its normal state of exhaustion.
Let us suppose you want to use the P.E.P. for your upper back. First, you perform a single-joint exercise, such as a barbell Barbell
A bond investment strategy that concentrates holdings in both very short-term and extremely long-term maturities. This is also known as the "dumbbell" or "barbelling. or a dumbbell Dumbbell
An investment strategy, used mainly for bonds, where holdings are heavily concentrated in both very short and long term maturities.
This is also known as a barbell, charting on a timeline gives the appearance of a barbell or dumbbell. pullover, to pre-fatigue the upper back. Then, your immediately follow with a multi-joint movement, such as a lat pulldown or a seated row, to help work the pre-fatigue upper back to a degree of exhaustion that would normally be impossible.
Note: For maximum results, the second exercise should follow right on the heels of the first. Any noticeable time lapse between the two exercises will allow the pre-fatigued muscle to recover some of its original level of strength, putting the athlete right back to where he started, with the weak link still being the limiting factor A factor or condition that, either temporarily or permanently, impedes mission accomplishment. Illustrative examples are transportation network deficiencies, lack of in-place facilities, malpositioned forces or materiel, extreme climatic conditions, distance, transit or overflight rights, .
Brief guidelines for devising double sets to pre-exhaust the major muscle groups:
Gluteals. A leg press may be a great exercise for the front thigh, but it is a relatively poor exercise for the gluteals. However, the athlete can pre-fatigue the "gluts" through a single-joint exercise, such as a hip extension or hip abduction Abduction
expecting inheritance, kidnapped by uncle. [Br. Lit.: Kidnapped]
kidnapped at age five; taken from Scotland. [Br. Lit. (on a machine or with manual resistance), followed immediately by a leg press - thus using the fresh quadriceps and hamstring muscles to fatigue the "glutes" to a greater degree than would otherwise by possible.
Hamstrings. The leg curl is the main single-joint exercise used to isolate the "hams" on the back of the thigh. By instantly following up with a leg press, the athlete can use the "glutes" and the quadriceps toe further exhaust the hamstrings.
Quadriceps. A leg extension is the best single-joint movement with which to isolate the "quads," but the athlete can once again use the leg press as a secondary movement. In this case, the "glutes" and hamstrings are used to exercise the pre-fatigued quadriceps.
Chest. A bent-arm fly (using dumbbells or manual resistance) is an excellent single-joint movement with which to provide direct resistance to the pectoral muscles Pectoral muscles can refer to:
2. the deltoid muscle.
1. Of or relating to the deltoid muscle.
2. on the front part of the shoulders.
After pre-fatiguing the chest region with the bent-arm fly, the athlete can further exhaust the pecs through several multi-joint movements - bench press, decline press, incline press, push-ups, or dips, depending upon the available equipment. The performance of any of these multi-joint movements soon after completion of the bent-arm fly will use the triceps triceps, any muscle having three heads, or points of attachment, but especially the triceps brachii at the back of the upper arm. One head originates on the shoulder blade and two on the upper-arm bone, or humerus. to further exhaust the pectoral pectoral /pec·to·ral/ (pek´ter-il) thoracic.
1. Relating to or situated in the breast or chest.
Note: For variety, the bent-arm fly can be performed in the decline, incline, or prone positions.
Upper Back. The lats can be effectively isolated with a barbell or dumbbell pullover, then followed up immediately with a multi-joint exercise such as a chin, pull-up, seated row, bent-over row, or lat pulldown. The combination will enable the athlete to exercise his upper back in a highly efficient manner.
Shoulders (the musculature musculature /mus·cu·la·ture/ (mus´kul-ah-cher) the muscular apparatus of the body or of a part.
The arrangement of the muscles in a part or in the body as a whole. includes the deltoids and the trapezius tra·pe·zi·us
A muscle with origin from the superior nuchal line, the external occipital protuberance, the nuchal ligament, the spinous processes of the seventh cervical and thoracic vertebrae, with insertion into the lateral third of the posterior ). The most popular single-joint movements for addressing the deltoid muscles deltoid muscle
A muscle with origin from the lateral third of the clavicle, the lateral border of acromion process, and the lower border of spine of scapula, with insertion to the side of the shaft of the humerus, with nerve supply from the axillary are the lateral raise (middle deltoid), front raise (anterior deltoid), and bent-over raise (posterior deltoid), whereas the shoulder shrug The shoulder shrug (usually called simply the shrug) is an exercise in weight training. To execute the exercise, the lifter stands erect, hands about shoulder width apart, and raises the shoulders as high as possible, and then lowers them, while not bending the elbows, or is the best single-joint exercise for isolating the trapezius.
A "double set" for the deltoids would include one of the three single-joint exercises for the deltoids followed quickly by a shoulder press to help exercise the pre-fatigue deltoids (via the triceps).
A "double set" for the trapezius would be the shoulder shrug followed as soon as possible by an upright row The upright row is a weight training exercise performed by holding a barbell with the overhand grip and lifting it straight up to the collarbone. This is a compound exercise that involves the trapezius, the deltoids and the biceps. , which will use the biceps to help pre-exhaust the trapezius.
Biceps. The biceps curl offers the best single-joint exercise for isolating this muscle. Located on the front part of the upper arm, the biceps is used to flex the lower arm at the elbow joint.
When followed quickly by a multi-joint movement such as a chin, pull-up, seated row, bent-over row, or lat pulldown, the biceps curl will allow the athlete to use his upper back to exhaust his biceps even further.
Triceps. The best single-joint exercise for this muscle (located on back of the upper arm) is a triceps extension. The bench press, decline press, incline press, dip, or shoulder press can be used as a multi-joint movement.
The chest and/or anterior deltoid are thus used to exercise the pre-fatigued triceps.
Remember, the limiting factor in multi-joint movements is the smaller, weaker muscle structures. However, this disadvantage can be turned into an advantage by having the athlete pre-fatigue a muscle with a single-joint movement and then immediately follow up with a multi-joint exercise to recruit surrounding muscles for assistance.
The athlete can, in this fashion, maximize his muscular development :in a safe and efficient manner.