Ovarian Cancer; Overview.Ovarian cancer ovarian cancer
Malignant tumour of the ovaries. Risk factors include early age of first menstruation (before age 12), late onset of menopause (after age 52), absence of pregnancy, presence of specific genetic mutations, use of fertility drugs, and personal history of breast is the most fatal of all cancers involving a woman's reproductive tract. Most ovarian cancer develops after menopause; half of ovarian cancers are found in women older than age 63. Only 19 percent of ovarian cancers are diagnosed at an early stage, when the disease is confined to the ovary ovary, ductless gland of the female in which the ova (female reproductive cells) are produced. In vertebrate animals the ovary also secretes the sex hormones estrogen and progesterone, which control the development of the sexual organs and the secondary sexual and is most easily treated. Women diagnosed in the early stages have a 90-95 percent chance of surviving at least five years.
About 76 percent of women with ovarian cancer survive one year after diagnosis, and 45 percent survive five years after being diagnosed. The survival rate drops as the stage of the cancer increases, with a less than 14 percent five-year survival rate in women whose cancer has spread beyond the abdomen. Younger women (below age 65) have a better five-year survival rate than older women.
An estimated 20,180 American women will be diagnosed with ovarian cancer in 2006, according to the American Cancer Society, and about 15,310 will die of the disease.
The ovaries are the part of the female reproductive organs Reproductive organs
The group of organs (including the testes, ovaries, and uterus) whose purpose is to produce a new individual and continue the species.
Mentioned in: Choriocarcinoma that produce eggs every month during a woman's reproductive cycle. The ovaries are about the size and shape of an almond (1 1/2 inches long), but after menopause, they shrink to about half their original size. They are located on either side of the lower abdomen.
Women who still have periods can develop cysts on the ovary, which can be felt on a pelvic exam or seen via x-rays or other tests. They are rarely cancerous, particularly in younger women.
Cysts are less common in women who have already gone through menopause. If cysts occur in these women, they're more likely to be cancerous. A cyst cyst, abnormal sac in the body, filled with a fluid or semisolid and enclosed in a membrane. Cysts can be congenital but are usually acquired, the most common locations being the skin and the ovaries. or an enlarged ovary in a woman who has gone through menopause should always be evaluated quickly to make sure it is not a cancer.
In ovarian cancer, the cells of the ovary grow and divide uncontrollably. The cells may form a tumor on the ovary, parts of which can break off and spread to other parts of the body. Although ovarian cancer can spread throughout the body and affect other organs and systems (brain, lungs, breast and lymph nodes, for example), in most cases it stays in the abdomen and affects organs such as the intestines, liver and stomach.
There are many different types of ovarian cancer. Most (85 to 90 percent) cancers of the ovary come from the cells that make up the outer lining, and are called epithelial ovarian cancers. Although most epithelial ovarian cancers occur in women without a family history of the disease, about five to 10 percent of women with ovarian epithelial cancer have other family members who also had the same cancer.
The symptoms of ovarian cancer (particularly in its early stage) are often not obvious or intense. They include:
pelvic or abdominal pain, pressure or discomfort
vague but persistent gastrointestinal upsets such as gas, nausea and indigestion
frequency and/or urgency of urination urination
Process of excreting urine from the bladder (see urinary system). Nerve centres in the spinal cord, brain stem, and cerebral cortex control it through involuntary and voluntary muscles. The need to void is felt when the bladder holds 3. in absence of an infection
changes in bowel habits
weight gain or loss; particularly weight gain in the abdominal area
pelvic or abdominal swelling, bloating or a feeling of fullness
back or leg pain
pain during intercourse
unusual vaginal bleeding
A study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association is an international peer-reviewed general medical journal, published 48 times per year by the American Medical Association. JAMA is the most widely circulated medical journal in the world. found that 94 percent of women surveyed who were diagnosed with ovarian cancer had symptoms in the year prior to their diagnosis, and 67 percent had recurring symptoms.
Lacey JV Jr, Mink PJ, Lubin JH, et al. Menopausal hormone replacement therapy Hormone Replacement Therapy Definition
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is the use of synthetic or natural female hormones to make up for the decline or lack of natural hormones produced in a woman's body. and risk of ovarian cancer. JAMA. 2002 Jul 17;288(3):334-41. Erratum [Latin, Error.] The term used in the Latin formula for the assignment of mistakes made in a case.
After reviewing a case, if a judge decides that there was no error, he or she indicates so by replying, "In nollo est erratum in: JAMA 2002 Nov 27;288(20):2544.
Anderson GL, Judd HL, Kaunitz AM, Barad DH, Beresford SA, Pettinger M, Liu J, McNeeley SG, Lopez AM; Women's Health Initiative Women's Health Initiative A 15-yr, $628 million project involving 1. An observational study of the health habits and medical Hx of ±100,000 ♀ 2. Investigators. Effects of estrogen plus progestin progestin /pro·ges·tin/ (-jes´tin) progestational agent.
1. A natural or synthetic progestational substance that mimics some or all of the actions of progesterone. on gynecologic gynecologic /gy·ne·co·log·ic/ (gi?ne-) (jin?e-kah-loj´ik) pertaining to the female reproductive tract or to gynecology. cancers and associated diagnostic procedures: the Women's Health Initiative randomized trial. JAMA. 2003 Oct 1;290(13):1739-48.
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Keywords: Endometrium endometrium /en·do·me·tri·um/ (-me´tre-um) pl. endome´tria the mucous membrane lining the uterus.
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