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Outcomes of adolescent pregnancies.

A woman can resolve a pregnancy in one of three ways: She can have an abortion; she can give birth and become a parent; or she can give birth and relinquish the baby for adoption. The overwhelming majority of teenagers choose either abortion or raising the child themselves. Since the late 1980s, the proportion of pregnant teenagers giving birth has increased slightly (Figure 33, page 44). About half of adolescent pregnancies end in birth, slightly over a third in abortion and the rest in miscarriage (166) (Figure 34, page 45). Although most adolescent pregnancies are unintended, teenagers account for fewer than a third of all unintended births, nonmarital births and abortions each year (Figure 35, page 46).

Abortion

In the years immediately following legalization of abortion in 1973, reported adolescent abortion rates increased considerably, and then were relatively stable until the late 1980s, even though a higher proportion of teenage women were becoming sexually active. Since 1980, however, abortion rates among sexually experienced adolescent women have declined steadily, both because a lower proportion of teenagers have become pregnant and because a lower proportion of pregnant teenagers have chosen to have an abortion (Figure 36, page 47). Adolescents account for roughly a quarter of all abortions performed annually. (167)

Terminating Unintended Pregnancies. The majority of unintended pregnancies among teenagers end in abortion. (168)

* In all, 53% of 15-19-year-old teenagers who experience unintended pregnancies have an abortion, compared with 47% of older women who have unintended pregnancies.

* Married teenagers are considerably less likely than their unmarried peers to terminate unintended pregnancies, perhaps because they have the support of a spouse and their family, or because married couples are more likely to be employed, have higher incomes and are more willing to have children than unmarried women and their partners.

* Still, about a quarter of unintended pregnancies among married adolescents end in abortion each year. (169)

In general, teenagers from families that are better off financially are more likely than those from poorer homes to terminate unintended pregnancies. (170)

* Nearly three-quarters of higher income teenagers who accidentally become pregnant have abortions, compared with fewer than half of those from poor or low-income families. (171)

* Those who are covered by Medicaid for the cost of their health care are considerably less likely to have abortions (172) --in part because most states do not pay for abortion services under Medicaid (173) (but all states pay for prenatal care and child-birth). The average cost of an outpatient, first-trimester abortion is $250. (174)

* Pregnant teenagers whose parents have more education are more likely than those with less-educated parents to end their pregnancies in abortion. (175)

* Those who have a stronger orientation toward the future also are relatively likely to choose abortion. (176)

Race and ethnicity make a difference. So does the age of the man involved in the pregnancy.

(*) Nearly 60% of white teenagers whose pregnancies were unintended choose abortion, compared with fewer than 50% of black and Hispanic adolescents. (177)

(*) Among pregnant women under age 18 whose male partners are also under 18,61% have abortions, compared with 57% of those whose partners are 18-19, and 33% of those whose partners are aged 20 or older. (178)

Deciding on Abortion. Teenagers who have abortions most often cite their young age and low income as the reasons why they decided to end their pregnancies (179) (Figure 37, page 48).

Historically, states have required that parents give their consent before their minor child receives medical treatment. (In all but four states, the age of majority is 18.) There have long been exceptions to this rule, however, and many states now authorize minors to make their own decisions about reproductive health care, such as prenatal care, contraceptive services, and STD testing and treatment. Furthermore, no state specifically requires parental involvement for a minor to obtain these services. The trend in abortion law has been just the opposite, however. (180)

(*) Only three states--Connecticut, Maine and Wisconsin--and the District of Columbia have laws that allow a minor to consent to abortion services on her own. These states require counseling of the minor or strongly encourage her to involve her parents in her decision.

(*) On the other hand, 21 states have enacted statutes that require a minor either to have the consent of or to notify a parent (and in some cases, both parents) prior to having an abortion. In most of these states, a minor can avoid involving a parent by going to court and obtaining a judge's authorization for an abortion. This legal option is not always known or understood by teenagers, however, and can lead to delay in obtaining an abortion or, by default, to an unintended birth. (181)

* In the remaining states, the law is silent on the issue of parents' role in a minor's access to abortion.

What Parents Know. Even in states where parental involvement is not mandated, six in 10 unmarried teenagers under age 18 having an abortion say at least one parent--usually their mother--knows of their decision to terminate a pregnancy (182) (Figure 38, page 49).

* The younger the teenager, the more likely she is to talk with at least one parent.

* Teenagers who consult their parents often say that they would not feel right keeping their pregnancy a secret from their parents, or that they need their parents' moral support and help in deciding what to do and how to get an abortion.

* Many young women who do not tell their parents about their pregnancy say they do not want to hurt or disappoint their parents or face their parents' anger.

Involvement of Male Partners.

Teenagers who do not inform their parents about their pregnancy do talk to someone other than an abortion clinic staff member, most often their boyfriend, about their decision. (183)

* More than three-quarters of women under 18 having abortions talk over their decision with their boyfriend, who, in most cases, is the man involved in the pregnancy.

* Most consult their boyfriend even if their parents know about their decision to have an abortion.

* Half the young women have help from their boyfriend in paying for the abortion. (About two-fifths receive financial support from their parents, and about a quarter pay for the abortion themselves.)

Adoption

As childbearing outside marriage has become less stigmatized, the likelihood that a woman will place her baby for adoption has declined dramatically (184) (Figure 39, page 50).

* The decline has occurred almost exclusively among white women. Between 1982 and 1988, only 3% of never-married, non-Hispanic white women relinquished their infants for adoption, whereas 19% had done so during the period 1965-1972.

* Historically, black teenage women have rarely placed infants for adoption.

Births and Parenthood

Between the mid-1960s and the mid 1980s, birthrates among sexually experienced teenagers declined. Since 1986, however, birthrates have been rising, especially among 18-19-year-olds (185) (Figure 40, page 51).

The increase has occurred among teenagers of all races, but has been especially pronounced among young Hispanic women. (186) The rise has occurred among sexually experienced teenagers and all adolescent women alike, which indicates that it reflects not only the higher proportions of teenagers having intercourse, but also the higher proportion of pregnant teenagers giving birth rather than having abortions.

* Of all births in the United States, 12% are to adolescents--4% to those under age 18 and 8% to 18-19-year-olds. (187)

* More adolescent women than teenage men become parents each year. In 1988, about 489,000 teenage women became mothers, but only 195,000 adolescent males became fathers (188) (Figure 41, page 52). The difference reflects that many of the fathers of babies born to adolescent women are not teenagers (189) (Figure 42, page 53).

* Although the recent increases in birth-rates have been similar for black and white teenagers, black, as well as Hispanic, adolescents are substantially more likely than whites to give birth (190) (Figure 43, page 54).

* There is considerable variation in birthrates within racial and ethnic groups, however. On average, for example, 10% of Hispanic women aged 15-19 give birth each year; but only 3% of young women of Cuban descent, who tend to be among the most advantaged Hispanic group, have a baby, compared with 10-11% of teenagers of Mexican and Puerto Rican descent, who are more likely to be disadvantaged. (191)

Out-of-Wedlock Births. One of the most fundamental changes in patterns of childbearing and family structure over the last several decades has been the growing proportion of babies conceived and born outside marriage. The increase has occurred among women of all ages; it has been more rapid among older women than among teenagers. While most births to teenagers occur outside marriage, adolescents account for only 30% of all out-ofwedlock births, down from 50% in 1970. [192]

Among teenagers, there has been a dramatic shift in the pattern of first births (193) (Figure 44, page 55).

* In 1960-1964, 59% of first births to women aged 15u17 occurred among teenagers who had conceived outside marriage; 26% of young first-time mothers had married while pregnant, however, so that only a third of first births to women in this age-group occurred out of wedlock.

By 1985-1989, 92% of first births to 15-17-year-olds occurred among women who had conceived outside marriage, and only 11% of new mothers had married while pregnant. Thus, 81% of first births to women aged 15--17 in 1985--1989 occurred outside marriage.

* The same pattern is evident for 18--19-year-olds, although the proportion of first births occurring to unmarried women was lower (Figure 45, page 56).

Out-of-wedlock births account for nearly seven in 10 of all births to adolescent women. (194)

* In 1990, about 361,000 unmarried adolescent women gave birth.

* In that year, more than nine in 10 black mothers under 20 were unmarried when they gave birth, compared with fewer than six in 10 white teenagers (Figure 46, page 57).

* Among whites, the proportion of births that are out-of-wedlock declines sharply with age, but among blacks, it drops only slightly with increasing age, because marriage among blacks is less common.

* Nearly three-quarters of births to poor teenagers and to higher income teenagers occur out of wedlock, compared with slightly fewer than half of births to low-income teenagers. (195)

About a third of adolescent women marrying for the first time have a child or are pregnant, although the likelihood differs by race and age (Figure 47, page 57). The few black women who marry in their teenage years are much more likely than Hispanic and white brides to be mothers already or to be pregnant at their wedding. (196)

Overwhelmingly, pregnant teenagers either have an abortion or give birth and raise the child themselves; adoption is rare. White adolescents and those from more advantaged backgrounds generally elect to terminate their pregnancies. Childbearing, meanwhile, is concentrated among teenagers who are poor or black. Young mothers, then, tend already to be disadvantaged at the time of their child's birth. They also are at risk of falling further behind their more advantaged peers who have chosen to postpone childbearing.

(166.) Henshaw and Van Vort, 1989, p. 85.

(167.) Henshaw, 1992, Table 1, p. 86.

(168.) AGI, 1993d; Henshaw, 1992.

(169.) AGI, 1993d; AGI, 1993e; Henshaw, 1992, Table 1, p. 86.

(170.) Zabin, Hirsch and Boscia, 1990, pp. 109, 112.

(171.) AGI, 1993d; AGI, 1993e; Henshaw, 1992, Table 1, p. 86.

(172.) AGI, 1993d; AGI, 1993e; Henshaw, 1992, Table 1, p. 86

(173.) Daley and Gold, 1993, p. 244; Table 2, pp. 250-251.

(174.) Henshaw, 1991, p. 249.

(175.) Cooksey, 1990, p. 213.

(176.) Blum and Resnick, 1982.

(177.) AGI, 1993d; AGI, 1993e; Henshaw, 1992, Table 1, p. 86.

(178.) AGI, 1993d; AGI, 1993e; Henshaw, 1992, Table 1, p. 86.

(179.) Torres and Forrest, 1988, Table 1, p. 170.

(180.) Donovan, 1992, pp. 6-7, 10-11; Appendix Table 1, pp. 30-35.

The age of majority is 19 in Alabama, Nebraska and Wyoming. In Mississippi, it is 21, although the general age of consent to medical care is 18.

More than half the states have laws that expressly permit minors to obtain prenatal care and delivery services on their own consent, and nearly half authorize minors to consent to contraceptive services. All states except South Carolina explicitly allow minors to obtain STD testing and treatment without their parents' knowledge. South Carolina, however, authorizes minors 16 and older to consent to any legal health service.

(181.) Donovan, 1992, pp. 23-26.

(182.) Henshaw and Kost, 1992, p. 199; Table 3, p. 200; Table 5, p. 202.

(183.) Henshaw and Kost, 1992, Table 8, pp. 205-206. Nine in 10 of these young women consult their boyfriend; nearly a quarter talk with a professional, such as a health care provider or minister or rabbi; half consult another adult.

(184.) Bachrach, Stolley and London, 1992, Table 1, p. 29; Figure 1, p. 31.

(185.) NCHS, 1993b, Table 4, p. 20.

Between the mid-1960s and mid-1980s, the annual birthrate averaged only one birth per 1,000 women under age 15 and about 34 per 1,000 for women aged 15-17. Among 13-19-year olds and 20-24-year-olds, birthrates declined sharply from 1966 through 1976 and remained relatively stable for the next 10 years at about 80 per 1,000 and 111 per 1,000, respectively. Between 1986 and 1991, the birthrate steadily increased, from about 31 per 1,000 to 39 per 1,000 for 15-17-year-olds, and from about 80 per 1,000 to 94 per 1,000 for 13-19-year-olds.

(186.) Moore, 1993, p. 2.

(187.) NCHS, 1993b, Table 2, p. 18.

(188.) AGI, 1993d; NCHS, 1990a, Table 2, p. 16.

(189.) AGI, 1993d.

(190.) NCHS, 1993a, Table 3, p. 20; Table 24, p. 40; Table 25, p. 41.

(191.) NCHS, 1993a, Table 24, p. 40.

(192.) Moore, 1993.

(193.) Bachu, 1991, Table E, p. 7.

(194.) NCHS, 1993a, Table 2, pp. 18-19; Table 16, p. 33.

(195.) AGI, 1993d.

(196.) AGI, 1993b.

More than four in 10 black brides have a child, compared with fewer than one in 10 Hispanic and white brides. Older teenagers are about twice as likely as younger brides to already have a child when they marry, but women under age 18 are more likely lobe pregnant.

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FIGURE 33

HIGHER PROPORTION OF PREGNANT TEENAGERS GIVING BIRTH

Since 1988, the proportion of teenage pregnancies ending in birth rather
than abortion has risen.

 % of pregnancies
 among women aged
 15-19 ending in birth

1972 76
1973 72
1974 68
1975 64
1976 61
1977 59
1978 56
1979 55
1980 55
1981 55
1982 55
1983 54
1984 54
1985 54
1986 54
1987 55
1988 55
1989 58
1990 60%

Sources: Births, 1972-1990: National Center for Health Monthy Vital
Statistics Report, Vols. 23-41, Supplements, 1974-1993. Abortions,
1973-1988: S. K. Henshaw and J. Van Vort, eds., Abortion Factbook, 1992
Edition: Readings, Trends and State and Local Data to 1988, AGI, New
York, 1992, Table 1, pp. 172-173; 1972, 1989-1990: S. K. Henshaw, "U.S.
Teenage Pregnancy Statistics," AGI, New York, 1993.

Note: Pregnancies do not include miscarriages.

Note: Table made from line graph
FIGURE 34

TEENAGE PREGNANCY OUTCOMES

Half of the more than 1 million pregnancies among adolescent women each
year end in birth; a third end in abortion. Most of the births are
unintended.

Estimated pregnancies among women aged 19 and younger, 1990: 1,040,000


Miscarriage 14%
Intended birth 14%
Unintended birth 37%
Abortion 35%

Sources: Births: National Center for Health Statistics, "Advance Report
of Final Natality Statistics, 1990," Monthly Vital Statistics Report,
Vol. 41, No. 9, Supplement 1993, Table 2, p. 18. Abortions: S.K.
Henshaw, "U.S. Teenage Pregnancy Statistics," AGI, New York, 1993. Birth
Intention status: AGI tabulations of data from the 1988 National
Maternal and Infant Health Survey.

Notes: Miscarriages are estimated as 20% of births and 10% of abortions.
To estimate the number of intended and unintended births, the
distribution of births by intention status in 1988 was applied to the
total number of births in 1990.

Note: Table made from pie chart.
FIGUES 35

TEENAGERS A SMALL PART OF A LARGER PROBLEM

Teenagers account for fewer than a third of all abortions, nonmarital
births and unintended births each year.

 Nonmarital Unintended
 Abortions, births, births,
 1990: 1990: 1990:
 1,609,000 1,165,000 1,796,000

Aged 17 and younger 9% 13% 8%
Aged 18-19 14% 18% 13%
Aged 20 and older 77% 69% 79%

Sources: Pregnancies and abortions: S. K. Henshaw, "U.S. Teenage
Pregnancy Statistics," AGI, New York, 1993; other AGI unpublished data.
Births: National Center for Health Statistics, "Advance Report of Final
Natality Statistics, 1990," Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 41,
No. 9, Supplement, 1993, Table 16, p. 33. Birth intention status: AGI
tabulations of data from the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health
Survey.

Note: To estimate the number of intended and unintended births, the
distribution of births by intention status in 1988 was applied to the
total number of births in 1990.

Note: Table made from pie chart
FIGURE 36

DECLINE IN TEENAGEABORTION RATES

Since the late 1970s, the abortion rate has declined among sexually
experienced teenagers.

Abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-19

 Sexually All women
 experienced women

1972 51 19
1973 59 23
1974 68 27
1975 75 31
1976 80 34
1977 86 37
1978 90 40
1979 95 42
1980 95 43
1981 94 43
1982 93 43
1983 91 43
1984 89 43
1985 88 44
1986 84 42
1987 81 42
1988 81 43
1989 76 42
1990 72 41

Sources: Abortions, 1973- 1988: S. K. Henshaw and J. Van Vort, eds.,
Abortion Factbook, 1992 Edition: Readings, Trends, and State and Local
Data to 1988, AGI, New York, 1992, Table 1, pp. 172-173; 1972,
1989-1990: S.K. Henshaw, "U.S. Teenage Pregnancy Statistics," AGI, New
York, 1993. Sexually experienced women: E. F. Jones et al., Teenage
Pregnancy in Industrial Countries, Yale University Press, New Haven and
London, 1986, Table 3.5, P. 47; J.D. Forrest and S. Singh, "The Sexual
and Reproductive Behavior of American Women, 1982-1988," Family Planning
Perspectives, 22:206-214, 1990, Tables 1 and 3, pp. 207 and 208.

Notes: Sexually experienced women: The sexually experienced population
was estimated by interpolating from data for 1971, 1976, 1982 and 1988.
To estimate sexual activity after 1988, data were extrapolated for 1989
and 1990 using the 1982-1988 trend.

Note: Table made from line graph
FIGURE 37

FACTORS IN ABORTION CHOICE

Teenagers who have abortions most commonly give their young age and low
income as reasons for making that decision.

Reason

 % of women having
 abortions, 1987

Woman is not mature enough or is
too young to have a child

17 and younger 81%
18-19 57%
20-24 28%

Women cannot afford a baby now

17 and younger 73%
18-19 73%
20-24 70%

Women does not want others to know
she has had sex or is pregnant

17 and younger 42%
18-19 41%
20-24 35%

Women's parents want her to have an
abortion

17 and younger 28%
18-19 12%
20-24 4%

Source: A. Torres and J.D. Forrest, "Why Do Women Have Abortions?"
Family Planning Perspectives, 20:169--176, 1988, Table 1, p. 170.

Note: The reasons given are not mutually exclusive. Most women gave
multiple reasons.

Note: Table made from bar graph
FIGURE 38

DO PARENTS KNOW?


Most teenagers having an abortion say that a parent, usually their
mother, knows about the abortion. Younger women are the most likely to
have talked with their parents about the decision to have an abortion.

% of women having abortions, 1990-1991

 Both mother and
 Only mother knows father know Only father knows

14 and younger 45 43 90%
15 46 27 74%
16 33 25 59%
17 30 19 51%

Source: S. K. Henshaw and K. Kost, Parental Involvement in Minors'
Abortions Decisions." Family Planning Perspectives, 24:196-207, 213,
1992, Table 8, p. 205.

Note: Table made from bar graph
FIGURE 39

DECLINE IN ADOPTION

The chances that children of never-married women will be placed for
adoption have dropped.

% of babies born to never-married women placed for adoption

 White Black

1965-1972 19% 2%
1973-1981 8% 0.2%
1982-1988 3% 1%

Source: C. A. Bachrach, K. S. Stolley and K. A. London, "Relinquishment
of Premarital Births: Evidence from National Survey Data," Family
Planning Perspectives, 24:27-32, 48, 1992, Table 1, p. 29.

Notes: In this figure, "white" is defined as "white, non-Hispanic," and
"black" is defined as "black, non-Hispanic." Percentages are based on
data from the 1982 and 1988 National Survey of Famliy Growth and refer
to premarital births that had occurred to women who were aged 15-44 at
either survey.

Note: Table made from bar graph
FIGURE 40

BIRTHRATES RISING

After a 15-year decline among sexually experienced teenagers, birthrates
among both sexually experienced and all teenage women have begun to go
up.

Births per 1,000 women aged 15-19

 All women Sexually experienced
 women

1972 62 165
1973 59 154
1974 58 144
1975 56 134
1976 53 123
1977 53 122
1978 51 117
1979 52 118
1980 53 118
1981 52 115
1982 52 114
1983 51 108
1984 51 104
1985 51 103
1986 50 100
1987 51 98
1988 53 99
1989 57 103
1990 60 107

Sources: National center for Health Statistics, "Advance Report of Final
Natality Statistics, 1991," Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 42,
No. 3, Supplement, 1993, Table 4, p. 20. Sexual experience: E. F. Jones
et at., Teenage Pregnancy in Industrialized Countries, Yale university
Press, New Haven and London, 1986, Table 3.5, p. 47; J. D. Forrst and S.
Singh, "The Sexual and Reproductive Behavior of American Women,
1982-1988," Family Planning Perspectives, 22: 206-214, 1990, Tables 1
and 3, pp. 207 and 208.

Notes: Sexually experienced women: The sexually experienced population
was estimated by interpolating from data for 1971, 1976, 1982 and 1988.
To estimate sexual activity after 1988, data were extrapolated for 1989
and 1990 using the 1982-1988 trend.

Note: Table made from line graph
FIGURE 41

PARENTHOOD, BY GENDER

Fewer teenage men than women are parents; teenage fathers are olde than
teenage mothers.

Births to women and men 19 and younger, 1988

 Women Men

14 and younger 11,000 --
15 26,000 --
16 55,000 9,000
17 96,000 42,000
18 133,000 57,000
19 168,000 87,000
 489,000 195,000


Sources: Women: National Center for Health Statistics, "Advance Report
of Final Natality Statistics, 1988," Monthly Vital Statistics Report,
Vol. 39, No. 4, Supplement, 1990, Table 2, p. 16. Men: AGI tabulations
of data from the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey.

Note: When age of father was not reported on the birth certificate
portion of the National Maternal and Infant Health Survey (NMIHS), the
mother's report of father's age at the time of birth was calculated
from the interview portion of the NMIHS. For men, the youngest age
group is 16 and younger.

Note: Table made from bar graph
FIGURE 42

For a sizable minority of young women becoming mothers, the father of
the baby is considerably older--by six years or more.

 % of women giving birth who
 have partners at least six
Age of woman years older, 1988

15 30%
16 15%
17 18%
18 21%
19 18%
15-19 19%

Source: AGI tabulations of data of from the 1988 National Maternal and
Infant Health Survey.

Note: When age of father was not reported on the birth certificate
portion of the National Maternal and Infant Health Survey (NMIHS), the
mother's report of father's age at the time of birth was calculated from
the interview portion of the NMIHS.

Note: Table made from bar graph
FIGURE 43

RACIAL DIFFERENCES IN BIRTHRATES

At each age, young black and Hispanic women are more likely than white
women to give birth.

Births per 1,000 women, 1990

 Black Hispanic White

10-14 5 2 0.5
15-17 84 65 23
18-19 163 148 72
20-24 165 181 98

Sources: National Center for Health Statistics, "Advance Report of Final
Natality Statistics, 1990," Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 41,
No. 9, Supplement, 1993, Tables 3, 24 and 25, pp. 20, 40 and 41; F. W.
Hollmann, "Estimates of the Population of the United States by Age, Sex,
and Race," Current Population Reports, Series P-25, No. 1095, 1993,
Table 1, p.4.

Note: The data exclude New Hampshire and Oklahoma, which did not report
Hispanic origin of mother on the birth certificate.

Note: Table made from bar graph
FIGURE 44

BIRTHS OUT OF WEDLOCK

The percentage of first births to teenagers that occur out of wedlock
has increased dramatically since the early 1960s--from 33% to 81%

 First births to women First births to women
 aged 15-17, aged 15-17,

 1960-1964: 731,000 1985-1989: 673,000
Nonmarital birth 33% 81%
Legitimated birth 26% 11%
Marital birth 41% 8%

Source: A. Bachu, "Fertility of American Women: June 1990," Current
Population Reports, Series P-20, No. 452, 1991, Table E, p. 7.

Note: "Nonmarital birth" denotes conception and birth outside marriage.
"Legitimated birth" denotes conception outside marriage and birth in
marriage.

Note: Table made from pie chart
FIGURE 45

OUT-OF-WEDLOCK BIRTHS, BY AGE

The younger the mother, the more likely it is that she first conceived
and gave birth outside marriage.

% of first births to women aged 15-24, 1985-1989

 Nonmarital birth Legitimated birth

15-17 81 11 92%
18-19 59 19 78%
20-24 27 15 42%

Source: A. Bachu, "Fertility of American Women: June 1990," Current
Population Reports, Series P-20, No. 454, 1991, Table E, p. 7.

Note: "Nonmarital birth" denotes conception and birth outside marriage.
"Legitimated birth" denotes conception outside marriage and birth in
marriage.

Note: Table made from bar graph
FIGURE 46

NONMARITAL BIRTHS, BY RACE

Births to black teenagers are more likely to be nonmarital than are
births to whites.

 All births to black All births to white
 women aged 19 and women aged 19 and
 younger, 1990: 158,000 younger, 1990: 359,500

Nonmarital birth 92% 57%
Marital birth 8% 43%

Source: National Center for Health Statistics, "Advance Report of Final
Natality Statistics, 1990," Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 41,
No. 9, Supplement, 1993, Table 2, pp. 18-19, and Table 16, p. 33.

Notes: In this figure, the terms "black" and "white" refer to race;
Hispanics are categorized by race, not by ethnicity. "Marital birth"
denotes conception and birth in marriage, as well as conception outside
marriage and birth in marriage.

Note: Table made from pie chart
FIGURE 47

GETTING MARRIED, WITH CHILD

Some 31% of women who marry at age 19 or younger already have a child or
are pregnant.

 Women under age 25 in 1988
 who first married at age
 19 or younger

Have one child or more 11%
Currently pregnant 20%
Not pregnant and have
 no child 69%

Source: AGI tabulations of data from the 1988 National Survey of Family
Growth.

Note: "Currently pregnant" women are those whose first baby was born
seven months or less after their first marriage.

Note: Table made from pie chart
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No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
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Date:Jan 1, 1994
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