Outcomes of adolescent pregnancies.A woman can resolve a pregnancy in one of three ways: She can have an abortion; she can give birth and become a parent; or she can give birth and relinquish the baby for adoption. The overwhelming majority of teenagers choose either abortion or raising the child themselves. Since the late 1980s, the proportion of pregnant teenagers giving birth has increased slightly (Figure 33, page 44). About half of adolescent pregnancies end in birth, slightly over a third in abortion and the rest in miscarriage (166) (Figure 34, page 45). Although most adolescent pregnancies are unintended, teenagers account for fewer than a third of all unintended births, nonmarital births and abortions each year (Figure 35, page 46).
In the years immediately following legalization LEGALIZATION. The act of making lawful.
2. By legalization, is also understood the act by which a judge or competent officer authenticates a record, or other matter, in order that the same may be lawfully read in evidence. Vide Authentication. of abortion in 1973, reported adolescent abortion rates increased considerably, and then were relatively stable until the late 1980s, even though a higher proportion of teenage women were becoming sexually active. Since 1980, however, abortion rates among sexually experienced adolescent women have declined steadily, both because a lower proportion of teenagers have become pregnant and because a lower proportion of pregnant teenagers have chosen to have an abortion (Figure 36, page 47). Adolescents account for roughly a quarter of all abortions performed annually. (167)
Terminating Unintended Pregnancies. The majority of unintended pregnancies among teenagers end in abortion. (168)
* In all, 53% of 15-19-year-old teenagers who experience unintended pregnancies have an abortion, compared with 47% of older women who have unintended pregnancies.
* Married teenagers are considerably less likely than their unmarried peers to terminate unintended pregnancies, perhaps because they have the support of a spouse and their family, or because married couples are more likely to be employed, have higher incomes and are more willing to have children than unmarried women and their partners.
* Still, about a quarter of unintended pregnancies among married adolescents end in abortion each year. (169)
In general, teenagers from families that are better off financially are more likely than those from poorer homes to terminate unintended pregnancies. (170)
* Nearly three-quarters of higher income teenagers who accidentally become pregnant have abortions, compared with fewer than half of those from poor or low-income families. (171)
* Those who are covered by Medicaid for the cost of their health care are considerably less likely to have abortions (172) --in part because most states do not pay for abortion services under Medicaid (173) (but all states pay for prenatal care prenatal care,
n the health care provided the mother and fetus before childbirth. and child-birth). The average cost of an outpatient, first-trimester abortion is $250. (174)
* Pregnant teenagers whose parents have more education are more likely than those with less-educated parents to end their pregnancies in abortion. (175)
* Those who have a stronger orientation toward the future also are relatively likely to choose abortion. (176)
Race and ethnicity make a difference. So does the age of the man involved in the pregnancy.
(*) Nearly 60% of white teenagers whose pregnancies were unintended choose abortion, compared with fewer than 50% of black and Hispanic adolescents. (177)
(*) Among pregnant women under age 18 whose male partners are also under 18,61% have abortions, compared with 57% of those whose partners are 18-19, and 33% of those whose partners are aged 20 or older. (178)
Deciding on Abortion. Teenagers who have abortions most often cite their young age and low income as the reasons why they decided to end their pregnancies (179) (Figure 37, page 48).
Historically, states have required that parents give their consent before their minor child receives medical treatment. (In all but four states, the age of majority is 18.) There have long been exceptions to this rule, however, and many states now authorize minors to make their own decisions about reproductive health Within the framework of WHO's definition of health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health, or sexual health/hygiene care, such as prenatal care, contraceptive services, and STD testing An STD test is a medical test for the presence of any of a number of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Most STD tests are blood tests. STD tests may test for a single disease, or consist of a number of individual tests for any of a wide range of STDs, including tests for and treatment. Furthermore, no state specifically requires parental involvement for a minor to obtain these services. The trend in abortion law Abortion law is legislation which pertains to the provision of abortion. Abortion has at times emerged as a controversial subject in various societies because of the moral and ethical issues that surround it, though other considerations, such as a state's pro- or antinatalist has been just the opposite, however. (180)
(*) Only three states--Connecticut, Maine and Wisconsin--and the District of Columbia District of Columbia, federal district (2000 pop. 572,059, a 5.7% decrease in population since the 1990 census), 69 sq mi (179 sq km), on the east bank of the Potomac River, coextensive with the city of Washington, D.C. (the capital of the United States). have laws that allow a minor to consent to abortion services on her own. These states require counseling of the minor or strongly encourage her to involve her parents in her decision.
(*) On the other hand, 21 states have enacted statutes that require a minor either to have the consent of or to notify a parent (and in some cases, both parents) prior to having an abortion. In most of these states, a minor can avoid involving a parent by going to court and obtaining a judge's authorization for an abortion. This legal option is not always known or understood by teenagers, however, and can lead to delay in obtaining an abortion or, by default, to an unintended birth. (181)
* In the remaining states, the law is silent on the issue of parents' role in a minor's access to abortion.
What Parents Know. Even in states where parental involvement is not mandated, six in 10 unmarried teenagers under age 18 having an abortion say at least one parent--usually their mother--knows of their decision to terminate a pregnancy (182) (Figure 38, page 49).
* The younger the teenager, the more likely she is to talk with at least one parent.
* Teenagers who consult their parents often say that they would not feel right keeping their pregnancy a secret from their parents, or that they need their parents' moral support and help in deciding what to do and how to get an abortion.
* Many young women who do not tell their parents about their pregnancy say they do not want to hurt or disappoint their parents or face their parents' anger.
Involvement of Male Partners.
Teenagers who do not inform their parents about their pregnancy do talk to someone other than an abortion clinic An abortion clinic is a medical facility that performs or specializes in abortions. Such clinics may be public medical centers or private medical practices.
Planned Parenthood, whose clinics offer abortions as well as other reproductive care and counseling, is the largest staff member, most often their boyfriend, about their decision. (183)
* More than three-quarters of women under 18 having abortions talk over their decision with their boyfriend, who, in most cases, is the man involved in the pregnancy.
* Most consult their boyfriend even if their parents know about their decision to have an abortion.
* Half the young women have help from their boyfriend in paying for the abortion. (About two-fifths receive financial support from their parents, and about a quarter pay for the abortion themselves.)
As childbearing outside marriage has become less stigmatized, the likelihood that a woman will place her baby for adoption has declined dramatically (184) (Figure 39, page 50).
* The decline has occurred almost exclusively among white women. Between 1982 and 1988, only 3% of never-married, non-Hispanic white women relinquished their infants for adoption, whereas 19% had done so during the period 1965-1972.
* Historically, black teenage women have rarely placed infants for adoption.
Births and Parenthood
Between the mid-1960s and the mid 1980s, birthrates among sexually experienced teenagers declined. Since 1986, however, birthrates have been rising, especially among 18-19-year-olds (185) (Figure 40, page 51).
The increase has occurred among teenagers of all races, but has been especially pronounced among young Hispanic women. (186) The rise has occurred among sexually experienced teenagers and all adolescent women alike, which indicates that it reflects not only the higher proportions of teenagers having intercourse, but also the higher proportion of pregnant teenagers giving birth rather than having abortions.
* Of all births in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. , 12% are to adolescents--4% to those under age 18 and 8% to 18-19-year-olds. (187)
* More adolescent women than teenage men become parents each year. In 1988, about 489,000 teenage women became mothers, but only 195,000 adolescent males became fathers (188) (Figure 41, page 52). The difference reflects that many of the fathers of babies born to adolescent women are not teenagers (189) (Figure 42, page 53).
* Although the recent increases in birth-rates have been similar for black and white teenagers, black, as well as Hispanic, adolescents are substantially more likely than whites to give birth (190) (Figure 43, page 54).
* There is considerable variation in birthrates within racial and ethnic groups, however. On average, for example, 10% of Hispanic women aged 15-19 give birth each year; but only 3% of young women of Cuban descent, who tend to be among the most advantaged Hispanic group, have a baby, compared with 10-11% of teenagers of Mexican and Puerto Rican Puer·to Ri·co
Abbr. PR or P.R.
A self-governing island commonwealth of the United States in the Caribbean Sea east of Hispaniola. descent, who are more likely to be disadvantaged. (191)
Out-of-Wedlock Births. One of the most fundamental changes in patterns of childbearing and family structure over the last several decades has been the growing proportion of babies conceived and born outside marriage. The increase has occurred among women of all ages; it has been more rapid among older women than among teenagers. While most births to teenagers occur outside marriage, adolescents account for only 30% of all out-ofwedlock births, down from 50% in 1970. 
Among teenagers, there has been a dramatic shift in the pattern of first births (193) (Figure 44, page 55).
* In 1960-1964, 59% of first births to women aged 15u17 occurred among teenagers who had conceived outside marriage; 26% of young first-time mothers had married while pregnant, however, so that only a third of first births to women in this age-group occurred out of wedlock wed·lock
The state of being married; matrimony.
out of wedlock
Of parents not legally married to each other: born out of wedlock. .
By 1985-1989, 92% of first births to 15-17-year-olds occurred among women who had conceived outside marriage, and only 11% of new mothers had married while pregnant. Thus, 81% of first births to women aged 15--17 in 1985--1989 occurred outside marriage.
* The same pattern is evident for 18--19-year-olds, although the proportion of first births occurring to unmarried women was lower (Figure 45, page 56).
Out-of-wedlock births account for nearly seven in 10 of all births to adolescent women. (194)
* In 1990, about 361,000 unmarried adolescent women gave birth.
* In that year, more than nine in 10 black mothers under 20 were unmarried when they gave birth, compared with fewer than six in 10 white teenagers (Figure 46, page 57).
* Among whites, the proportion of births that are out-of-wedlock declines sharply with age, but among blacks, it drops only slightly with increasing age, because marriage among blacks is less common.
* Nearly three-quarters of births to poor teenagers and to higher income teenagers occur out of wedlock, compared with slightly fewer than half of births to low-income teenagers. (195)
About a third of adolescent women marrying for the first time have a child or are pregnant, although the likelihood differs by race and age (Figure 47, page 57). The few black women who marry in their teenage years are much more likely than Hispanic and white brides to be mothers already or to be pregnant at their wedding. (196)
Overwhelmingly, pregnant teenagers either have an abortion or give birth and raise the child themselves; adoption is rare. White adolescents and those from more advantaged backgrounds generally elect to terminate their pregnancies. Childbearing, meanwhile, is concentrated among teenagers who are poor or black. Young mothers, then, tend already to be disadvantaged at the time of their child's birth. They also are at risk of falling further behind their more advantaged peers who have chosen to postpone childbearing.
(166.) Henshaw and Van Vort, 1989, p. 85.
(167.) Henshaw, 1992, Table 1, p. 86.
(168.) AGI (Artificial General Intelligence) A machine intelligence that resembles that of a human being. Considered impossible by many, most artificial intelligence (AI) research, projects and products deal with specific applications such as industrial robots, playing chess, , 1993d; Henshaw, 1992.
(169.) AGI, 1993d; AGI, 1993e; Henshaw, 1992, Table 1, p. 86.
(170.) Zabin, Hirsch and Boscia, 1990, pp. 109, 112.
(171.) AGI, 1993d; AGI, 1993e; Henshaw, 1992, Table 1, p. 86.
(172.) AGI, 1993d; AGI, 1993e; Henshaw, 1992, Table 1, p. 86
(173.) Daley and Gold, 1993, p. 244; Table 2, pp. 250-251.
(174.) Henshaw, 1991, p. 249.
(175.) Cooksey, 1990, p. 213.
(176.) Blum and Resnick, 1982.
(177.) AGI, 1993d; AGI, 1993e; Henshaw, 1992, Table 1, p. 86.
(178.) AGI, 1993d; AGI, 1993e; Henshaw, 1992, Table 1, p. 86.
(179.) Torres and Forrest, 1988, Table 1, p. 170.
(180.) Donovan, 1992, pp. 6-7, 10-11; Appendix Table 1, pp. 30-35.
The age of majority is 19 in Alabama, Nebraska and Wyoming. In Mississippi, it is 21, although the general age of consent to medical care is 18.
More than half the states have laws that expressly permit minors to obtain prenatal care and delivery services on their own consent, and nearly half authorize minors to consent to contraceptive services. All states except South Carolina South Carolina, state of the SE United States. It is bordered by North Carolina (N), the Atlantic Ocean (SE), and Georgia (SW). Facts and Figures
Area, 31,055 sq mi (80,432 sq km). Pop. (2000) 4,012,012, a 15. explicitly allow minors to obtain STD testing and treatment without their parents' knowledge. South Carolina, however, authorizes minors 16 and older to consent to any legal health service.
(181.) Donovan, 1992, pp. 23-26.
(182.) Henshaw and Kost, 1992, p. 199; Table 3, p. 200; Table 5, p. 202.
(183.) Henshaw and Kost, 1992, Table 8, pp. 205-206. Nine in 10 of these young women consult their boyfriend; nearly a quarter talk with a professional, such as a health care provider or minister or rabbi; half consult another adult.
(184.) Bachrach, Stolley and London, 1992, Table 1, p. 29; Figure 1, p. 31.
(185.) NCHS NCHS National Center for Health Statistics
NCHS Naperville Central High School (Illinois)
NCHS North Central High School
NCHS Natrona County High School (Wyoming)
NCHS National Center for Health Services , 1993b, Table 4, p. 20.
Between the mid-1960s and mid-1980s, the annual birthrate birth·rate or birth rate
The ratio of total live births to total population in a specified community or area over a specified period of time, often expressed as the number of live births per 1,000 of the population per year. averaged only one birth per 1,000 women under age 15 and about 34 per 1,000 for women aged 15-17. Among 13-19-year olds and 20-24-year-olds, birthrates declined sharply from 1966 through 1976 and remained relatively stable for the next 10 years at about 80 per 1,000 and 111 per 1,000, respectively. Between 1986 and 1991, the birthrate steadily increased, from about 31 per 1,000 to 39 per 1,000 for 15-17-year-olds, and from about 80 per 1,000 to 94 per 1,000 for 13-19-year-olds.
(186.) Moore, 1993, p. 2.
(187.) NCHS, 1993b, Table 2, p. 18.
(188.) AGI, 1993d; NCHS, 1990a, Table 2, p. 16.
(189.) AGI, 1993d.
(190.) NCHS, 1993a, Table 3, p. 20; Table 24, p. 40; Table 25, p. 41.
(191.) NCHS, 1993a, Table 24, p. 40.
(192.) Moore, 1993.
(193.) Bachu, 1991, Table E, p. 7.
(194.) NCHS, 1993a, Table 2, pp. 18-19; Table 16, p. 33.
(195.) AGI, 1993d.
(196.) AGI, 1993b.
More than four in 10 black brides have a child, compared with fewer than one in 10 Hispanic and white brides. Older teenagers are about twice as likely as younger brides to already have a child when they marry, but women under age 18 are more likely lobe pregnant.
Alan Guttmacher Alan Frank Guttmacher (1898-1974) was an American physician.
He served as president of Planned Parenthood and vice-president of the American Eugenics Society, founded the Association for the Study of Abortion in 1964, was a member of the Association for Voluntary Institute (AGI), "Polities of Sex Halts Youth Survey," Family Planning family planning
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AGI, tabulations of data from the 1990 Youth Risk Behavior Survey The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is a biannual survey of adolescent health risk and health protective behaviors such as smoking, drinking, drug use, diet, and physical activity conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. , 1993c.
AGI, tabulations of data from the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey, 1993d.
AGI, tabulations of data from the 1987 AGI Abortion Patient Survey, 1993e.
AGI, tabulations of data from the 1987 National Survey of Families and Households, 1993f.
AGI, tabulations of data from the 1988 National Health Interview Survey--Child Supplement, 1993g.
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Aral, S. O. and M. E. Guinan, "Women and Sexually Transmitted Diseases Sexually transmitted diseases
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Atwater, E., Adolescence, third ed., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1992.
Axinn, W. G. and A. Thornton, "Mothers, Children, and Cohabitation A living arrangement in which an unmarried couple lives together in a long-term relationship that resembles a marriage.
Couples cohabit, rather than marry, for a variety of reasons. They may want to test their compatibility before they commit to a legal union. : The Intergenerational in·ter·gen·er·a·tion·al
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Bachrach, C. A., K. S. Stolley and K. A. London, "Relinquishment of Premarital Births: Evidence from National Survey Data," Family Planning Perspectives, 24:27-32, 1992.
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Blum, R. W. and M. D. Resnick, "Adolescent Sexual Decision-Making: Contraception, Pregnancy, Abortion, Motherhood," Pediatric pediatric /pe·di·at·ric/ (pe?de-at´rik) pertaining to the health of children.
Of or relating to pediatrics. Annals, 11:797-805, 1982.
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Bongaarts, J. and R. Potter, Biology and Behavior: An Analysis of the Proximate proximate /prox·i·mate/ (prok´si-mit) immediate or nearest.
Closely related in space, time, or order; very near; proximal.
immediate; nearest. Determinants, Academic Press, New York, 1983.
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Cassese, J., "The Invisible Bridge: Child Abuse and the Risk of HIV HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), either of two closely related retroviruses that invade T-helper lymphocytes and are responsible for AIDS. There are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is responsible for the vast majority of AIDS in the United States. Infection in Childhood," SIECUS Report, 21(4):1-7, 1993.
Cates Jr., W. and K. M. Stone, "Family Planning, Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Contraceptive Choice: A Literature Update--Part I," Family Planning Perspectives, 24:75-84, 1992a.
Cates Jr., W. and K. M. Stone, "Family Planning, Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Contraceptive Choice: A Literature Update--Part II," Family Planning Perspectives, 24:122-128, 1992b.
Center for Population Options, Teenage Pregnancy teenage pregnancy Adolescent pregnancy, teen pregnancy Social medicine Pregnancy by a ♀, age 13 to 19; TP is usually understood to occur in a ♀ who has not completed her core education–secondary school, has few or no marketable skills, is and Too-Early Childbearing: Public Costs, Personal Consequences, Washington, D.C., 1992.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), agency of the U.S. Public Health Service since 1973, with headquarters in Atlanta; it was established in 1946 as the Communicable Disease Center. (CDC See Control Data, century date change and Back Orifice.
CDC - Control Data Corporation ), "Current Tobacco, Alcohol, Marijuana and Cocaine Use Among High School Students--United States, 1990," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) is a weekly epidemiological digest for the United States published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The 5 June 1981 issue of the MMWR published the cases of five men in what turned out to be the first report of AIDS. , 40:659-663, 1991a.
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CDC, Division of STD/HIV Prevention 1991 Annual Report, Atlanta, 1992.
CDC, Division of STD/HIV Prevention 1992 Annual Report, Atlanta, 1993.
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Chamie, M. et al., "Factors Affecting Adolescents' Use of Family Planning Clinics," Family Planning Perspectives, 14:126-139, 1982.
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Any surgical procedure intended to end fertility permanently (see contraception). Such operations remove or interrupt the anatomical pathways through which the cells involved in fertilization travel (see reproductive system). and Abortion Services, Fiscal Year 1992," Family Planning Perspectives, 25:244-251, 1993.
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Effler, P. et al, "High Prevalence of Chlamydia chlamydia (kləmĭd`ēə), genus of microorganisms that cause a variety of diseases in humans and other animals. Psittacosis, or parrot fever, caused by the species Chlamydia psittaci, in Female Adolescents Reporting Only One Lifetime Sex Partner," paper presented at the 32nd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (print-ISSN 0066-4804, CODEN AMACCQ; canceled ISSN 0074-9923, canceled CODEN AACHAX) is an academic journal published by the American Society for Microbiology. , Anaheim, Calif., Oct. 11-14, 1992.
Eisen, M. and G. L. Zeilman, "A Health Benefits Field Experiment: Teen Talk Teen Talk is an episode in the animated series Beavis and Butt-head. It is part of the fourth season (1994-95), and is available on DVD as part of Volume 1. ," in B. C. Miller et al., eds., Preventing Adolescent Pregnancy, Sage Publications, Newbury Park, Calif., 1992, pp. 220-264.
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Ferguson, J., "Youth at the Threshold At the Threshold, whose son Lil E. Tee won the 1992 Kentucky Derby for W. Cal Partee, died March 23 of a stroke at Purdue University School of Veterinary Medicine in West Lafayette, Ind. The 21-year-old stallion stood at Wayne Houston's Stoney Creek Horse Farm near Mooreland, Ind. of the 21st Century: The Demographic Situation," Journal of Adolescent Health, 14:638-644, 1993.
Food and Drug Administration, Fertility and Maternal Health Maternal health care is a concept that encompasses preconception, prenatal, and postnatal care. Goals of preconception care can include providing health promotion, screening and interventions for women of reproductive age to reduce risk factors that might affect future pregnancies. Drug Advisory Committee vote, Washington, D.C., May 20, 1993.
Forrest, J. D., "Timing of Reproductive Life Stages," Obstetrics and Gynecology, 82:105-111, 1993.
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Forrest, J. D., A. I. Hermalin and S. K. Henshaw, "The Impact of Family Planning Clinic family planning clinic n → clínica de planificación familiar
family planning clinic n → centre m de planning familial
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FIGURE 33 HIGHER PROPORTION OF PREGNANT TEENAGERS GIVING BIRTH Since 1988, the proportion of teenage pregnancies ending in birth rather than abortion has risen. % of pregnancies among women aged 15-19 ending in birth 1972 76 1973 72 1974 68 1975 64 1976 61 1977 59 1978 56 1979 55 1980 55 1981 55 1982 55 1983 54 1984 54 1985 54 1986 54 1987 55 1988 55 1989 58 1990 60% Sources: Births, 1972-1990: National Center for Health Monthy Vital Statistics Report, Vols. 23-41, Supplements, 1974-1993. Abortions, 1973-1988: S. K. Henshaw and J. Van Vort, eds., Abortion Factbook, 1992 Edition: Readings, Trends and State and Local Data to 1988, AGI, New York, 1992, Table 1, pp. 172-173; 1972, 1989-1990: S. K. Henshaw, "U.S. Teenage Pregnancy Statistics," AGI, New York, 1993. Note: Pregnancies do not include miscarriages. Note: Table made from line graph FIGURE 34 TEENAGE PREGNANCY OUTCOMES Half of the more than 1 million pregnancies among adolescent women each year end in birth; a third end in abortion. Most of the births are unintended. Estimated pregnancies among women aged 19 and younger, 1990: 1,040,000 Miscarriage 14% Intended birth 14% Unintended birth 37% Abortion 35% Sources: Births: National Center for Health Statistics, "Advance Report of Final Natality Statistics, 1990," Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 41, No. 9, Supplement 1993, Table 2, p. 18. Abortions: S.K. Henshaw, "U.S. Teenage Pregnancy Statistics," AGI, New York, 1993. Birth Intention status: AGI tabulations of data from the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey. Notes: Miscarriages are estimated as 20% of births and 10% of abortions. To estimate the number of intended and unintended births, the distribution of births by intention status in 1988 was applied to the total number of births in 1990. Note: Table made from pie chart. FIGUES 35 TEENAGERS A SMALL PART OF A LARGER PROBLEM Teenagers account for fewer than a third of all abortions, nonmarital births and unintended births each year. Nonmarital Unintended Abortions, births, births, 1990: 1990: 1990: 1,609,000 1,165,000 1,796,000 Aged 17 and younger 9% 13% 8% Aged 18-19 14% 18% 13% Aged 20 and older 77% 69% 79% Sources: Pregnancies and abortions: S. K. Henshaw, "U.S. Teenage Pregnancy Statistics," AGI, New York, 1993; other AGI unpublished data. Births: National Center for Health Statistics, "Advance Report of Final Natality Statistics, 1990," Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 41, No. 9, Supplement, 1993, Table 16, p. 33. Birth intention status: AGI tabulations of data from the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey. Note: To estimate the number of intended and unintended births, the distribution of births by intention status in 1988 was applied to the total number of births in 1990. Note: Table made from pie chart FIGURE 36 DECLINE IN TEENAGEABORTION RATES Since the late 1970s, the abortion rate has declined among sexually experienced teenagers. Abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-19 Sexually All women experienced women 1972 51 19 1973 59 23 1974 68 27 1975 75 31 1976 80 34 1977 86 37 1978 90 40 1979 95 42 1980 95 43 1981 94 43 1982 93 43 1983 91 43 1984 89 43 1985 88 44 1986 84 42 1987 81 42 1988 81 43 1989 76 42 1990 72 41 Sources: Abortions, 1973- 1988: S. K. Henshaw and J. Van Vort, eds., Abortion Factbook, 1992 Edition: Readings, Trends, and State and Local Data to 1988, AGI, New York, 1992, Table 1, pp. 172-173; 1972, 1989-1990: S.K. Henshaw, "U.S. Teenage Pregnancy Statistics," AGI, New York, 1993. Sexually experienced women: E. F. Jones et al., Teenage Pregnancy in Industrial Countries, Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 1986, Table 3.5, P. 47; J.D. Forrest and S. Singh, "The Sexual and Reproductive Behavior of American Women, 1982-1988," Family Planning Perspectives, 22:206-214, 1990, Tables 1 and 3, pp. 207 and 208. Notes: Sexually experienced women: The sexually experienced population was estimated by interpolating from data for 1971, 1976, 1982 and 1988. To estimate sexual activity after 1988, data were extrapolated for 1989 and 1990 using the 1982-1988 trend. Note: Table made from line graph FIGURE 37 FACTORS IN ABORTION CHOICE Teenagers who have abortions most commonly give their young age and low income as reasons for making that decision. Reason % of women having abortions, 1987 Woman is not mature enough or is too young to have a child 17 and younger 81% 18-19 57% 20-24 28% Women cannot afford a baby now 17 and younger 73% 18-19 73% 20-24 70% Women does not want others to know she has had sex or is pregnant 17 and younger 42% 18-19 41% 20-24 35% Women's parents want her to have an abortion 17 and younger 28% 18-19 12% 20-24 4% Source: A. Torres and J.D. Forrest, "Why Do Women Have Abortions?" Family Planning Perspectives, 20:169--176, 1988, Table 1, p. 170. Note: The reasons given are not mutually exclusive. Most women gave multiple reasons. Note: Table made from bar graph FIGURE 38 DO PARENTS KNOW? Most teenagers having an abortion say that a parent, usually their mother, knows about the abortion. Younger women are the most likely to have talked with their parents about the decision to have an abortion. % of women having abortions, 1990-1991 Both mother and Only mother knows father know Only father knows 14 and younger 45 43 90% 15 46 27 74% 16 33 25 59% 17 30 19 51% Source: S. K. Henshaw and K. Kost, Parental Involvement in Minors' Abortions Decisions." Family Planning Perspectives, 24:196-207, 213, 1992, Table 8, p. 205. Note: Table made from bar graph FIGURE 39 DECLINE IN ADOPTION The chances that children of never-married women will be placed for adoption have dropped. % of babies born to never-married women placed for adoption White Black 1965-1972 19% 2% 1973-1981 8% 0.2% 1982-1988 3% 1% Source: C. A. Bachrach, K. S. Stolley and K. A. London, "Relinquishment of Premarital Births: Evidence from National Survey Data," Family Planning Perspectives, 24:27-32, 48, 1992, Table 1, p. 29. Notes: In this figure, "white" is defined as "white, non-Hispanic," and "black" is defined as "black, non-Hispanic." Percentages are based on data from the 1982 and 1988 National Survey of Famliy Growth and refer to premarital births that had occurred to women who were aged 15-44 at either survey. Note: Table made from bar graph FIGURE 40 BIRTHRATES RISING After a 15-year decline among sexually experienced teenagers, birthrates among both sexually experienced and all teenage women have begun to go up. Births per 1,000 women aged 15-19 All women Sexually experienced women 1972 62 165 1973 59 154 1974 58 144 1975 56 134 1976 53 123 1977 53 122 1978 51 117 1979 52 118 1980 53 118 1981 52 115 1982 52 114 1983 51 108 1984 51 104 1985 51 103 1986 50 100 1987 51 98 1988 53 99 1989 57 103 1990 60 107 Sources: National center for Health Statistics, "Advance Report of Final Natality Statistics, 1991," Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 42, No. 3, Supplement, 1993, Table 4, p. 20. Sexual experience: E. F. Jones et at., Teenage Pregnancy in Industrialized Countries, Yale university Press, New Haven and London, 1986, Table 3.5, p. 47; J. D. Forrst and S. Singh, "The Sexual and Reproductive Behavior of American Women, 1982-1988," Family Planning Perspectives, 22: 206-214, 1990, Tables 1 and 3, pp. 207 and 208. Notes: Sexually experienced women: The sexually experienced population was estimated by interpolating from data for 1971, 1976, 1982 and 1988. To estimate sexual activity after 1988, data were extrapolated for 1989 and 1990 using the 1982-1988 trend. Note: Table made from line graph FIGURE 41 PARENTHOOD, BY GENDER Fewer teenage men than women are parents; teenage fathers are olde than teenage mothers. Births to women and men 19 and younger, 1988 Women Men 14 and younger 11,000 -- 15 26,000 -- 16 55,000 9,000 17 96,000 42,000 18 133,000 57,000 19 168,000 87,000 489,000 195,000 Sources: Women: National Center for Health Statistics, "Advance Report of Final Natality Statistics, 1988," Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 39, No. 4, Supplement, 1990, Table 2, p. 16. Men: AGI tabulations of data from the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey. Note: When age of father was not reported on the birth certificate portion of the National Maternal and Infant Health Survey (NMIHS), the mother's report of father's age at the time of birth was calculated from the interview portion of the NMIHS. For men, the youngest age group is 16 and younger. Note: Table made from bar graph FIGURE 42 For a sizable minority of young women becoming mothers, the father of the baby is considerably older--by six years or more. % of women giving birth who have partners at least six Age of woman years older, 1988 15 30% 16 15% 17 18% 18 21% 19 18% 15-19 19% Source: AGI tabulations of data of from the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey. Note: When age of father was not reported on the birth certificate portion of the National Maternal and Infant Health Survey (NMIHS), the mother's report of father's age at the time of birth was calculated from the interview portion of the NMIHS. Note: Table made from bar graph FIGURE 43 RACIAL DIFFERENCES IN BIRTHRATES At each age, young black and Hispanic women are more likely than white women to give birth. Births per 1,000 women, 1990 Black Hispanic White 10-14 5 2 0.5 15-17 84 65 23 18-19 163 148 72 20-24 165 181 98 Sources: National Center for Health Statistics, "Advance Report of Final Natality Statistics, 1990," Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 41, No. 9, Supplement, 1993, Tables 3, 24 and 25, pp. 20, 40 and 41; F. W. Hollmann, "Estimates of the Population of the United States by Age, Sex, and Race," Current Population Reports, Series P-25, No. 1095, 1993, Table 1, p.4. Note: The data exclude New Hampshire and Oklahoma, which did not report Hispanic origin of mother on the birth certificate. Note: Table made from bar graph FIGURE 44 BIRTHS OUT OF WEDLOCK The percentage of first births to teenagers that occur out of wedlock has increased dramatically since the early 1960s--from 33% to 81% First births to women First births to women aged 15-17, aged 15-17, 1960-1964: 731,000 1985-1989: 673,000 Nonmarital birth 33% 81% Legitimated birth 26% 11% Marital birth 41% 8% Source: A. Bachu, "Fertility of American Women: June 1990," Current Population Reports, Series P-20, No. 452, 1991, Table E, p. 7. Note: "Nonmarital birth" denotes conception and birth outside marriage. "Legitimated birth" denotes conception outside marriage and birth in marriage. Note: Table made from pie chart FIGURE 45 OUT-OF-WEDLOCK BIRTHS, BY AGE The younger the mother, the more likely it is that she first conceived and gave birth outside marriage. % of first births to women aged 15-24, 1985-1989 Nonmarital birth Legitimated birth 15-17 81 11 92% 18-19 59 19 78% 20-24 27 15 42% Source: A. Bachu, "Fertility of American Women: June 1990," Current Population Reports, Series P-20, No. 454, 1991, Table E, p. 7. Note: "Nonmarital birth" denotes conception and birth outside marriage. "Legitimated birth" denotes conception outside marriage and birth in marriage. Note: Table made from bar graph FIGURE 46 NONMARITAL BIRTHS, BY RACE Births to black teenagers are more likely to be nonmarital than are births to whites. All births to black All births to white women aged 19 and women aged 19 and younger, 1990: 158,000 younger, 1990: 359,500 Nonmarital birth 92% 57% Marital birth 8% 43% Source: National Center for Health Statistics, "Advance Report of Final Natality Statistics, 1990," Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 41, No. 9, Supplement, 1993, Table 2, pp. 18-19, and Table 16, p. 33. Notes: In this figure, the terms "black" and "white" refer to race; Hispanics are categorized by race, not by ethnicity. "Marital birth" denotes conception and birth in marriage, as well as conception outside marriage and birth in marriage. Note: Table made from pie chart FIGURE 47 GETTING MARRIED, WITH CHILD Some 31% of women who marry at age 19 or younger already have a child or are pregnant. Women under age 25 in 1988 who first married at age 19 or younger Have one child or more 11% Currently pregnant 20% Not pregnant and have no child 69% Source: AGI tabulations of data from the 1988 National Survey of Family Growth. Note: "Currently pregnant" women are those whose first baby was born seven months or less after their first marriage. Note: Table made from pie chart