Our poorest neighbour: is there reason to hope for a better future for Haiti?
Haiti: Hope for a Fragile State A fragile state is a state significantly susceptible to crisis in one or more of its sub-systems. (It is a state that is particularly vulnerable to internal and external shocks and domestic and international conflicts). Yasmine Shamsie and Andrew S. Thompson, editors Wilfrid Laurier University Press Wilfrid Laurier University Press is a university press that is part of the Wilfrid Laurier University. External links
Not bound between hard covers: softcover books; a softcover edition. ISBN ISBN
International Standard Book Number
ISBN International Standard Book Number
ISBN n abbr (= International Standard Book Number) → ISBN m 9780889205109
Haiti is a poor little place that tugs at the heartstrings. Countless other countries--in Africa, the Middle East, Asia, Central America--are also poverty stricken, violent and fragile; their misery blurs across our television screens every day and many hands are briefly wrung wrung
Past tense and past participle of wring.
the past of wring
wrung wring . Haiti, on the other hand, is less known to Canadians--at least outside Montreal. But for those who have had occasion to take an interest, Haiti, by far the poorest country in our own hemisphere, stands out crisply and captures the imagination. Graham Greene, notably, featured and captured the mysterious atmosphere of 1950s Haiti in his novel The Comedians. Recent visitors would say that if there were changes since then, they have been for the worse.
Why is this country with such a history of incompetence and violence, largely of its own making, so appealing? Why should anyone care? Perhaps it is because Haiti is in our hemisphere. Perhaps it is because Haitians who have immigrated to Canada and the United States The United States and Canada share a unique legal relationship. U.S. law looks northward with a mixture of optimism and cooperation, viewing Canada as an integral part of U.S. economic and environmental policy. are charming, intelligent and dedicated to their homeland--as long as they do not have to live there. Or perhaps it is simply a mysterious spell cast Spell Cast (MediaCorp TV Channel 5 Singapore) premiered June 5 2007. It is a spelling game show. Earlier this year, Channel 5's new spelling game show Spell Cast, well, cast its net for young spelling mavericks aged 9 to 12 years. by the voodoo priests who still openly influence local culture.
Haiti has every reason to be a success. It was the first independent democracy in the world run by ethnic Africans--ex-slaves who threw over their French masters in 1804--and the second democracy in this hemisphere after the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. . It has deep-water harbours, beautiful beaches and mountains, and is only an hour and a half by twice-daily flights from Miami. It covers half the island of Hispaniola; the other half is the Dominican Republic Dominican Republic (dəmĭn`ĭkən), republic (2005 est. pop. 8,950,000), 18,700 sq mi (48,442 sq km), West Indies, on the eastern two thirds of the island of Hispaniola. The capital and largest city is Santo Domingo. , a country that might as well be in a different universe. Haiti's languages are French and Creole; the DR is overwhelmingly Spanish-speaking. The latter is home to a thriving manufacturing economy and international baseball stars Baseball Stars is a 1989 baseball video game that was produced for the NES by SNK. It became a major hit in many countries worldwide, particularly in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico. . It is covered with tropical growth and verdant ver·dant
1. Green with vegetation; covered with green growth.
3. Lacking experience or sophistication; naive. agriculture, and its beaches are lined with hotels.
Haiti's half of the island, on the other hand, is stripped of trees, cut down over decades by a destitute des·ti·tute
1. Utterly lacking; devoid: Young recruits destitute of any experience.
2. Lacking resources or the means of subsistence; completely impoverished. See Synonyms at poor. population to make charcoal for cooking. Its hills are brown and eroded, its polluted pol·lute
tr.v. pol·lut·ed, pol·lut·ing, pol·lutes
1. To make unfit for or harmful to living things, especially by the addition of waste matter. See Synonyms at contaminate.
2. beaches littered with garbage. Its capital city, Port-au-Prince, has potholes the size of bear pits where roads should be, and slums that are so violent they are no-go areas even for the omnipresent om·ni·pres·ent
Present everywhere simultaneously.
[Medieval Latin omnipres international troops in white United Nations vehicles.
For 200 years, Haiti has been the victim of its own leaders. Virtually without exception they have been at best untrustworthy or incompetent and more likely a combination of corrupt, repressive, manipulative and cruel. International engagement has been spasmodic spasmodic /spas·mod·ic/ (spaz-mod´ik) of the nature of a spasm; occurring in spasms.
1. Relating to, affected by, or having the character of a spasm; convulsive. and, as in other countries, has often propped up decadent dec·a·dent
1. Being in a state of decline or decay.
2. Marked by or providing unrestrained gratification; self-indulgent.
3. often Decadent Of or relating to literary Decadence.
n. leaders in the interest of regional stability, if not of the Haitian people. Only within the last 15 years has a serious effort been made to build a democratic and economically viable society. Those efforts met with only limited success, largely due to the appalling leadership of former president Jean-Bertrand Aristide, but in part, I suspect, because everyone always expects Haiti to fail.
We are now seeing the early stages of a genuine movement to turn Haiti around. How this stirring of a different attitude began is hard to decipher, but it exists within Haiti itself, in the international aid agencies and in a few dedicated countries like Canada, one of the few that never gave up.
Canadian interest is broadening beyond government and aid organizations as evidenced by Haiti: Hope for a Fragile State, a compendium of papers presented at a conference at the Centre for International Governance Innovation in Waterloo, Ontario Coordinates:
Waterloo is a city in Ontario, Canada. It is the smallest of the three cities in the Regional Municipality of Waterloo, and is adjacent to the larger city of Kitchener. , in November 2005 and edited by Yasmine Shamsie and Andrew S. Thompson. At fewer than 150 pages it is not the definitive text on Haitian history, its challenges today or its prospects tomorrow. Nor does it deliver on the promised "hope" incorporated into its title. There is more guarded pessimism in it than hope. But it is a useful summary of the state of play as it was in the autumn of 2005. At that time Haiti was lurching toward its most significant national election to date, held after many postponements, in February 2006.
The book is not a treatise on the political process and its many failures. Its focus, as stated in the introduction, is "the society itself, the sources of difference, the origins of violence, and the possibility of change." The scope of this objective is sufficiently broad and profound that it is beyond the capacity of eight authors to accomplish in such a slender volume, however knowledgeable and distinguished they might be.
And they are knowledgeable. Each chapter is by a different authority, each a specialist in fields from UN peacekeeping to private sector investment in developing countries to the role of international economic institutions, a different set of actors from those who frequently dominate foreign policy discussions. All have spent considerable time on the ground in Haiti, and this combined experience adds to the credibility of the theses presented. Somehow, however, the book is vaguely dissatisfying. On the whole, the essays are descriptive and gloomy rather than assertive, and leave readers hanging, wondering what should come next.
Indeed the final chapter--updated after February's watershed election--does not outline what the new government's agenda is--or even what it should be--but simply drops in a section critiquing the election process itself. That is definitely of value, but falls short in that it does not take us into the future or offer hints as to what we might expect next. This article has the advantage of being contributed by a Haitian professor whose home is Port-au-Prince, and it has the authenticity of coming not only from a distinguished academic but from someone who is in it, of it, tastes it and smells it. Its disadvantage for those anglophones whose bilinguistic skills need brushing up is that it is included in the original French. At the risk of being politically incorrect politically incorrect
Disregarding or unconcerned with political correctness.
political incorrectness n.
Adj. 1. , let it be said that the book's impact would probably be enhanced by including, in addition to the original, an English translation.
The value of this book is that it is a refresher course on how Haiti came to its present state and why it deserves international support. The opening chapters go back to Haiti's colonial history and draw the conclusion that the country's early plantation economy This article or section may deal primarily with the U.S. and may not present a worldwide view. led to the strong-man rule that has persisted even into the time of President Aristide, finally ousted in 2004 after two kicks at the presidential can. History may offer this tenuous explanation for the staying power of the country's small elite, for the relentless social polarization Social polarization is associated with the segregation within a society that may emerge from income inequality, real-estate fluctuations, economic displacements etc. and result in such differentiation that would consist of various social groups, from high-income to low-income. , and the extreme poverty and violence among the masses, both rural and urban; still, it is puzzling and depressing that Haiti alone among its Caribbean neighbours has dragged colonialism into the 21st century, and that this history is viewed by seemingly knowledgeable observers as a determinant of the future.
Intricately involved with Haiti's history is the almost complete absence of progress on human rights, a subject that is thoroughly examined. Murder and riots of the most unsavoury sort have accompanied changes of regime, including elections, and the military, which had never fired a shot except at the Haitian people, kept control of the population on behalf of its leaders of choice by simply executing the opposition. One of Aristide's few accomplishments as president was to abolish the army, which had overthrown him in a coup d'etat within nine months of his first election. On his return from exile and after being reinstalled in 1994, he disbanded the military, to no one's regret. The problem was, and continues to be, that no alternative employment was available and no weapons were given up. Today, ex-soldiers are among the gang leaders who plague Haiti's slums. The gangs are responsible for some hundreds of random kidnappings per year, rendering Haiti's streets perilous, particularly in Port-au-Prince. Social stability is further disrupted by egregious e·gre·gious
Conspicuously bad or offensive. See Synonyms at flagrant.
[From Latin corruption among judges, who are not yet paid a decent wage.
All of these problems are thoroughly aired in this book. A more recent topic for discussion, included in an interesting essay here, is the role of the private sector--particularly the so-called Haitian diaspora. This is an area worthy of further study. Development agencies do not partner well with private sector groups, but the need to build bridges between the two should be readily apparent. The business community resident in Haiti and Haitians living in Canada and the U.S. can be important contributors to Haiti's future and, as the contributor points out, will be included in future planning by donor groups, including the international financial institutions.
Among Haiti's external partners, the UN and the U.S. merit chapters of their own. The role of the UN mission (known by its French acronym, MINUSTAH MINUSTAH Mission des Nations Unies pour la Stabilisation en Haïti (French: United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti) ) is factually presented by a Canadian who is the former commander of the UN Task Force in Port-au-Prince. Unfortunately, the Haitian people are weary of the UN but cannot live without it. It is responsible for assisting Haiti to establish its new governance structure, to rebuild its police force, to build a secure environment, to assist human rights institutions and to dispense aid. The mandate is complex, not to say confused, but, according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. the author, is inadequate to create the conditions necessary to solve Haiti's long-term problems. It almost goes without saying that the mission is underfunded un·der·fund
tr.v. un·der·fund·ed, un·der·fund·ing, un·der·funds
To provide insufficient funding for.
underfunded adj → infradotado (económicamente) .
Finally, the book also explores the difficult relationship between Haiti and the U.S.--the clumsy management of immigration immigration, entrance of a person (an alien) into a new country for the purpose of establishing permanent residence. Motives for immigration, like those for migration generally, are often economic, although religious or political factors may be very important. , drug and security issues by Washington in our own time and two incompetent occupations in the past. At the same time, the U.S. has been Haiti's primary source of aid, is an ally at the UN and is an important market for Haiti's modest exports. Many of Haiti's leaders have been educated at esteemed U.S. institutions. The real problem is that, truth be told, in the bowels of the State Department and in some corners in Congress, Haiti is seen as a nuisance country, a source of drugs and illegal immigrants illegal immigrant n. an alien (non-citizen) who has entered the United States without government permission or stayed beyond the termination date of a visa. (See: alien) , always in need of a handout and full of seemingly intractable problems. But Haiti is not going away, and U.S. friendship is essential to its future.
So, by the way, is Canada's, although it is barely referenced in these papers. The preface written by the conference organizers highlights Canada's emphasis on the integration of the "three D's" (development, democracy and diplomacy) specifically as it applies to Haiti. It is frustrating frus·trate
tr.v. frus·trat·ed, frus·trat·ing, frus·trates
a. To prevent from accomplishing a purpose or fulfilling a desire; thwart: , therefore, that there is no analysis of how this integration of what were formerly silos is working on the ground. In addition, Haiti is Canada's second largest aid recipient after Afghanistan: some $519 million was recently pledged over the next four years. Last year Canada donated just over $100 million, including $31 million for the election. These figures do not include indirect contributions through Canada's support of international financial institutions and various UN programs. In addition, the Canadian military participated in the UN force for two years and, while the military presence has now been reduced to a handful of officers, plays a key role in UN leadership. Finally, at present nearly 100 officers from the RCMP and the Quebec provincial police are in the forefront of training and assisting the neophyte ne·o·phyte
1. A recent convert to a belief; a proselyte.
2. A beginner or novice: a neophyte at politics.
a. Roman Catholic Church A newly ordained priest. Haitian police force. While the book's purpose is to discuss Haiti, not Canada, it is overly modest to gloss over Verb 1. gloss over - treat hurriedly or avoid dealing with properly
skate over, skimp over, slur over, smooth over
do by, treat, handle - interact in a certain way; "Do right by her"; "Treat him with caution, please"; "Handle the press reporters gently" Canada's contribution and to neglect highlighting the significance of what is for both countries an important relationship.
While the book is long on pessimism and short on solutions, the contributors all agree on one thing: the need for the international community to stay the course in Haiti for the long term. Having returned from Haiti in November--my fourth visit in 15 months as part of an international mission--with this I concur. With its guarded pessimism, what the book misses due to its unfortunate timing is the measurable progress that has been made through the election process and under the leadership of newly elected president Rene Preval. For all its false starts and procedural flaws no one inside or outside Haiti is disputing the election results, and to date the president is benefiting from what might be called a post-election honeymoon. This is a time for the international community to reinvigorate re·in·vig·o·rate
tr.v. re·in·vig·o·rat·ed, re·in·vig·o·rat·ing, re·in·vig·o·rates
To give new life or energy to.
re its commitment to Haiti, which so far it has, surprisingly, done.
There is no lack of things to do, as the book under discussion makes clear. Two contradictory issues stand out as the president identifies priorities and initiates action. The first is the need for donor countries to deliver on their promises and ensure the committed funds flow in a timely way. Second is the limited absorption capacity The term absorption capacity (as a part of EU Cohesion Policy) stands for the degree to which a country is able to effectively and efficiently spend the financial resources received from the European Funds. of the Haitian government to administer the funds. However, in the past Haiti's major export has been the educated among its population and talent is sorely needed to execute the necessary plans. Happily, some expatriates have already returned, at least on a temporary basis, to help the new government implement its programs. No doubt others could be enticed to do so.
Haiti: Hope for a Fragile State is well worth reading as a summary of where Haiti stood before its recent election, and as an indication of the massive challenge the new government took on. One of its authors told me the book aspired to generate more interest in Haiti among Canadians, who knowingly or not have a stake in ensuring its success. I also urge the sponsors and authors to come together again and review their findings in a year or so, when pessimism may be replaced with tangible evidence of progress and meaningful hope for Haiti's future.
The Honourable Barbara McDougall Barbara Jean McDougall, PC , OC (born November 12, 1937, Toronto, Ontario) is a former Canadian politician. She is currently an advisor for Aird & Berlis LLP. A Scotiabank director since March 30, 1999, she currently sits on the Audit and Conduct Review Committee and the Human is a former secretary of state for External Affairs for Canada. She is now an advisor to Toronto law firm Aird & Berlis and a member of the Haiti International Assessment Committee based in Washington DC. She has written several articles and a paper on Haiti.