Organic electronics: a cleaner substitute for silicon. (Environews Innovations).Until recently, plastics--ubiquitous in most areas of modern life--had yet to make inroads inroads
make inroads into to start affecting or reducing: my gambling has made great inroads into my savings
inroads npl to make inroads into [+ into the electronics industry; their molecular configuration made them nonconducive to electrical flow, limiting their uses to shells for computers and insulation for wires. But the last few years have brought discoveries that plastic polymers can be manipulated so they may be fashioned into transistors, conductors, and other electrical components. Such uses for these carbon/hydrogen/oxygen-based polymers are the subject of the field of organic electronics.
"This is a rapidly developing industry," says Michael Schen, group leader of the Electronics and Photonics Group of the National Institute of Standards and Technology National Institute of Standards and Technology, governmental agency within the U.S. Dept. of Commerce with the mission of "working with industry to develop and apply technology, measurements, and standards" in the national interest. Advanced Technology Program. "We are hearing about a wide variety of potential applications, [including] transistors, electronic circuits, high-density energy storage devices, advanced emissive e·mis·sive
Having the power or tendency to emit matter or energy; emitting. displays, and advanced photovoltaics." And the benefits of plastics are substantial--in many cases, researchers are finding they offer a safer, cheaper, lighter alternative to silicon.
Safer, Cheaper, Lighter
Schen says organic electronics involves a much smaller set of hazardous compounds and materials than more traditional technologies. Gone are the arsenic (used in semiconductor manufacture), phosphine phosphine
1. PH3, a toxic war gas called hydrogen phosphide.
2. a coal tar dye; called Philadelphia yellow. (used in transistor manufacture), lead (used in the phosphorescent phos·pho·res·cence
1. Persistent emission of light following exposure to and removal of incident radiation.
2. Emission of light without burning or by very slow burning without appreciable heat, as from the slow oxidation of coating in a traditional cathode ray tube See CRT.
(hardware) cathode ray tube - (CRT) An electrical device for displaying images by exciting phosphor dots with a scanned electron beam. CRTs are found in computer VDUs and monitors, televisions and oscilloscopes. , or CRT (1) (C RunTime) See runtime library.
(2) (Cathode Ray Tube) A vacuum tube used as a display screen in a computer monitor or TV. The viewing end of the tube is coated with phosphors, which emit light when struck by electrons. ), and mercury (used in backlights).
Silicon and silicon-based components require millions of gallons of water and temperatures of 300-500[degrees]C to manufacture. A wide range of solvents are used in silicon and in semiconductor manufacture, including highly toxic highly toxic Occupational medicine adjective Referring to a chemical that 1. Has a median lethal dose–LD50 of ≤ 50 mg/kg when administered orally to 200-300 g albino rats 2. xylene xylene (zī`lēn) or dimethylbenzene (dī'mĕthəlbĕn`zēn), C6H4(CH3)2 and toluene toluene (tōl`yēn') or methylbenzene (mĕth'əlbĕn`zēn), C7H8 . The semiconductor industry uses hundreds of thousands of gallons of such solvents annually.
In contrast, says Stewart Hough n. 1. Same as Hock, a joint.
v. t. 1. Same as Hock, to hamstring.
imp. & p. p. os>
p. pr. & vb. n. os>
n. 1. An adz; a hoe.
v. t. 1. To cut with a hoe. , vice president of business development for Cambridge Display Technology, his company can create components at atmospheric pressure atmospheric pressure
or barometric pressure
Force per unit area exerted by the air above the surface of the Earth. Standard sea-level pressure, by definition, equals 1 atmosphere (atm), or 29.92 in. (760 mm) of mercury, 14.70 lbs per square in., or 101. , and at temperatures of no more than 150[degrees]C. And, although the company does use solvents with its organic technology, "we can make ten thousand displays with one liter of standard organic solvent," he says. Furthermore, says Bernard Kippelen, an associate professor of optical sciences at the University of Arizona (body, education) University of Arizona - The University was founded in 1885 as a Land Grant institution with a three-fold mission of teaching, research and public service. Optical Sciences Center, it may be possible to design organics that are soluble in less harmful solvents.
Polymers also are lighter and can cost much less to manufacture, although cost comparisons vary. Kippelen says his center's deposition machine is capable, after adaptation, of applying multilayer metal and organic layers as thin as 10 nanometers to a flexible plastic substrate at a cost approaching 1 cent per square centimeter (compared to a dollar or so to produce a square centimeter of silicon substrate). "Organic fabrication fabrication (fab´rikā´shn),
n the construction or making of a restoration. is compatible with plastic substrates, which means you can use a very low-cost ... substrate," he says. "Additionally, organics are good for large-area needs. For example, if you need a piece of silicon for a fingerprint recognition device, that one-square-centimeter piece of highly purified silicon"--which is quite large in terms of ultrapure silicon usage--"will be very expensive."
According to Kippelen, an organic photovoltaic cell could weigh 100 times less than a silicon-based cell. And, he says, "the promise with organics is related to the lower cost of the raw materials, in particular the substrate on which the device is built--a silicon wafer is more expensive than a sheet of plastic."
Experts generally concede that polymers won't be replacing silicon in certain applications, such as computer semiconductors, because silicon will always be significantly faster. However, plastics can serve as a substitute in applications where silicon is either impractical or too expensive to use. And improvements are on the way. "The technology is admittedly not at the same stage of maturity as something like LCD [liquid crystal display liquid crystal display (LCD)
Optoelectronic device used in displays for watches, calculators, notebook computers, and other electronic devices. Current passed through specific portions of the liquid crystal solution causes the crystals to align, blocking the passage of light. ] technology, but this is a technology with great promise," Hough says.
Picture a system that automatically tracks and records each item selected as a shopper moves through a market, beaming that information to a checkout stand terminal so the bill is waiting when the customer arrives. To build such a system, you'd want to tag each item with something lightweight, flexible, durable, and cheap--something a lot like an organic "chip."
Although implementing such a scenario is still some ways away, Kippelen says organics would be ideal in the current technology of photovoltaic cells, most of which now use silicon. The lightness of organic photovoltaics would make them perfect for consumer applications such as recharging personal digital assistants, he says, and their low cost would suit them for power generation in remote villages in developing countries.
One primary goal for researchers is to increase the efficiency of the organic photovoltaic cell to a level competitive with silicon. Kippelen says the key is looking at the mechanism by which electrons are transported through the film. "Think of it like a basketball player, standing still," he explains. "If you throw him the ball, he bends to catch it, [then] bends [again] to throw it onward. The molecule in the polymer goes through the same sort of deformation when a charge hits it. The goal is to minimize what's called 'trapping time,' like having the ball just bounce from one player to another without having to go through the catch-and-throw process."
Michael McGehee is an assistant professor in Stanford University's Department of Materials Science and Engineering Materials science and engineering
A multidisciplinary field concerned with the generation and application of knowledge relating to the composition, structure, and processing of materials to their properties and uses. who has been working in the area of organic photovoltaic cells. He has developed an approach that involves mixing concentrated hydrochloric acid hydrochloric acid: see hydrogen chloride.
or muriatic acid
Solution in water of hydrogen chloride (HCl), a gaseous inorganic compound. with titanium ethoxide, ethanol, and Pluronic[R] P123 (a block copolymer copolymer: see polymer. surfactant Surfactant Definition
Surfactant is a complex naturally occurring substance made of six lipids (fats) and four proteins that is produced in the lungs. It can also be manufactured synthetically. manufactured by BASF BASF Bar Association of San Francisco (since 1872; San Francisco, California)
BASF Badische Anilin und Soda Fabrik (German chemical products company)
BASF Builders Association of South Florida ) to create a mesoporous titania film (the "meso-" prefix refers to pores of 2-50 nanometers in diameter). He dip-coats the substrate with the titania mixture, then treats it to remove the block copolymer and densify the titania.
The process is still in development, so McGehee is understandably guarded about what he's accomplished, but he believes there's tremendous promise for several reasons. "For one thing, you can do the deposition at atmospheric pressure [which reduces the cost of the process]," he says. "And polymers are cheap and nontoxic, while high-quality crystalline silicon is decidedly not cheap. Our goal is to be able to do this on sheets of plastic, where you just roll it through a coater and drop the coating on the substrate."
McGehee says most crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells have an energy conversion efficiency of 12% and a cost per square meter of $300.00 (equivalent to $3.50 per watt of power generated in peak sunlight). He says it will be important to raise the energy conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic cells from their current 3.5% to 8-12%, while providing a 10- to 20-year life span and reducing their cost by a factor of 10, to 50 cents per watt to generate. Manufacturing technologies must evolve to the point that they can achieve the desired cost reduction, something that many experts estimate will take 5-10 years.
On the Line
Organic photonics is another rapidly growing technology that takes advantage of plastics' unique properties--think emission of photons, rather than electrons. Photonics is the technology of generating and harnessing light and other forms of radiant energy whose quantum unit is the photon. The range of applications of photonics extends from energy generation, to detection, to communications and information processing.
With the increasing use of fiber-optic technology, communications and data transmission have reached speeds unheard of only a few years ago. But most fiber-optic lines still end short of residential users; the majority of homes still have old-fashioned copper wiring, and the signal slows dramatically when it hits that copper wire.
Plus, there's another bottleneck. Switching the signal from electrical to optical requires a device known as an electro-optic modulator. Currently, those modulators are made of a specially grown crystal known as lithium niobate, a stable substance (with a melting point over 1,200[degrees]C), but one that has three main disadvantages: it can't be switched faster than a few billion times a second, it takes as much as 6 volts to operate (thus consuming a lot of power and generating a lot of heat), and it can't be incorporated directly onto integrated circuit chips. That means it must somehow be connected to the integrated circuit chip, adding another possible source of signal degradation and power consumption--not to mention making the manufacturing process more involved.
A team led by Larry Dalton, a professor of chemistry at the University of Washington in Seattle, has developed a new organic modulator Modulator
Any device or circuit by means of which a desired signal is impressed upon a higher-frequency periodic wave known as a carrier. The process is called modulation. The modulator may vary the amplitude, frequency, or phase of the carrier. consisting of chromophores (molecules that absorb incoming light and emit a colored glow) embedded in a polymer base. This modulator requires as little as 0.8 volts to operate and can switch at up to 110 billion times a second.
"What we've done," says Dalton, "is to exploit the best of electronics and photonics in one package." Electro-optics does not compete with fiber optics fiber optics, transmission of digitized messages or information by light pulses along hair-thin glass fibers. Each fiber is surrounded by a cladding having a high index of refractance so that the light is internally reflected and travels the length of the fiber or wireless communication, he says, but rather permits the large bandwidth capability of those technologies to be integrated with the fastest electronic technologies. In short, electro-optic materials and devices permit information to be converted between the electronic and photonic domains at tremendous speeds--terahertz capabilities, compared with current capabilities of at most a few gigahertz.
With organic electro-optic materials, Dalton says, all of the circuit processing is dry, using oxygen-reactive etching and photolithography, thus dramatically decreasing solvent usage. "The only aspects that have any environmental impact are associated with [solvent use in] steps such as electrode deposition and mask fabrication," he explains. "These problems exist for any materials technology, including lithium niobate."
Extensive laboratory testing suggests the new modulating devices could attain 10-year lifetimes, says Tom Mino, CEO (1) (Chief Executive Officer) The highest individual in command of an organization. Typically the president of the company, the CEO reports to the Chairman of the Board. of Lumera Corporation, a Bothell, Washington-based company working to commercialize the research of Dalton and others. "This technology is cheaper to manufacture, it's more environmentally benign, and it reduces power requirements in usage," Mino says. But, as with many new technologies, one key will be development of the market with systems suppliers such as Cisco, Alcatel, and Nortel--companies that will be using the new technology in actual communications systems in a market that could approach several billion dollars annually.
Shedding Some Light
Although computers may not yet be using organic electronics, their monitors now can. Organic light-emitting devices, or OLEDs, operate by accepting charge carriers of opposite polarities--electrons and holes--from cathode and anode anode (ăn`ōd), electrode through which current enters an electric device. In electrolysis, it is the positive electrode in the electrolytic cell.
Terminal or electrode from which electrons leave a system. contacts, respectively. An externally applied voltage drives these carriers into a recombination recombination, process of "shuffling" of genes by which new combinations can be generated. In recombination through sexual reproduction, the offspring's complete set of genes differs from that of either parent, being rather a combination of genes from both parents. region, where they form a single neutral bound state known as an exciton Exciton
A fundamental quantum of electronic excitation in condensed matter, consisting of a negatively charged electron and a positively charged hole bound to each other by electrostatic attraction. . Two types of excitons are formed: singlets and triplets.
In conventional fluorescent OLEDs, light emission occurs as a result of the recombination of singlet excitons, and the internal quantum efficiency is limited to approximately 25%. In phosphorescent OLED (Organic Light Emitting Device, Organic Light Emitting Diode) A thin film light-emitting technology that is expected to compete with LCD and plasma TVs as well as LCD monitors and readouts. devices, all excitons may be converted into triplet triplet /trip·let/ (trip´let)
1. one of three offspring produced at one birth.
2. a combination of three objects or entities acting together, as three lenses or three nucleotides.
3. states through intersystem crossing around a heavy metal atom. These triplet states emit radiatively, enabling extremely high efficiencies. Universal Display Corporation, a New Jersey-based research and development firm, has teamed with researchers at Princeton University and the University of Southern California The U.S. News & World Report ranked USC 27th among all universities in the United States in its 2008 ranking of "America's Best Colleges", also designating it as one of the "most selective universities" for admitting 8,634 of the almost 34,000 who applied for freshman admission to develop this technology and have demonstrated devices with internal efficiencies approaching 100% and record-breaking power efficiencies.
Universal is working on the technology to build organic flat panel displays that are lightweight, portable, even rollable. Janice Mahon, vice president of technology commercialization for Universal, explains that a typical LCD consists of two pieces of glass with liquid crystals sandwiched between, plus a color filter and a fluorescent backlight back·light
A type of spotlight, used in photography, that illuminates a subject from behind.
tr.v. back·light·ed or back·lit , back·light·ing, back·lights . "Dopants" are added to the host material to modify and enhance its electrical properties. By comparison, the Universal OLED consists of a 3,000- to 5,000-angstrom-thick layer of thin films deposited on a single glass substrate. She estimates that the Universal OLED saves as much as 50% in material content. Furthermore, whereas the typical LCD requires an estimated 200 or so processing steps, the Universal OLED takes about 86. "Moreover," says Mahon, "it is conceivable to take an existing LCD [manufacturing] facility, take out about thirty percent of the process machinery, replace half of that, and use the same facility for OLED fabrication."
According to Mahon, Universal's OLED technology does not use hazardous materials like those used in inorganic light-emitting device production. But the environmental benefit goes far beyond that. "Our technology translates into a display that--used in a laptop, for example--could consume as little as fifty percent of the power of a typical LCD display," she says. "And with continued improvements in technology, we could get as low as twenty-five percent of the power."
Mahon says that some of the dopants her company has developed may typically contain trace amounts (less than 1% of the total volume) of heavy metals heavy metals,
n.pl metallic compounds, such as aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, and nickel. Exposure to these metals has been linked to immune, kidney, and neurotic disorders. such as iridium iridium (ĭrĭd`ēəm), metallic chemical element; symbol Ir; at. no. 77; at. wt. 192.22; m.p. about 2,410°C;; b.p. about 4,130°C;; sp. gr. 22.55 at 20°C;; valence +3 or +4. or platinum, substances far more environmentally benign than the lead, mercury, and other elements that can make disposal of CRTs so problematic.
The most significant challenge in developing the materials for these OLEDs, she says, is to reach the high state of purity needed, which she describes as similar to that of pharmaceutical chemicals. "Purity is critical in the light efficiency of the display, the color emitted, and the lifetime of the resulting device," she says. "If you have impurities, they can lead to side reactions, which can cause degradation to occur, impacting the function and lifetime of the device."
Although Universal focuses on research and development, Mahon says the company has relationships with a number of companies working on commercialization of products using this technology. "OLED technology is still very much in a start-up phase," she admits. "But we think it's a technology with a tremendous future."
A Bright Future
Schen says all organic electronic and photonic technologies will benefit from continued progress in creating materials and devices with longer lifetimes. "We've seen significant incremental increases, but as the industry continues to show it can achieve products with good lifetimes, that will in turn open up lower-cost manufacturing processes," he says. Another target is the continued development and demonstration of a technology that doesn't require the super-clean environment of existing semiconductor and flat panel display manufacturing facilities. Eventually, Schen says, "we'll see a jettisoning of some of the more expensive, riskier manufacturing processes and the broad appearance of products using organic or flexible electronics."
Schen further sees organic electronics as an equal-opportunity field. "As the industry continues to develop, it will be through a combination of large, well-funded companies, and smaller, more nimble, and innovative firms," he says. "Five years from now, I think we'll be astonished a·ston·ish
tr.v. as·ton·ished, as·ton·ish·ing, as·ton·ish·es
To fill with sudden wonder or amazement. See Synonyms at surprise. at what this industry has become."
Coakley KM, Liu Y-X, McGehee MD, Frindell KL, Stucky GD. 2003. Infiltrating semiconducting polymers into self-assembled mesoporous titania film for photovoltaic The generation of voltage by a material that is exposed to light in the visible and invisible ranges. See photoelectric and photovoltaic cell. applications. Adv Funct Mater 13(4):1-7.
Jackson TN, Lin YY, Gundlach DJ, Klauk H, Nelson SF. 1997. Organic thin film transistors. 1997 International Semiconductor Device Research Symposium Proceedings: 409-412, December 1997. Available: http://jerg.ee.psu.edu/Publications/1997/ Jackson-1997-1/[accessed 14 Apri12003].
NIST (National Institute of Standards & Technology, Washington, DC, www.nist.gov) The standards-defining agency of the U.S. government, formerly the National Bureau of Standards. It is one of three agencies that fall under the Technology Administration (www.technology. Advanced Technology Program homepage. Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology. Available: http://www.atp.nist.gov/[accessed 14 April 2003].
Shi Y, Zhang C, Zhang H, et al. 2000. Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore chromophore /chro·mo·phore/ (kro´mo-for) any chemical group whose presence gives a decided color to a compound and which unites with certain other groups (auxochromes) to form dyes. shape. Science 288:119-122.