On derivational suffixes in three Late Middle English romances: Guy of Warwick, Bevis of Hampton, and Sultan of Babylon.
The aim of this paper is to provide an analysis of derivational der·i·va·tion
1. The act or process of deriving.
2. The state or fact of being derived; originating: a custom of recent derivation.
3. Something derived; a derivative. suffixes in three Late Middle English Middle English
Vernacular spoken and written in England c. 1100–1500, the descendant of Old English and the ancestor of Modern English. It can be divided into three periods: Early, Central, and Late. romances. Since a number of new, foreign suffixes appeared in Middle English, more specifically of French origin, it is of interest to the author of the study to what extent these were adopted in medieval romances. One might expect that the number of French suffixes might be significantly higher than that of other texts given that romances were as a genre based on a French model. The paper investigates whether this was the case in the texts of Guy of Warwick Guy of Warwick (wŏr`ĭk), English legendary hero, popularized by an anonymous 14th-century rhymed romance. Guy won the earl of Warwick's daughter and saved England from the Danes by killing the giant Colbrand; he later renounced worldly , Bevis of Hampton Bevis of Hampton (bē`vĭs), English metrical romance of the early 14th cent. that also appears in Anglo-Norman, French, Italian, Scandinavian, Celtic, and Slavonic versions. , and Sowdon of Babylon Babylon, village, United States
Babylon, residential village (1990 pop. 12,249), Suffolk co., SE N.Y., on Long Island, on Great South Bay; settled 1689, inc. 1893. The first U.S. wireless station was built there by Marconi. , which represent the East Midland Noun 1. East Midland - the dialect of Middle English that replaced West Saxon as the literary language and which developed into Modern English
Middle English - English from about 1100 to 1450 dialect dialect, variety of a language used by a group of speakers within a particular speech community. Every individual speaks a variety of his language, termed an idiolect. in Late Middle English.
The present study has been inspired by the publication on derivational suffixes by Dalton-Puffer (1992). The aforementioned a·fore·men·tioned
The one or ones mentioned previously.
Adj. 1. paper, among other aspects, focused on the productivity of Romance derivational suffixes found in the Helsinki Helsinki (hĕl`sĭngkē), Swed. Helsingfors, city (1998 pop. 546,317), capital of Finland, located in Southern Finland prov., S Finland, on the Gulf of Finland. corpus of English 1. English - (Obsolete) The source code for a program, which may be in any language, as opposed to the linkable or executable binary produced from it by a compiler. The idea behind the term is that to a real hacker, a program written in his favourite programming language is texts. The author questioned the productivity of Romance suffixes on the basis of the results from the conducted analysis. Apparently, the only suffix suf·fix
An affix added to the end of a word or stem, serving to form a new word or functioning as an inflectional ending, such as -ness in gentleness, -ing in walking, or -s in sits.
tr.v. of French origin that was found to be productive to a limited extent was the suffix -ment (Dalton-Puffer 1992: 478). However, due to the nature of the Helsinki Corpus, which draws from text samples, it appears of interest whether an analysis of entire texts may provide different results. As was pointed out by Dalton-Puffer (1992: 479) "more conclusive Determinative; beyond dispute or question. That which is conclusive is manifest, clear, or obvious. It is a legal inference made so peremptorily that it cannot be overthrown or contradicted. statements, however, must be reserved until more suffixes have been considered in the method presented in this paper. This, as usual, points to the need for additional work" (Dalton-Puffer 1992: 479). The texts selected for the present study are Late Middle English romances. The choice of the sources for the present investigation was not coincidental co·in·ci·den·tal
1. Occurring as or resulting from coincidence.
2. Happening or existing at the same time.
co·in . First of all, little research has been conducted on the problem of derivational suffixes in these texts. Moreover, the texts represent the genre of French origin, which may have also had some influence upon the derivations found in these texts. One might expect that the number of French suffixes might be significantly higher than that of other texts given that romances were as a genre based on a French model.
A question inherent in the discussion of Middle English derivational morphology Noun 1. derivational morphology - the part of grammar that deals with the derivations of words
morphology - studies of the rules for forming admissible words is that of productivity. Following Dalton-Puffer (1992), the criterion which will be employed in the assessment of the productivity of particular suffixes is their capacity to form hybrids. Hybrids, as defined by Dalton-Puffer are "lexical items The lexical items in a language are both the single words (vocabulary) and sets of words organized into groups, units or "chunks". Some examples of lexical items from English are "cat", "traffic light", "take care of", "by the way", and " , where the base and the suffix come from different subparts of the vocabulary" (Dalton-Puffer 1992: 478). The subparts referred to by Dalton-Puffer are native and French words.
Having employed the criterion of hybrid formation for the evaluation of productivity Dalton-Puffer arrived at a conclusion that native suffixes were highly productive in Middle English as opposed to the low productivity of their Romance counterparts (Dalton-Puffer 1992: 478). The number of hybrids formed with the French suffix -ment was very low, which put the problem of the productivity of French suffixes in question. The use of the native suffix -ung in hybrid formations was overwhelming and greatly outnumbered Outnumbered is a British sitcom that aired on BBC One in 2007. It stars Hugh Dennis and Claire Skinner as a mother and father who are outnumbered by their three children. the occurrences of -ment.
The aims of the present study are threefold. First of all, the study aims to present the system of nominal derivation derivation, in grammar: see inflection. in the texts under investigation. Secondly, the focus of the paper will shift to the evaluation of the process of hybrid formation in the texts in order to determine the productivity of particular suffixes. Finally, it will be established whether the processes observed may be linked to the origin of the genre of these texts by means of the comparison of the results of the analysis with the findings presented by Dalton-Puffer.
A few concepts need to be defined prior to the analysis of the derivational suffixes in the texts. First of all, it must be established what is meant by the concept of a derivational suffix. According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. Marchand Marchand is a frequent surname in France and in Quebec (French word for merchant)
The surname may refer to:
In mathematics, a fundamental concept of differential calculus representing the instantaneous rate of change of a function. final element which is or formerly was productive in forming words" (Marchand 1969: 157). Yet another definition, found in Fisiak (1968 ) is that "word-forming (not inflectional in·flec·tion
1. The act of inflecting or the state of being inflected.
2. Alteration in pitch or tone of the voice.
a. ) suffixes are bound morphemes Noun 1. bound morpheme - a morpheme that occurs only as part of a larger construction; eg an -s at the end of plural nouns
morpheme - minimal meaningful language unit; it cannot be divided into smaller meaningful units following the root" (Fisiak 1968 : 108). The first of the quoted definitions is of great use in the analysis of loanwords from French and their derivational suffixes, as the derivational suffix is treated in the present study with regard to these words as the one which "formerly was productive in forming words" (Marchand 1969: 157). This applies to cases in which the French word was formed on the basis of the Latin Lat·in
a. The Indo-European language of the ancient Latins and Romans and the most important cultural language of western Europe until the end of the 17th century.
b. roots. The definition provided by Fisiak (2000) calls for the specification of what is meant by the "root" as opposed to yet another concept, namely that of the "stem". In the analysis of derivational suffixes, and more specifically in determining the etymology etymology (ĕtĭmŏl`əjē), branch of linguistics that investigates the history, development, and origin of words. It was this study that chiefly revealed the regular relations of sounds in the Indo-European languages (as described of the base word, one will investigate the etymology of the root, and the bound morphemes that follow will be treated as derivational suffixes in the present study.
Contraction of let us. now turn to the inventory of derivational suffixes in Middle English, as their presence or absence in the texts will be investigated and their productivity determined. As was already mentioned, the study will focus on nominal derivational suffixes exclusively, as to allow for a comparison with the results obtained in the study by Dalton-Puffer. The inventory of native derivational suffixes presented by Dalton-Puffer is as follows: -dom, -els, -hede, -lac, -hesse, -reden, -ship, -th, -ung (Dalton-Puffer 1992: 470). As regards the last derivational suffix in the list, it underwent a change from/ung/to/ing/, and was absent in the texts dated after 1250 (Dalton-Puffer 1992: 474). Thus the analysis will focus on the use of the suffix -ing in the texts of Late Middle English romances. The Romance nominal derivational suffixes include: -acy, -age, -al,-acioun,-aunce,-erie,-esse,-ite,-ment (Dalton-Puffer 1992: 470). The analysis of the derivational suffixes in the texts under investigation will proceed in this order for the description of the use and for the assessment of productivity.
3. Method of research
The method applied in the present study is quantitative. The number of the occurrences of particular derivational suffixes is calculated and the percentages are presented. This allows for the comparison with the results obtained by Dalton-Puffer. As the criterion of productivity applied in the present study is that of hybrid formation, the etymology of the base words is established on the basis of the OED OED
Oxford English Dictionary
Noun 1. OED - an unabridged dictionary constructed on historical principles
O.E.D., Oxford English Dictionary entries for particular lexical items found in the texts.
4. The sources
The present study investigates the derivational suffixes in three Late Middle English romances. The texts are the Guy of Warwick (Auchinleck MS), Bevis of Hampton, and the Sultan SULTAN. The title of the Turkish sovereign and other Mahometan princes. of Babylon. According to the MED med
Medical. Used informally.
A medication. Used informally, often in the plural.
minimal effective dose; minimal erythema dose.
MED 1. , all of these texts belong to the East Midlands The East Midlands is one of the regions of England and consists of most of the eastern half of the traditional region of the Midlands. It consists of the combined area of Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Rutland, Northamptonshire, Nottinghamshire and most of Lincolnshire. dialect. The first text, Guy of Warwick comes from the beginning of the 14th century. Bevis of Hampton is from the second quarter of the 14th century, and the last of the three belongs to the start of the 15th century. The texts vary in their length, yet they were all analyzed an·a·lyze
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.
2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.
3. in full. The first of the texts, the Guy of Warwick, is about 10 000 verses long, whereas the remaining two, Bevis of Hampton and the Sultan of Babylon, are 4500 and 3000 verses respectively.
5.1. Native suffixes
The first of the native suffixes on the list presented by Dalton-Puffer is the suffix -dom. According to Fisiak (1968 ), the suffix was employed in Middle English to produce abstract nouns abstract noun
A noun that denotes an abstract or intangible concept, such as envy or joy. , derived from adjectives and nouns (Fisiak 1968 : 109). Indeed, this is the use which is found in the text of the Guy of Warwick and Bevis of Hampton. There were no instances of the use of this suffix in the text of the Sultan of Babylon. The suffix was attached exclusively to native bases in the investigated texts. As such, there were no instances of hybrid formations, i.e. the suffix was not found with roots of French origin. Nevertheless, the suffix has been recorded in very few examples, as demonstrated in Table 1.
1) Examples from the Guy of Warwick:
1056 halidom hal·i·dom
1. Something considered holy.
2. A sanctuary.
[Middle English, from Old English h 9688 praldom 5610 erldom 2462 cristendom
2) Examples from the Bevis of Hampton:
4574 erldom 4012 kenedom/kingdom 608 Cristendom
The suffix -hede was used in the formation of nouns from nouns and adjectives in Middle English (Fisiak 1968 : 109). Out of the few instances found in only two of the investigated texts, the suffix was employed to form nouns from adjectives. There were no examples of the use of the suffix -hede in the text of the Guy of Warwick. The suffix was not subject to hybrid formation in any of the investigated texts. Table 2 demonstrates the results of the analysis.
3) Examples from the Bevis of Hampton:
4) Examples from the Sultan of Babylon:
Nouns from adjectives in Middle English could also be derived by means of the derivational suffix -nesse (Fisiak 1968 : 110). The instances of such use have been found in all the texts under investigation. However, the frequency of the forms derived by means of the suffix is very low. Interestingly, this native suffix is also employed with non-native roots, which is evident in the data from the text of the Sultan of Babylon. Two of five occurrences of the derived words are composed of Romance roots. The percentage provided in Table 4 is just a mere indication of the trend for the productivity of this native suffix, given that the number of tokens is extremely low.
5) Examples from the Guy of Warwick:
7920 hepenesse 6139 wittnesse 4600 gladnesse
6) Examples from the Bevis of Hampton:
500 hethenesse 3899 sikenesse 3706 wildernesse
7) Examples from the Sultan of Babylon:
965 softenesse 40 worthynesse
7a) Hybrid formations in the Sultan of Babylon:
2944 geaunesse 1948 hardynesse
A relatively high frequency was recorded with regard to yet another native suffix, namely -ing < OE -ung. The suffix was employed in Middle English to derive nouns from verbs (Fisiak 1968 : 11). In the same fashion, the suffix appears in two of the texts, although it is absent from the last of the texts--the Sultan of Babylon. Interestingly, the suffix appears in the texts of Guy of Warwick and Bevis of Hampton with words, whose roots were of non-native, Romance origin. Such use is most prominent in the earliest of the three texts, namely the Guy of Warwick. 14% of the forms found with the suffix -ing in the text of the Guy of Warwick are hybrids with Romance roots. A lower percentage is found in the text of Bevis of Hampton. The results may point to some measure of productivity of this suffix in the LME See London Metal Exchange.
See London Metal Exchange (LME). period.
8a) Examples from the Guy of Warwick:
3011 blisceing 5515 departing de·part
v. de·part·ed, de·part·ing, de·parts
1. To go away; leave.
2. To die.
3. 6386 wepeing
8b) Hybrid formations in the Guy of Warwick:
1083 ambling This article is about the four-beat intermediate gaits of horses. For more information on how horses move, see Horse gait.
The term Amble or Ambling is used to describe a number of four-beat intermediate gaits of horses. 3764 spouseing 4227 treueyling
9a) Examples from the Bevis of Hampton:
167 fighting 2989 gadling 830 honting
9b) Hybrid formations in the Bevis of Hampton:
4565 couroning 3646 scorning 4564 spusing
5.2. Romance suffixes
The first of the derivational suffixes of Romance origin found in the texts under investigation is the suffix -age. According to Fisiak (2000), the suffix was used to derive nouns from verbs and nouns. The frequency of the occurrence of this suffix in the aforementioned functions is relatively high compared to other suffixes found in the investigated texts. However, the suffix appears almost exclusively with words borrowed from French, thus its productivity in terms of hybrid formation with native roots is questionable. There is only a single occurrence of a hybrid form in the text of the Bevis of Hampton with the word morage. Tables 7 and 8 present the values for the texts under investigation.
10) Examples from the Guy of Warwick:
1351 ermitage 7365 linage lin·age also line·age
1. The number of lines of printed or written material.
2. Payment for written work at a specified amount per line.
1. 7260 pilgrimage pilgrimage
Journey to a shrine or other sacred place undertaken to gain divine aid, as an act of thanksgiving or penance, or to demonstrate devotion. Medieval Christian pilgrims stayed at hospices set up specifically for pilgrims, and on their return trip they wore on their
11a) Examples from the Bevis of Hampton:
2945 damage 1054 omage 1439 parage PARAGE. Equality of name or blood, but more especially of land in the partition of an inheritance among co-heirs, hence comes disparage and disparagement. Co. Litt. 166.
11b) Hybrid formations in -age in the Bevis of Hampton:
12) Examples from the Sultan of Babylon:
972 corage 629 heritage 2806 mesage
Another Romance derivational suffix -al, which derived nouns from verbs in Middle English (Fisiak 1968 : 108) is present in all of the LME texts investigated in this paper. The frequencies are very low, however. The suffix formed no hybrids in the aforementioned texts. Table 9 presents the number of the occurrences of the suffix.
13) Example from the Guy of Warwick:
2599 admiral ADMIRAL, officer. In some countries is the commander in chief of the naval forces. This office does not exist in the United States.
14) Examples from the Bevis of Hampton:
3504 marchal 4345 springal
15) Example from the Sultan of Babylon:
Only one of the texts exhibits the occurrences of the suffix -acioun. Deverbal nouns Noun 1. deverbal noun - a noun that is derived from a verb
gerund - a noun formed from a verb (such as the `-ing' form of an English verb when used as a noun)
common noun - a noun that denotes any or all members of a class were derived from this suffix in Middle English (Fisiak 1968 ), and this process in manifested in just a few examples found in the text of the Sultan of Babylon. Table 10 presents the results.
16) Examples from the Sultan of Babylon:
1558 ymagynacion 2116 lamentacion 2118 meditacion
The three of the Late Middle English texts manifest manifest 1) adj., adv. completely obvious or evident. 2) n. a written list of goods in a shipment.
MANIFEST, com. law. A written instrument containing a true account of the cargo of a ship or commercial vessel.
2. the use of the French derivational suffix -aunce. According to Fisiak (2000), the suffix was employed in Middle English to form deverbal nouns (Fisiak 1968 ). Such use is recorded in all three texts, although in the text of the Bevis of Hampton the form is found only once. The suffix is not present in hybrid formations.
17) Examples from the Guy of Warwick:
5313 contenaunce 4742 acumbraunce 5082 encumbraunce
18) Examples from the Bevis of Hampton:
19) Examples from the Sultan of Babylon:
994 grevaunce 3101 ordynaunce 2446 vengeaunce
The French derivational suffix -esse was generally used in the derivation of nouns from verbs and nouns in Middle English (Fisiak 1968 : 109). It is in this function that the suffix appears in the three texts, although with very low frequency. No instances of hybrid formations have been found. Table 12 presents the results.
20) Example from the Guy of Warwick:
21) Examples from the Bevis of Hampton:
2476 destresse 3762 ostesse 737 prowesse
22) Examples from the Sultan of Babylon:
3016 richesse 2946 distresse
Another low frequency suffix present in the texts of the three Late Middle English romances is the suffix -ite. The suffix was employed in de-adjectival noun noun [Lat.,=name], in English, part of speech of vast semantic range. It can be used to name a person, place, thing, idea, or time. It generally functions as subject, object, or indirect object of the verb in the sentence, and may be distinguished by a number of formation in Middle English (Fisiak 1968 : 110). Again, no instances of hybrid formations were found in any of the texts.
23) Examples from the Guy of Warwick:
8120 natiuite 10403 trinite
24) Example from the Bevis of Hampton:
25) Examples from the Sultan of Babylon:
18 dignite 1312 Trinite
The only Romance suffix, which according to the criteria laid out by Dalton-Puffer, appeared to be productive in Middle English was -ment. This suffix primarily formed nouns from verbs in Middle English (Fisiak 1968 : 110). However, in the texts of three LME romances any forms of hybrid formations is absent. Thus, it may appear that at the time of the composition of these texts the productivity of this suffix may have finally declined. Table 14 shows the results of the analysis. The suffix was found only in the Guy of Warwick and the Bevis of Hampton.
26) Examples from the Guy of Warwick:
2134 agrement 2030 comberment 7546 iugement
27) Examples from the Bevis of Hampton:
4331 comaundement 3889 oiniment 3765 tornement
To conclude, the three romance texts of the Late Middle English period employ the majority of the nominal derivational suffixes listed by Dalton-Puffer in her study of derivation based on the Helsinki Corpus. However, most of the suffixes appear with very low frequency which is obviously due to the length of the texts under investigation.
With regard to the problem of the productivity of particular suffixes, the study revealed that, as in the study conducted by Dalton-Puffer, the native suffixes are productive, most prominently the suffix -ing < OE -ung. There is only a single occurrence of a non-native suffix on the native root, namely -age. However, this is a single occurrence and it is believed by the author of the present paper that it should be treated as marginal. Surprisingly, the suffix -ment, which manifested at least a limited degree of productivity in the study conducted by Dalton-Puffer is not productive in the sense of the potential for hybrid formation in the investigated texts. Thus, the significance of the French patterns for derivation should, at least in the texts of the selected LME romances, be rejected.
Finally, there seems to be no connection between the French genre of the texts and, as has just been demonstrated, the increased use and productivity of the Romance suffixes. In fact, the Romance derivational suffixes proved to be unproductive. Obviously, the investigation into other texts of the Late Middle English period is still necessary, yet with regard to the selected LME romances the questions presented in the introduction of the present study seem to be answered.
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Simpson Simp·son , Sir James Young 1811-1870.
British obstetrician and a founder of gynecology. He is also known for introducing the use of chloroform as an anesthetic. , John A.--Edmund S. Weiner (eds.) 1987 The Oxford English dictionary Oxford English Dictionary
(OED) great multi-volume historical dictionary of English. [Br. Hist.: Caught in the Web of Words]
See : Lexicography (OED). (2nd edition.) Oxford: Clarendon CLARENDON. The constitutions of Clarendon were certain statutes made in the reign of Henry H., of England, in a parliament holden at Clarendon, by which the king checked the power of the pope and his clergy. 4 Bl. Com. 415. Press.
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n. (used with a sing. verb)
The study of linguistic change over time in language or in a particular language or language family, sometimes including the reconstruction of unattested forms of earlier stages of a language. . Berlin: Mouton mouton
lamb pelt made to resemble seal or beaver. de Gruyter.
Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan
Table 1. -dom in LME romances Guy of Warwick Bevis of Hampton tokens % total tokens % total Deadjectival 2 33,3 0 0 Nominal 4 63,3 6 100 Table 2. -hede in LME romances Bevis of Hampton Sultan of Babylon tokens % total tokens % total Deadjectival 2 100 1 100 Table 3. -nesse in LME romances Guy of Warwick Bevis of Hampton Sultan of Babylon tokens % total tokens % total tokens % total Deadjectival 4 100 15 100 5 100 Table 4. Hybrid formations in -nesse in LME romances Sultan of Babylon tokens % total Romance root 2 40 Table 5. -ing in LME romances Guy of Warwick Bevis of Hampton tokens % total tokens % total Deverbal 86 100 38 100 Table 6. Hybrid formations in -ing in LME romances Guy of Warwick Bevis of Hampton tokens % total tokens % total Romance 12 14 4 10 roots Total 86 38 Table 7. -age in LME romances Guy of Warwick Bevis of Hampton Sultan of Babylon tokens % total tokens % total tokens % total Nominal 25 67 13 50 2 14 Deverbal 12 33 13 50 12 86 Table 8. Hybrid formations in -aLge in LME romances Bevis of Hampton tokens % total Native root 1 3 Total 26 Table 9. -al in LME romances Guy of Warwick Bevis of Hampton Sultan of Babylon tokens % total tokens % total tokens % total Deverbal 5 100 4 100 3 100 Table 10. -acioun in LME romances Sultan of Babylon tokens % total Deverbal 4 100 Table 11. -aunce in LME romances Guy of Warwick Bevis of Hampton Sultan of Babylon tokens % total tokens % total tokens % total Deverbal 13 100 1 100 13 100 Table 12. -esse in LME romances Guy of Warwick Bevis of Hampton Sultan of Babylon tokens % total tokens % total tokens % total Nominal 2 100 2 40 1 50 Deverbal 0 0 3 60 1 50 Table 13. -ite in LME romances Guy of Warwick Bevis of Hampton Sultan of Babylon tokens % total tokens % total tokens % total Deadjectival 6 100 1 100 2 100 Table 14. -ment in LME romances Guy of Warwick Bevis of Hampton tokens % total tokens % total Deverbal 36 100 10 100