Oman - Part 2 - The Oil & Gas Fields:.Oman has more than 120 oil and gas fields, of which 95 are producing and the rest should be on stream in the coming few years. The producing oilfields' total capacity is more than 925,000 b/d. In the government's current five-year programme, for 1996-2000, Oman's oil production should average 880,000 b/d.
Oil production is averaging 895,000 b/d. The main operator, Petroleum Development Oman Petroleum Development of Oman (PDO) is the foremost exploration and production company in the Sultanate. It accounts for more than 90% of the country's crude-oil production and nearly all of its natural-gas supply. (PDO PDO Php Data Objects (PHP extension)
PDO Protected Designation of Origin (EC)
PDO Pacific Decadal Oscillation (weather)
PDO Property Damage Only ), is producing 840,000 b/d. The remaining 55,000 b/d are produced by Occidental oc·ci·den·tal or Oc·ci·den·tal
Of or relating to the countries of the Occident or their peoples or cultures; western.
A native or inhabitant of an Occidental country; a westerner.
Noun 1. , Japex and Elf. In addition, Novus in Bukha field produces 4,000 b/d of condensate condensate, matter in the form of a gas of atoms, molecules, or elementary particles that have been so chilled that their motion is virtually halted and as a consequence they lose their separate identities and merge into a single entity. , 1,200 b/d of LPG LPG: see liquefied petroleum gas.
1. LPG - Linguaggio Procedure Grafiche (Italian for "Graphical Procedures Language"). dott. Gabriele Selmi. Roughly a cross between Fortran and APL, with graphical-oriented extensions and several peculiarities. and about 40 MCM/day of gas (see table below).
Oman's oil production capacity has been rising steadily since the mid-1970s. In 1976 production averaged 370,000 b/d, a peak at the time. It declined and prompted PDO to install EOR EOR - exclusive or facilities. It reached 700,000 b/d in 1992, from less than 630,000 b/d in 1989, when the main north-south export pipeline was expanded to about 650,000 b/d, with looping and replacement of corroded cor·rode
v. cor·rod·ed, cor·rod·ing, cor·rodes
1. To destroy a metal or alloy gradually, especially by oxidation or chemical action: acid corroding metal. sections completed. A further expansion of the pipeline later enabled the operators to export at full capacity, as well as feed the local oil refinery (see Downstream Trends).
Proven oil reserves Oil reserves refer to portions of oil in place that are claimed to be recoverable under economic constraints.
Oil in the ground is not a "reserve" unless it is claimed to be economically recoverable, since as the oil is extracted, the cost of recovery increases incrementally are estimated at 5.3 bn barrels, with PDO accounting for 98%. Reserve additions yearly exceed production. The ministry of petroleum and gas says at least 5 bn barrels should be added to the country's reserves during the next 10 years in order for oil production to keep meeting Oman's economic needs.
OMAN'S OIL PRODUCING VENTURES & MAIN FIELDS (000' b/d) Maximum Current Operator Fields Capacity Output Shell (PDO) Yibal 200.0 200.0 Shell (PDO) Rima/Jalmud 90.0 90.0 Shell (PDO) Lekhwair 90.0 80.0 Shell (PDO) Nimr 70.0 70.0 Shell (PDO) Fahud 50.0 45.0 Shell (PDO) Marmul 45.0 40.0 Shell (PDO) Al Huwaisah 35.0 35.0 Shell (PDO) Natih 30.0 30.0 Shell (PDO) Amal 20.0 20.0 Shell (PDO) Others 230.0 230.0 Total PDO 860.0 840.0 Occidental Safah 45.0 41.0 Occidental* Al Barakah 2.0 1.0 Japex Daleel 10.0 10.0 Elf Sahmah 3.0 3.0 Vovus Bukha** 5.5 5.2 Total Oman 925.5 900.2
Occidental's production includes less than 200 b/d from the small Wadi Latham field, near the declining Al Barakah field.
Bukha, a gas/condensate field, is producing 4,000 b/d of condensates, about 1,200 b/d of LPG and 40 MCM/day of natural gas.
Oil production costs in Oman are higher than in neighbouring countries. But PDO has managed to cut its unit operating cost to about $1.35-1.40/barrel and uses cutting-edge technology in most of its fields which are complex. Costs for the other operators range from less than $4 to more than $5/barrel.
Production costs are high because of Oman's complex geology, with many wells required for a small production volume, and the low quality of crude oils in the southern fields. The sultanate's oil output is a little over 10% of Saudi Arabia's 8.76m b/d output but Oman has a far greater number of wells relative to volumes produced. Oman has about 2,000 producing wells with an average yield of 400 b/d per well. Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia (sä`dē ərā`bēə, sou`–, sô–), officially Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, kingdom (2005 est. pop. has 1,800 producing wells with average yield of 3,700 b/d per well.
As a PDO executive explains, most of Oman's oil comes from geological formations about 500 million years old with only a few giants. In Saudi Arabia, most of the oil comes from super-giants and giants with formations 100 million years old (see geological profile of Oman on SP 19-20).
A major challenge is a rising water content in old reservoirs. According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. 'Petroleum Argus' of Jan. 30, 1995, "PDO expects to produce three barrels of saline water Saline water is a general term for water that contains a significant concentration of dissolved salts (NaCl). The concentration is usually expressed in parts per million (ppm) of salt. with each barrel of oil at the end of the decade". Similar challenges are to be faced by the other operators in Oman, although these now only produce a total of 60,200 b/d of oil, condensate and LPG (see Gas Market Trends).