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Oh, what a tangled web ...: web content can be unruly. Here's how campus webmasters are using content management systems to gain control.

We've all seen those college websites that make no sense. They are afterthoughts or the end result of ill-conceived student projects. There is no consistent color scheme from page to page; the fonts vary. The only area that received a professional design's tender, loving care was the homepage, but the links there lead to a maze of information that is dated, or hard to navigate. Worst are the websites with information that contradicts itself. Ever hear of a college that posted different tuition prices on its web pages? No one is willing to name names, but more than one higher ed web manager swears it has happened.

It doesn't have to be this way, say the developers of content management systems. They have created browser-based software systems that manage web efforts. Websites, they say, are gateways. Potential students visit to take virtual tours Virtual Tours
The phrases panoramic tour and virtual tour are often used to describe a variety of video and photographic based media. The word panorama indicates an unbroken view, so essentially, a panorama in that respect could be either a series of photographs or panning video
. Students log on to review the course catalog Noun 1. course catalog - a catalog listing the courses offered by a college or university
course catalogue, prospectus

catalog, catalogue - a book or pamphlet containing an enumeration of things; "he found it in the Sears catalog"
, register for next semester, pay tuition, or simply find out about the weekend social scene.

The website is the "face" of the school notes Dong Chen, web developer and architect at Bowling Green State University Bowling Green State University, at Bowling Green, Ohio; coeducational; chartered 1910 as a normal school, opened 1914. It became a college in 1929, a university in 1935.  (Ohio). It is part of the branding effort. Two years ago, the public university, which is home to 20,000 students on two campuses, brought in a content management system to bring order to its website. The decision was part of a larger collaboration between the CIO's office and marketing and communications. At that point the website was "a mess," suffering from an inordinate number of users who imposed varied graphic and text styles. "Some pages looked like BGSU BGSU Bowling Green State University
BGSU Bisexual, Gay, Straight, Undecided
. Some didn't say anything. People would come to the website and not know where they were."

Thanks to a CMS (1) See content management system and color management system.

(2) (Conversational Monitor System) Software that provides interactive communications for IBM's VM operating system.
 program called Rhythmyx by Percussion, and global stylesheets that are part of the system, the website ( now has a consistent took that features a recognizable color scheme on its main pages. About 25 CMS users on campus can update information and add pages, but they no longer have access to the main server. Instead, they publish information that is reviewed by a designated web editor before it goes live.

CMS systems work behind the scenes, keeping track of all pages and their respective links to other pages. They also store information, allowing users to re-purpose it at some future date. They disallow To exclude; reject; deny the force or validity of.

The term disallow is applied to such things as an insurance company's refusal to pay a claim.
 gonzo gon·zo  
adj. Slang
1. Using an exaggerated, highly subjective style, especially in journalism: "a hyperkinetic, gonzo version of Graham Greene" New Yorker.

 designers in disparate departments from changing design elements--keeping crucial information off limits to all but a webmaster. CMS users in academic departments might be able to, say, change their course descriptions, but they won't be able to replace the school logo that sits in the upper left-hand corner with a photo of the new dean. Something as critical as a tuition price change can be updated simultaneously on all relevant pages, leaving no room for error. The same is true for a changed URL URL
 in full Uniform Resource Locator

Address of a resource on the Internet. The resource can be any type of file stored on a server, such as a Web page, a text file, a graphics file, or an application program.
 that may appear on a number of webpages.

CMS tools came on the scene as the internet started to grow in the late 1990s. They were introduced to solve the common problems almost every webmaster faces. Webmasters lost control when websites grew from several pages to several hundred, then to several thousand. Many who didn't have software assistance to automate functions were left to hand-code every text and design change.

In academia, even the website page counts at small-sized colleges and universities grew into the thousands. Is CMS the answer for campus webmasters?

The early adopters think so.

Outgrowing Homegrown Solutions

Gonzaga University (Wash.), a private religious school with 8,000 students, installed a CMS in 2002 after first trying to manage web operations Web operations is a domain of expertise within IT systems management that involves the deployment, operation, maintenance, tuning, and repair of web-based applications.

With the rise of web technologies since mid-1995, specialists have emerged that understand the complexities of
 through a homegrown solution in its central office. Many IHEs at first take the "do it yourself" approach to web management, says Wayne Powell, C]O and associate academic VP. While the site ( was attractive enough, it grew too slowly.

In their impatience to load new material, other offices hired their own website development staffers, creating a decentralized de·cen·tral·ize  
v. de·cen·tral·ized, de·cen·tral·iz·ing, de·cen·tral·iz·es
1. To distribute the administrative functions or powers of (a central authority) among several local authorities.
 web operation with pages and pieces that had no common identity. By 2001, officials came to the consensus that things had to change. A campus team eventually selected Microsoft Content Management Server MCMS (Microsoft Content Management Server) is a Microsoft product intended for small to medium enterprises that require Content management functionality on their web site, intranet or portal.  for CMS.

Gonzaga paid $25,000 for the software, and pays an annual maintenance fee of $5,000 to maintain and upgrade the program. An estimated 70 CMS users on campus can post their own material, provided they receive CMS training and are provided a CMS password. Additional applications have been incorporated into the CMS. They allow Gonzanga to do such things as accept online credit card payment for continuing education continuing education: see adult education.
continuing education
 or adult education

Any form of learning provided for adults. In the U.S. the University of Wisconsin was the first academic institution to offer such programs (1904).

In 2001, Baldwin Wallace College Wallace College is a private educational institution located in the Old Town, Edinburgh, Scotland, established in 1972. The college provides English language and academic courses throughout the year. External link
  • Official website
 (Ohio), a private IHE IHE Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise
IHE Institutions of Higher Education
IHE International Institute for Infrastructural, Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering (historical acronym only, replaced by: IHE Delft, the Foundation) 
 with 3,000 students, installed PageWizard, a CMS offered by LeepFrog Technologies. Having CMS allowed the school's website to balloon from 750 pages to 6,000, says Susan Rouault, director of web administration. Eventually about 100 users were trained to use the system--specific personnel in academic and administrative departments were given passcodes so they could post new course information, specifics on admissions, information on students organizations and more.

The CMS offers users three standard templates in which to work. They choose which page layout :For the Wikipedia policy about articles layout, see Wikipedia:Guide to layout. Page layout is the part of graphic design that deals in the arrangement and style treatment of elements (content) on a page.  best presents their content and related hyperlinks. This CMS, like many others, is designed so that the user's interface is like that of a word processing word processing, use of a computer program or a dedicated hardware and software package to write, edit, format, and print a document. Text is most commonly entered using a keyboard similar to a typewriter's, although handwritten input (see pen-based computer) and  software program. Boldfacing or italicizing a word does not require knowledge of HTML HTML
 in full HyperText Markup Language

Markup language derived from SGML that is used to prepare hypertext documents. Relatively easy for nonprogrammers to master, HTML is the language used for documents on the World Wide Web.
 in full Extensible Markup Language.

Markup language developed to be a simplified and more structural version of SGML. It incorporates features of HTML (e.g., hypertext linking), but is designed to overcome some of HTML's limitations.
 coding. Such commands are built into a toolbar A row or column of on-screen buttons used to activate functions in the application. Many toolbars are customizable, letting you add and delete buttons as required. Toolbars may be fixed in position or may float, which means they can be dragged to a more convenient location in the .

Users, however, are locked out of access to the logos, colors and standard graphics that are part of the overall website ( When Rouault, or someone in the main office, wants to replace a logo or a piece of information that appears in many places on the site--such as a telephone number--she can input the change and be assured that it is simultaneously made on all related pages.

Such CMS systems are installed at 300 or so IHEs, estimates Michael Stoner ston·er  
1. One that stones.

2. Slang
a. One who is habitually intoxicated by alcohol or drugs.

b. One who is a delinquent or failure.
, principal of mStoner, a Chicago-based consultancy that has installed CMS systems at three dozen colleges and universities since the mid-1990s.

This group of vendors includes Vignette, Ingeniux, Documentum, Ektron, RedDot Solutions and Serena Collage. Setup costs can range from $20,000 to $80,000, depending on the vendor and the number of users, notes Ty Glasgow, president of BigBad, a web design and development firm that recently helped Fairfield University Publications and Media
  • 1073 North Benson - A Publication for Fairfield University Alumni
  • Campus Currents - The Official News Publication of Fairfield University
  • Fairfield Now - The Magazine of Fairfield University,
 (Conn.) relaunch its website, and that has worked with Smith College (Mass.), the University of Notre Dame Notre Dame IPA: [nɔtʁ dam] is French for Our Lady, referring to the Virgin Mary. In the United States of America, Notre Dame  (Ind.), the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Massachusetts Institute of Technology, at Cambridge; coeducational; chartered 1861, opened 1865 in Boston, moved 1916. It has long been recognized as an outstanding technological institute and its Sloan School of Management has notable programs in business, , and 30 other IHEs. Of course, fees can climb higher, depending on the system. Chen reports that Bowling Green Bowling Green.

1 City (1990 pop. 40,641), seat of Warren co., S Ky., on the Barren River; inc. 1812. It is a shipping and marketing center for an area producing tobacco, corn, livestock, and dairy items.
 paid $250,000 for system setup.

According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

 information published by the consulting firm Gartner, Stamford, Conn., the average price of a web content management system in 1999 was $500,000. In 2003, it was $150,000. Today, mid-market CMS systems fall into the $50,000 to $100,000 price range.

Vendors often charge an annual licensing or maintenance fee, which is usually 15 percent of the initial setup fee, adds Glasgow. Rouault, for example, pays about $10,000 annually to use the PageWizard system. A host of other schools are using various web-publishing programs that allow users to create and edit content and that include some CMS management features. Macromedia's Contribute would fall into this category, says Glasglow.

Managing the Work Flow

Publishing webpages is, in some ways, no different than publishing printed pages. There are authors, editors, designers and publishers. Those who have CMS on campus say that designing a workflow--figuring out who will do what and when--is the first step, and in some cases the most important one.

The first question to answer is: Who should have access to content management system?

At California State University Enrollment
 Channel Islands, only identified webmasters in each division use the CMS system. Neither faculty, nor students, touch the system, says Peter Mosinskis, coordinator of web services for the relatively new Cal State IHE. His university, in operation, since 1998, installed Serena Collage as a CMS system in 2003.

"We had to develop accountability and decide who would be responsible for what," he explains. Various departments are responsible for certain pages. Those departments, in turn, select staffers who upload content and place them in a staging area. Other editors then sign off on the new pages and give the OK to publish.

Baldwin Wallace has a similar system. After the various staffers in their related departments make their changes they post their pages. Rouault reviews all page changes on an approval screen before publishing them to the website. The only exceptions are some sports pages that are updated on weekends when games are played.

Still, the setup is not flawless. People are the real power behind CMS. People aren't perfect, which is why it is possible to find pages with graphics that haven't been updated in two years, or forms with contact information for employees who have long- since left the college. Rouault may not have time to update all 6,000 pages on the site, but she does identify pages that have not been updated. She reminds the department heads and student group organizers that their pages need attention. "I am affectionately known as the webnag," she says.

"On one hand it was great to have all those pages, but I had to remind everyone that they also have to maintain the pages."

Her remark sums up the downside of CMS. It is not a panacea. People have to stay on top of the system.

Consider CMS the new CRM (Customer Relationship Management) An integrated information system that is used to plan, schedule and control the presales and postsales activities in an organization. , suggests 3effrey Veen, partner in Adaptive Path, a consulting group based in San Francisco. CRM, or customer relationship management software, was hailed five years ago as the answer to all business problems. It could track and analyze all contacts with a customer, including website visits and e-mail messages. Customers were analyzed by demographics, income, how much they purchased, and their favorite buying times. With costs running in the millions, these systems weren't cheap.

Strapped companies looked far more skeptically at CRM software after the dot-com bubble burst. Sure the software was powerful, but it can be effective only if the people using it are properly trained to use it and to analyze the results.

"My biggest piece of advice is to think of CMS as a process and not software," says Veen.

Stoner prefers web-based CM systems that are easy to use. That's because many colleges and universities assign standard updates to administrative staff. "It is unrealistic to expect an administrative assistant to learn a complex tool in order to update a website," he notes. "The training curve for the end user has to be fairly shallow."

Clients will next have to struggle with integration, says Stoner. More and more, CMS systems are being linked to course management systems-the other CMS on campus--and portals. Too, library systems, which run on their own database software, may soon be integrated into the campus website or portal Finding the tool that will manage website content, academic materials--including lectures, rich media and bulletin boards--and portal information is no doubt the next campus IT assignment.

Open Source and Other Options

A number of open source CMS programs are available to webmasters. One promising place to learn about them is www. The site gives visitors the option to "test drive" various software packages.

Along with news covering CMS and open source trends, the site provides options for specific applications, including portals, blogs, forums, e-commerce and a wiki A Web site that can be quickly edited by its visitors with simple formatting rules. Developed by Ward Cunningham in the mid-1990s to provide collaborative discussions, there are several "wiki" tools on the market for creating such sites, including,, www. , which is a special web setup that allows collaborators to easily change and add to each others' material

As with all open source software, the code is free. The training and troubleshooting are the responsibility of the user.

For other CMS information--open source and otherwise--visit and Some vendors provide white papers and buyers guides. To view an example visit

Considering CMS?

There are a few key considerations to keep in mind when selecting a CMS.

1) Analyze your own website. This will help in figuring out what is needed. Many universities look to CMS when they find many people have taken web initiatives into their own hands. A CMS is a great way to help give your site the professional, consistent took and functionality that students expect. Remember, your website is often the first impression prospective students have of your institution.

2) Be honest about your university's technical capabilities and limitations. Most colleges and universities host their own websites with a server located on campus. This server is usually a Windows, Linux, Unix or Apple machine. The CMS, in turn, will have to be compatible with this server.

3) Ask the web team, or those currently responsible for the website, which server-side scripting language they prefer and weigh your choice accordingly.

Using a CMS that works in a familiar language may allow the web team to write custom applications for the CMS to suit to your specific needs. (Most CMS systems allow users to add to templates or add special features and applications.) Common scripting languages are ASP, PHP (PHP Hypertext Preprocessor) A scripting language used to create dynamic Web pages. With syntax from C, Java and Perl, PHP code is embedded within HTML pages for server side execution. , JSP (JavaServer Page) An extension to the Java servlet technology from Sun that allows HTML to be combined with Java on the same page. The Java provides the processing, and the HTML provides the layout on the Web page. , and CFM.

4) Look for a CMS that supports all the applications currently available through the website, not just the ones you've been wanting: calendars, blogs, or items that publish and expire at defined times are common.

5) Ask for an educational discount. Some vendors give price breaks to colleges and universities.

6) Decide who will have access to the CMS. Some universities want only a small, defined web team posting material that goes live. Others create a system in which one representative from each department has access to a defined number of pages, or specific content. The latter setup will increase the number of users. Some CMS packages are priced by the number of "seats," or users, and then may cost more to run under a decentralized system.

Keep in mind, having a representative in every department who posts new information to the web site will also create the need for more staff training and support.

7) Look for CMS pages that offer WYSI-WYG (What You See Is What You Get (jargon) What You See Is What You Get - (WYSIWYG) /wiz'ee-wig/ Describes a user interface for a document preparation system under which changes are represented by displaying a more-or-less accurate image of the way the document will finally appear, e.g. when printed. ) publishing. A WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) Pronounced "wiz-ee-wig." It refers to displaying text and graphics on screen the same as they will print on paper or display on a Web page.  setup has an interface that looks and behaves just like a common word processing program. Anyone who knows how to use Microsoft Word, or another word processing program, should be able to do basic edits in a CMS. This is a necessary element for a decentralized system.

8) Decide how "deep" the CMS will go on your site. Will it contain content from departments? Entire schools? Graduate studies? Or will you let these entities create and develop their own "independent" sites outside of the CMS.

9) Ask about support. Many CMS vendors offer support forums. Will this be enough? Or will the team on campus need a 24/7 phone support?

If forums are available, do some reading and see what the users are saying about the product. You might even post your own questions. Also see how active the admins are. If they haven't posted recently, stay away.

10) look to the future. Ask the web team what they see on the horizon. Will they soon be using XML (extensible markup language See XML.

(language, text) Extensible Markup Language - (XML) An initiative from the W3C defining an "extremely simple" dialect of SGML suitable for use on the World-Wide Web.
)? Will the website someday be supporting video, RSS (Really Simple Syndication) A syndication format that was developed by Netscape in 1999 and became very popular for aggregating updates to blogs and the news sites. RSS has also stood for "Rich Site Summary" and "RDF Site Summary.  (Really Simple Syndication) newsfeeds? The web team will have a good idea for the next technology trends and what will be necessary to implement in the future.

--Kirk Snedeker is web manager for Professional Media 6roup roup

any disease of poultry manifested by signs of coryza and involvement of the nasal chambers. See also avian trichomoniasis.

nutritional roup
see vitamin A.
, publisher of University Business, UB Daily, and He is the former webmaster for Southern Connecticut State University This article or section is written like an .
Please help [ rewrite this article] from a neutral point of view.
Mark blatant advertising for , using .




LeepFrog Technologies





RedDot Solutions

Serena Collage




Adaptive Path


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Author:Angelo, Jean Marie
Publication:University Business
Date:Mar 1, 2005
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