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OECD plans to use economic measures to achieve sustainability.

TOKYO, Jan. 18 Kyodo

The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), international organization that came into being in 1961. It superseded the Organization for European Economic Cooperation, which had been founded in 1948 to coordinate the Marshall Plan for European  (OECD OECD: see Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. ) plans to call for achievement of sustainable development Sustainable development is a socio-ecological process characterized by the fulfilment of human needs while maintaining the quality of the natural environment indefinitely. The linkage between environment and development was globally recognized in 1980, when the International Union  by actively utilizing economic measures to protect the environment, a draft OECD environmental strategy to be implemented by 2010 showed Thursday.

In the draft, a copy of which was made available to Kyodo News Kyodo News (共同通信社 Kyōdō Tsūshinsha) is a nonprofit cooperative news agency based in Minato-ku, Tokyo. It was established in 1945 and it distributes news to almost all newspapers, and radio and television networks in Japan. , the Paris-based group raised five objectives for enhancing the environmental policies of its 30 member countries. The strategy will be finalized at an OECD environment ministers' meeting in May.

Utilizing economic methods is included as a measure for one of the five objectives -- maintaining the integrity of ecosystems through the efficient management of natural resources.

In addition to that, the OECD aims to de-couple environmental pressures from growth in economic sectors; improve information for decision-making by measuring progress through indicators; enhance human health, the quality of life, environmental justice and democracy; and improve governance and cooperation, the draft said.

The document also suggested ways to improve the member countries' policies in the areas of climate change, fresh water supply, maintenance of biodiversity, agriculture, transport and energy.

As to economic measures, the draft said, ''OECD countries should remove subsidies and reform other policies that encourage unsustainable use of natural resources, and ensure that prices reflect the full external costs of natural resources through market and other policy instruments.''

It said such a policy reflects ''the User Pays Principle and the Polluter Pays Principle The Polluter Pays Principle is a principle in international environmental law where the polluting party pays for the damage done to the natural environment. It is regarded as a regional custom because of the strong support it has received in most Organisation for Economic .''

In the area of climate change, the OECD set the goal of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases and increase use of forests to absorb such gases in order to stabilize their concentrations in the atmosphere over the long term to between 450 and 550 ppm (parts per million parts per million

mg/kg or ml/l; see ppm.

A density of 550 ppm is twice the amount before the Industrial Revolution.

The draft also called for implementation of the 1997 Kyodo Protocol to curb global warming global warming, the gradual increase of the temperature of the earth's lower atmosphere as a result of the increase in greenhouse gases since the Industrial Revolution. , recommending that member countries create incentives for emissions reductions and technological innovation through such measures as subsidies and green tax reform.

In the energy sector, the OECD urged member countries to ''progressively reduce the carbon content in energy used,'' and ''significantly increase the share of renewable energy in gross energy supply.''

It also suggested OECD countries ''remove environmentally damaging subsidies and tax provisions in the energy sector.''

In agriculture, the draft proposed that member countries ''phase out'' environmentally damaging agricultural subsidies before 2010 and ensure that ''the application of new technologies such as the use of genetically modified organisms ge·net·i·cal·ly modified organism
n. Abbr. GMO
An organism whose genetic characteristics have been altered by the insertion of a modified gene or a gene from another organism using the techniques of genetic engineering.
 does not have adverse environmental or health effects and is acceptable to society.''

The OECD serves as a policy forum to encourage economic cooperation between its 30 member countries, mostly industrialized in·dus·tri·al·ize  
v. in·dus·tri·al·ized, in·dus·tri·al·iz·ing, in·dus·tri·al·iz·es
1. To develop industry in (a country or society, for example).

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Publication:Japan Weekly Monitor
Date:Jan 22, 2001
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