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Nutritive value and availability of commonly used feed ingredients for farmed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) and African catfish (Clarias gariepinus, burchell) in Kenya, Rwanda and Tanzania.

INTRODUCTION

Aquaculture in East Africa like many other sub-Saharan countries is under-developed and contributes less than 1% to global aquaculture production [1]. The cost of fish feeds, among other factors, has been identified as one of the key factors limiting aquaculture development in the region. Victoria Research Initiative (VicRes) through the Inter University Council of East Africa (IUCEA) in an effort to contribute towards solving the problem of high feed cost in the region funded the collection, processing and analysis of 30 different locally utilized feed ingredients for culture of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L.) and African catfish (Clarias gariepinus), in Kenya, Tanzania and Rwanda.

Protein is the most expensive component in fish feeds. Traditionally fishmeal has been used as the main source of animal protein in fish feeds and is the most preferred source of animal protein due to balanced amino acid profiles [2, 3, 4, 5]. However, fishmeal has continuously experienced fluctuating prices, competition from other animal feed manufacturers thus affecting aquaculture feed production and consequently profitability [6, 7, 8]. As a result, a lot of effort has been focused on feed alternatives to fishmeal both from plant and animal protein sources worldwide [9, 10, 11]. In order to enhance fish farming yields, improve food security, reduce the level of poverty in developing countries and create employment, a search for cheap and locally available feedstuffs is necessary.

The Eastern Africa region has many agro-industrial by-products from agricultural processing, which are usually not utilized for human consumption, but may have a high potential in tilapia and catfish feeds. C. gariepinus and O. niloticus are the most commercially important species among the farmed fish in the East African countries [12, 13, 14, 15]. Although most of these agro-industrial by-products have been evaluated for inclusion in poultry and livestock feeds [16, 17, 18, 19, 20] only a few have been evaluated for their potential as fish feeds [21, 22, 23, 24]. Development of a feed for fish production involves evaluation of proximate composition, digestibility and performance efficiency as well as cost implications and conditions of application.

The current study was undertaken to determine what fish farmers are currently utilizing as fish feeds for C. gariepinus and O. niloticus in Kenya, Rwanda and Tanzania and to determine the nutritive value for the utilized feed ingredients by using laboratory analyses. Data from the current study are expected to form a basis for further evaluation of the effects of selected feed components on digestibility and fish growth in the three countries. Ultimately it is anticipated that value addition of the already utilized fish feeds in the East African region will be a major contribution towards production of quality fish feed, cutting fish feed cost and improving the returns from fish farming in the region.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Study area

The collection of feed ingredients was conducted in three East African countries (Kenya, Tanzania and Rwanda). Two sites were chosen from each country and ingredient samples were collected during a period of six months (January - June, 2010). The collection sites are shown in Figure 1 below.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Ingredients Proximate Analysis

The collected feed ingredients were analyzed at National Aquaculture Research, Development & Training Center (NARDTC)--Sagana--Kenya, which lies at latitude 0[degrees] 39'S, longitude 37[degrees] 12'E, and at an altitude of 1230 m above sea level. The ingredients were sun-dried and ground to coarse particles using a blender liquidizer (model A989, Hampshire, UK). They were further ground into finer particles using an electric grinder fitted with a 1 mm sieve (Thomas-Wiley intermediate mill, 3348-L10 series, USA) and dried in an oven to a constant weight at 60[degrees]C. Analyses of crude protein, crude fibre, ether extracts, ash and moisture content were done in triplicates, following the procedure by Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) [25]. Dry matter (DM) was determined by drying 5 grams of sample in an oven for six hours to constant weight at 105 [degrees]C. Crude protein was quantified by the standard micro-Kieldahl Nitrogen method, using a sample size of 0.4 g, a Behroset InKie digestion apparatus and a Behr S 1 steam distillation apparatus (both: Labor-Technik GmbH, Dusseldorf, Germany). The distillate containing ammonia was trapped in 4 % boric acid solution prior to titration with 0.1N HCl. Crude protein was estimated by multiplying the nitrogen content with a factor of 6.25. Ether extracts were analyzed using a sample size of 2 g in a Soxhlet extractor with petroleum ether (boiling point 40-60 [degrees]C). Crude fiber (CF) was determined by boiling 1 g of sample in a standard solution of 3.13 % H2SO4 for 10 minutes. The remaining sample was rinsed with hot water followed by boiling in 3.13 % NaOH for another 10 minutes. Thereafter the remaining sample was rinsed repeatedly with hot water followed by acetone. The residue was oven dried at 60 [degrees]C for 4 hours, cooled in a desiccator and weighed. The residue was ashed at 550 [degrees]C in a muffle furnace overnight. CF was quantified by expressing the loss in weight after ashing as a percentage of the original weight of the sample. Nitrogen Free Extracts were estimated by difference (DM-CP-EE-CF-Ash). The type of sample and some basic information on their availability are summarized in Table 2.

RESULTS

Proximate Analyses of Feed Ingredients from Kenya, Tanzania and Rwanda

A checklist of the feed ingredients samples and some basic information on their availability and cost are presented in Table 1. Most of the feeds were found in all countries except a few that were unique to one or two countries (Table 1). Apart from the feeds that were being used by the farmers a few other feedstuffs found in abundance in the study sites such as water fern and water hyacinth were also collected for proximate analysis for future use. Sweet potato, Avocado, Lucerne and Papaya were found in all the three countries (Table 1). The proximate composition of different feed ingredients analyzed in Kenya, Tanzania and Rwanda are shown in Table 2, 3 and 4 respectively. Omena (Rastrineobola argentea) commonly used as fish meal in East African countries was not available in Rwanda as a fish feed ingredient but was analyzed in both Kenya and Tanzania and the CP level were similar (551g/kg DM) in the two countries (Table 2 and 3). Although, maize bran was a common ingredient found in all the three countries, its CP level was slightly higher but not significantly (P>0.05) different in Rwanda compared to Tanzania and Kenya (Table 2, 3 4). Feed ingredients of animal origin exhibited high CP levels (407-635 g/kg DM) compared to the feed ingredients of plant origin and Fresh water shrimp (C. nilotica) contained the highest CP levels of 635 g/kg DM (Table 2, 3 4). Feed ingredients of animal origin also had low ether extracts (EE) with an exception of R. argentea which had higher quantity of EE. Crude fibre was generally higher in feedstuff of plant origin and ranged between 55368g/kg DM while Nitrogen Free Extracts (NfE) and Ash content were higher in the feedstuff of plant origin with an exception of maize bran which had the lowest value. In feedstuff of animal origin, Omena and freshwater shrimp which had higher ash content of 182 and 228g/kg DM compared to other animal feedstuff. The results of the proximate analysis of the present study were different from the results obtained from previous studies in other countries (Table 5, 6, 7).

DISCUSSIONS

Most of the feed ingredients analyzed were found in all the three countries (Kenya, Rwanda and Tanzania) except a few which were unique to one or two countries. The protein content of feed ingredients of animal origin were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of plant origin in all the three countries. Unfortunately the costs of feed ingredients of animal origin are generally high and unlikely to be economically viable for semi-intensive culture of O. niloticus and C. gariepinus when their percent inclusion in the diet formulations is over 25%. In the present study, Freshwater shrimp meal (FSM) recorded the highest CP levels (Table 2, 3) of all the ingredients that were analyzed. Although FSM has previously been reported [26, 27] to have high potential for inclusion in O. niloticus diets due to high protein content and lack of competition as human food, it has suffered several limitations among others, competition as an ingredient in poultry and livestock feed manufacturing industries. There has also been persistent unavailability of FSM from Lake Victoria where it occurs as a by-product of the Omena (R. argentea) fishery when fishing of omena is banned in Lake Victoria. These limitations make FSM a less competitive ingredient in fish feed production.

The protein content of R. argentea is high (Table 3), and suitable as a high quality source of dietary protein in fish feeds where it has been used for decades. However, in the L. Victoria region R. argentea is directly used as human food and thus inclusion in fish feeds leads to direct competition with the ultimate target. This, coupled with high cost reduces its feasibility for utilization as a feed ingredient in semi-intensive culture systems. However, R. argentea can be used in formulations for intensive systems where fish stocking densities and financial returns are high. Blood, meat & bone meal, offal's and other slaughter wastes can also be used in O. niloticus and C. gariepinus diet formulations owing to their high crude protein levels and relatively low cost but there is need to ensure proper pre-processing to ensure parasites and zoonotic organisms are eliminated. All plant leaves ingredients with the exception of banana leaves contained crude protein levels above 25 % (Table 3, 4) and thus may have a high potential for inclusion in O. niloticus and C. gariepinus feeds. However, no plant protein can on its own support good growth of fish due to deficiency in at least one essential amino acid [28].Their utilization may be feasible in semi-intensive production systems, where autotrophic and heterotrophic food material may supply the deficient amino acids [29, 30]. Based on their proximate composition, leaf meals with exception of banana leaves have a high potential for inclusion in O. niloticus and C. gariepinus feeds, as they all had protein contents above 250 mg kg-1 feed, which is close to the value recommended for inclusion in the grow out diets for O. niloticus [31]. The suitability of these feedstuffs for use in O. niloticus and C. gariepinus feeds is further made feasible by the fact that with the exception of arrowroot, they grow well in low rainfall areas, which form a greater portion of Kenya, Tanzania and Rwanda. Cassava, arrowroot and sweet potato are tuber plants and their roots are commonly used as human food. The leaves are rarely consumed by humans in East Africa region, and may be available for use in O. niloticus and C. gariepinus feeds. Compared to values from previous research [32] sweet potato, pawpaw and cassava leaves registered higher CP levels than reported in previous studies as indicated in Table 5, 6, 7 [33, 34]. The CP of other feedstuffs including water fern, kitchen wastes and arrow root leaves were in the same range as shown from results of previous studies in other countries in Table 5, 6, 7 [35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41]. From literature, it is indicated that several of the agricultural by-products studied contain components which may affect their nutritive value. In the case of cassava, a toxic component known as Linamarin has to be considered. Linamarin causes cyanide poisoning, but the toxicity may be removed by boiling and/or sun drying [42]. Literature on the utilization of Papaya (C. papaya) leaf meals in fish feeds is scarce. The limited available information indicates that papaya leaf meal could be a good protein source because of its amino acid profile [43, 44]. The papaya leaf and the unripe papaya fruit contain papain, which degrades protein into amino acids [45]. It has been reported that papain promotes proteolytic digestion and thereby increases the protein digestibility of papaya leaf meal [46]. C. papaya peels contain lectins, which are toxic compounds relevant to fish and other animals [47, 48], but can be destroyed by heat treatment followed by aqueous methanol extraction or soaking in water for 24 hours under refrigerated conditions [49]. Information on the use of Lucerne leaf meal in fish feeds is limited [50], but it is widely used in livestock feeds [51]. The plant is rich in the amino acid leucine, which enhances its potential for inclusion in fish feeds. However, the presence of mimosine which is toxic to most animals, may limit its application in fish feeds [52]. Difference in growth response of male and female tilapia has been observed when fed a diet containing Lucerne leaf meal: males seemed to tolerate it better than females. However, the production of fry was significantly reduced beyond the 40 % inclusion level. Mimosine is known to cause disruption of reproductive processes and teratogenic effects in animals [53]. Mimosine toxicity can be removed through boiling in an open vessel or by addition of ferrous sulphate solution and/or soaking in water at 30[degrees]C for 48 hours [54]. The nutritional quality of oil-seed by-products has been extensively evaluated [55, 56]. Seed residues have generally high CP levels but may be low in cystine, methionine and lysine, which are frequently lacking in plant protein sources (Table 5, 6, 7). The levels of nutrients and toxic compounds in seed residues depend largely on the methods of processing and may also vary between strains [57]. The limit in inclusion levels of CSC is determined by the level of gossypol [58, 59], a toxic phenolic compound that is found in the pigment glands of the cotton plant [60]. Gossypol has been associated with reduced fingerling recruitment in O. niloticus. The suitability of sunflower seed cake (SFSC) as a fish feed has been evaluated [61, 62]. SFSC contains a high level of protein (Table 5, 6, 7), which may vary according to the quality of the original seed and the method of processing. Among the different byproducts of sunflower seed, dehulled cakes are recommended to be included in fish feeds because of their high protein and relatively low CF levels [63]. Sunflowers are widely grown in many parts of East African region; therefore their by-products have a high quantitative potential for use in fish feeds. Although SFSC is not available in the sites in Rwanda, they are farmed in other parts of the country and can be grown and incorporated into fish feeds.

Papaya seeds and peels may quantitatively have a high potential in the fish feed industry throughout the three countries, where papaya plants are abundant. Mango stone seeds are also available in great amounts, mainly in the drier areas of Kenya. However, due to the low CP content of the seed (Table 5), it is unlikely to become an important food component for O. niloticus and C. gariepinus. The use of cereal brans in Kenya has recently been evaluated: wheat, maize and rice brans were fed to O. niloticus and growth performance in fertilized ponds. Both wheat bran (WB) and maize bran (MB) promoted good growth of Nile tilapia and can substitute each other, depending on whichever of the two is locally available. A general deficiency of lysine in cereal by-products has been reported, but deficient nutrients might be supplemented by natural pond food in semi-intensive culture systems [63]. Cereal brans are generally cheap and readily available in most East Africa region, and may therefore be an important feed component in semi-intensive O. niloticus and C. gariepinus production. Seed pulp/husks are quite cheap and abundantly available from agricultural processing factories. However, most seed pulps and husks are of low nutritive quality, due to high fibre content as shown in table 5, 6, 7 and eventually their low acceptability by fish. Nevertheless, they may be utilized as feed components in semi-intensive fish production, where they may be either consumed directly by the fish or serve as organic fertilizers and thereby indirectly enhance their food value for the cultured fish [63].

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

In conclusion based on the feed ingredient availability, potential competition with other human uses, content of protein and fibre and the feasibility of removal of anti-nutritional factors, freshwater shrimps, blood meal, meat and bone meal, were identified as most promising sources of animal based protein. Cotton and sunflower seed cakes, leaves of gallant soldier, sweet potato, cassava and papaya were identified as high potential feedstuffs of plant origin either processed or raw. The research team also recommended that in well fertilized semi-intensive ponds maize, wheat and rice bran may be utilized.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors wish to thank Lake Victoria Research Initiative (VicRes) for funding of this study. Special thanks go to NARDTC technicians Elijah Gichana, Peter Miruka, Nathan Okworo & the late Asheri Mbinji for their technical support during sample analysis. The cooperation of the participating institutions National University of Rwanda (NUR), Kigembe Aquaculture Centre--Butare Rwanda, Tanzania Women Association Against Poverty (TWAAP) and Kenya Marine & Fisheries Research Institute (KMFRI) is highly appreciated.

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Munguti J* (1), Charo-Karisa H (1), Opiyo MA (1), Ogello EO (2), Marijani E (3), Nzayisenga L (4) and D Liti (5)

* Corresponding author Email; ionathanmunguti@hotmail.com

(1) Kenya Marine & Fisheries Research Institute,National Aquaculture Research, Development & Training Center, P.O Box 26 Sagana. Kenya.

(2) Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute, Kegati Aquaculture Research Station, P.O. Box 3259-40200, Kisii, Kenya.

(3) Open University of Tanzania, P.O Box 19 Arusha, Tanzania.

(4) National University of Rwanda, School of Foundation of Language Skills, P.O Box 117, Huye, Rwanda.

(5) Chepkoilel University College, Department of Biological Sciences, P.O Box 1125 Eldoret, Kenya.
Table 1: Checklist of commonly utilized feed ingredients in Kenya,
Tanzania and Rwanda

Ingredient                                         Country

                                                    Kenya

                                           Occurrence     Cost
                                                          US $

Fish meal (Rastrineobola argentea)           [check]      0.76
Shrimp (Caridina nilotica) meal              [check]      0.5
Cow (Bos taurus) blood meal                  [check]      0.00
Cow (Bos taurus) offal's
Cow (Bos taurus) bone Meal                   [check]      0.63
Cassava (Manihot esculenta) leaves           [check]       Na
Cassava (Manihot esculenta) flour
Premix                                       [check]
Soya bean (Glycine max) flour                [check]      0.70
Rice (Oryza sativa) bran                     [check]      0.08
Rice (Oryza sativa) polishings               [check]      0.16
Maize (Zea mays) bran                        [check]      0.25
Wheat (Triticum aestivum) bran               [check]      0.08
Wheat (Triticum aestivum) pollard            [check]      0.15
Maize (Zea mays) corn glutten                [check]      0.78
Arrow root (Maranta arundinacea) leaves      [check]       Na
Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatus) leaves        [check]       Na
Banana (Musa paradisiaca) leaves
Papaya (Carica papaya) leaves                [check]       Na
Mchicha (Amaranthus blitum)                  [check]       Na
Gallant soldier (Galisonga parviflora)       [check]       Na
Avocado (Persea americana)                   [check]       Na
Lucerne (Chamaecytisus palmensis)            [check]       Na
Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seed cake      [check]      0.19
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) cake
Cotton (Gossypium spp) seed cake             [check]      0.23
Cabbage (Brassica oleracea)                                Na
Concentrate
Kitchen wastes
                                                  Country
Ingredient

                                                   Rwanda

                                           Occurrence     Cost
                                                          US $

Fish meal (Rastrineobola argentea)
Shrimp (Caridina nilotica) meal
Cow (Bos taurus) blood meal                  [check]      0.35
Cow (Bos taurus) offal's                     [check]      0.88
Cow (Bos taurus) bone Meal
Cassava (Manihot esculenta) leaves                         Na
Cassava (Manihot esculenta) flour
Premix
Soya bean (Glycine max) flour
Rice (Oryza sativa) bran                     [check]      0.09
Rice (Oryza sativa) polishings
Maize (Zea mays) bran                        [check]      0.44
Wheat (Triticum aestivum) bran               [check]      0.53
Wheat (Triticum aestivum) pollard
Maize (Zea mays) corn glutten
Arrow root (Maranta arundinacea) leaves      [check]       Na
Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatus) leaves        [check]       Na
Banana (Musa paradisiaca) leaves             [check]       Na
Papaya (Carica papaya) leaves                [check]       Na
Mchicha (Amaranthus blitum)                  [check]       Na
Gallant soldier (Galisonga parviflora)
Avocado (Persea americana)                   [check]       Na
Lucerne (Chamaecytisus palmensis)            [check]       Na
Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seed cake
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) cake               [check]      0.15
Cotton (Gossypium spp) seed cake
Cabbage (Brassica oleracea)                  [check]      0.09
Concentrate                                  [check]      0.35
Kitchen wastes                               [check]       Na

Ingredient                                        Country

                                                  Tanzania

                                           Occurrence     Cost
                                                          US $

Fish meal (Rastrineobola argentea)           [check]      0.40
Shrimp (Caridina nilotica) meal              [check]      0.40
Cow (Bos taurus) blood meal                  [check]
Cow (Bos taurus) offal's
Cow (Bos taurus) bone Meal
Cassava (Manihot esculenta) leaves           [check]       Na
Cassava (Manihot esculenta) flour            [check]      0.07
Premix                                       [check]
Soya bean (Glycine max) flour
Rice (Oryza sativa) bran                                  0.09
Rice (Oryza sativa) polishings
Maize (Zea mays) bran                                     0.14
Wheat (Triticum aestivum) bran                            0.00
Wheat (Triticum aestivum) pollard
Maize (Zea mays) corn glutten
Arrow root (Maranta arundinacea) leaves      [check]       Na
Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatus) leaves        [check]       Na
Banana (Musa paradisiaca) leaves
Papaya (Carica papaya) leaves                [check]       Na
Mchicha (Amaranthus blitum)                  [check]       Na
Gallant soldier (Galisonga parviflora)
Avocado (Persea americana)                   [check]       Na
Lucerne (Chamaecytisus palmensis)            [check]       Na
Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seed cake      [check]      0.12
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) cake
Cotton (Gossypium spp) seed cake             [check]      1.72
Cabbage (Brassica oleracea)                  [check]      0.40
Concentrate
Kitchen wastes

([paragraph]) Na = Not applicable; the feedstuff may be sourced
offfarm, offfield or the household at no defined cost

Table 2: Proximate composition of different feed ingredients
analysed in Kenya, ([bar.x] [+ or -] S.E)

Product                 n        * DM            CP             EE

                                g/kg                 g/kg DM

Fish meal              9     879 [+ or -]   551 [+ or -]   187 [+ or -]
(Rastrineobola               0.6            1.7            1.5
argentea)

Shrimp (Caridina       7     877 [+ or -]   635 [+ or -]   13 [+ or -]
nilotica) meal               1.7            3.3            1.3

Maize (Zea mays)       8     894 [+ or -]   118 [+ or -]   107 [+ or -]
bran                         3.0            4.6            2.7

Wheat (Triticum        8     882 [+ or -]   171 [+ or -]   58 [+ or -]
aestivum) bran               1.6            6.2            2.3

Rice (Oryza sativa)    5     923 [+ or -]   70 [+ or -]    41 [+ or -]
bran                         4.2            3.8            1.6

Arrow root (Maranta    6     903 [+ or -]   335 [+ or -]   85 [+ or -]
arundinacea) leaves          2.6            1.0            1.5

Banana (Musa           5     901 [+ or -]   72 [+ or -]    79 [+ or -]
paradisiaca) peel            2.1            1.7            1.3

Banana (Musa           7     926 [+ or -]   100 [+ or -]   50 [+ or -]
paradisiaca)) stem           1.0            1.8            2.2

Banana (Musa           6     899 [+ or -]   170 [+ or -]   127 [+ or -]
paradisiaca) leaves          1.0            1.8            1.4

Cotton (Gossypium      5     892 [+ or -]   388 [+ or -]   107 [+ or -]
spp) seed cake               2.0            7.2            1.0

Sunflower              5     929 [+ or -]   259 [+ or -]   54 [+ or -]
(Helianthus annuus)          0.4            0.1            0.8
seed cake

Cassava (Manihot       5     919 [+ or -]   308 [+ or -]   86 [+ or -]
esculenta) leaves            3.6            4.8            4.1

Papaya (Carica         6     839 [+ or -]   179 [+ or -]   18 [+ or -]
papaya) peel                 1.3            2.4            3.1

Papaya (Carica         7     903 [+ or -]   282 [+ or -]   105 [+ or -]
papaya) leaves               2.9            5.0            2.5

Papaya (Carica         4     945 [+ or -]   264 [+ or -]   316 [+ or -]
papaya) seed meal            1.7            21             1.3

Sweet potato           5     892 [+ or -]   353 [+ or -]   43 [+ or -]
(Ipomoea batatus)            1.6            3.6            3.7
leaves

Water fern,            6     888 [+ or -]   232 [+ or -]   49 [+ or -]
(Salvinia                    2.4            1.9            0.8
auriculata)

Mango (Mangifera       2     907 [+ or -]   70 [+ or -]    97 [+ or -]
indica) seed embryo          1.4            0.7            1.4

Coffee (Coffea         4     893 [+ or -]   47 [+ or -]    36 [+ or -]
arabica) husks               1.9            1.8            0.6

Cotton (Gossypium      3     906 [+ or -]   173 [+ or -]   55 [+ or -]
spp) husks                   4.9            4.4            1.0

Brewery by-product     6     919 [+ or -]   264 [+ or -]   291 [+ or -]
                             1.9            0.3            0.1

Tilapia (Oreochromis   7     916 [+ or -]   580 [+ or -]   181 [+ or -]
spp) fillet remains          1.4            1.7            1.5

Catfish (Clarias       6     923 [+ or -]   570 [+ or -]   192 [+ or -]
gariepinus)                  2.5            2.4            2.3
fillet remain

Sorghum (Sorghum       4     948 [+ or -]   461 [+ or -]   165 [+ or -]
bicolor) beetle              1.2            1.6            1.5

                                       g/kg DM

Product                     CF            NfE            Ash

Fish meal              13 [+ or -]    68 [+ or -]    182 [+ or -]
(Rastrineobola         0.6            1.0            1.5
argentea)

Shrimp (Caridina       50 [+ or -]    67 [+ or -]    228 [+ or -]
nilotica) meal         1.8            2.1            2.5

Maize (Zea mays)       55 [+ or -]    349 [+ or -]   29 [+ or -]
bran                   0.7            3.5            1.3

Wheat (Triticum        127 [+ or -]   582 [+ or -]   60 [+ or -]
aestivum) bran         2.3            6.9            2.6

Rice (Oryza sativa)    309 [+ or -]   349 [+ or -]   229 [+ or -]
bran                   2.4            3.5            2.2

Arrow root (Maranta    106 [+ or -]   381 [+ or -]   93 [+ or -]
arundinacea) leaves    4.6            2.1            2.3

Banana (Musa           113 [+ or -]   627 [+ or -]   109 [+ or -]
paradisiaca) peel      2.6            1.7            2.8

Banana (Musa           441 [+ or -]   205 [+ or -]   205 [+ or -]
paradisiaca)) stem     1.7            3.5            4.5

Banana (Musa           241 [+ or -]   337 [+ or -]   124 [+ or -]
paradisiaca) leaves    01.8           1.3            3.6

Cotton (Gossypium      249 [+ or -]   192 [+ or -]   63 [+ or -]
spp) seed cake         4.5            2.6            4.6

Sunflower              368 [+ or -]   266 [+ or -]   51 [+ or -]
(Helianthus annuus)    0.2            0.8            0.1
seed cake

Cassava (Manihot       156 [+ or -]   368 [+ or -]   82 [+ or -]
esculenta) leaves      4.0            2.1            5.2

Papaya (Carica         194 [+ or -]   456 [+ or -]   154 [+ or -]
papaya) peel           2.2            2.2            03.4

Papaya (Carica         130 [+ or -]   329 [+ or -]   154 [+ or -]
papaya) leaves         1.3            3.3            1.2

Papaya (Carica         119 [+ or -]   203 [+ or -]   98 [+ or -]
papaya) seed meal      1.0            1.6            1.3

Sweet potato           105 [+ or -]   388 [+ or -]   104 [+ or -]
(Ipomoea batatus)      3.6            1.1            3.6
leaves

Water fern,            302 [+ or -]   239 [+ or -]   179 [+ or -]
(Salvinia              3.6            1.3            3.4
auriculata)

Mango (Mangifera       37 [+ or -]    771 [+ or -]   24 [+ or -]
indica) seed embryo    0.7            2.1            1.4

Coffee (Coffea         383 [+ or -]   418 [+ or -]   115 [+ or -]
arabica) husks         2.6            3.6            2.8

Cotton (Gossypium      587 [+ or -]   153 [+ or -]   36 [+ or -]
spp) husks             1.5            1.5            0.6

Brewery by-product     158  [+ or -]  221 [+ or -]   66 [+ or -]
                       0.6            0.5            0.4

Tilapia (Oreochromis   67 [+ or -]    75 [+ or -]    97 [+ or -]
spp) fillet remains    1.7            1.7            1.4

Catfish (Clarias       73 [+ or -]    96 [+ or -]    69 [+ or -]
gariepinus)            2.4            2.4            2.2
fillet remain

Sorghum (Sorghum       109 [+ or -]   224 [+ or -]   41 [+ or -]
bicolor) beetle        1.4            1.5            1.2

DM = Dry matter, CP = Crude Protein, EE = Ether Extracts,
CF = Crude Fibre, NfE = N-free Extracts.

Table 3: Proximate composition of different feed ingredients
analysed in Tanzania ([bar.x]  [+ or -] S.E)

Product                 n        * DM            CP             EE

                                  g/kg               g/kg DM

Fish meal              9     892 [+ or -]   551 [+ or -]   187 [+ or -]
(Rastrineobola               1.7            1.7            1.5
argentea)

Fresh water shrimp     8     877 [+ or -]   635 [+ or -]   13 [+ or -]
(Caridina nilotica)          1.7            3.3            1.3

Cow (Bos taurus)       9     908 [+ or -]   420 [+ or -]   18 [+ or -]
blood meal                   1.6            1.5            1.6

Cow (Bos taurus)       8     912 [+ or -]   409 [+ or -]   98 [+ or -]
offals                       1.8            1.9            1.6

Cassava (Manihot       9     912 [+ or -]   286 [+ or -]   84 [+ or -]
esculenta) leaves            4.7            4.8            4.1

Cassava (Manihot       9     920 [+ or -]   24 [+ or -]    13 [+ or -]
esculenta) flour             4.5            4.8            4.6

Maize (Zea mays)       8     894 [+ or -]   118 [+ or -]   107 [+ or -]
bran                         3.2            3.6            3.7

Maize(Zea mays)        9     913 [+ or -]   550 [+ or -]   187 [+ or -]
corn glutten                 3.0            4.6            2.7

Arrow root (Maranta    9     901 [+ or -]   314 [+ or -]   85 [+ or -]
arundinacea) leaves          2.9            1.0            1.5

Sweet Potatoe          8     897 [+ or -]   334 [+ or -]   48 [+ or -]
(Ipomoea batatus)            1.6            3.6            3.7
leaves

Papaya (Carica         9     902 [+ or -]   279 [+ or -]   107 [+ or -]
papaya)                      2.9            5.0            2.5

Mchicha (Amaranthus    8     891 [+ or -]   359 [+ or -]   53 [+ or -]
blitum)                      1.6            3.6            3.7

Avocado (Persea        9     903 [+ or -]   182 [+ or -]   405 [+ or -]
americana)                   2.9            5.0            2.5

Lucerne                9     898 [+ or -]   329 [+ or -]   56 [+ or -]
(Chamaecytisus               1.7            2.6            3.7
palmensis)

Sunflower              8     929 [+ or -]   259 [+ or -]   54 [+ or -]
(Helianthus annuus)          0.4            0.1            0.8
seed cake

Cotton (Gossypium      9     892 [+ or -]   388 [+ or -]   107 [+ or -]
spp) seed cake               2.0            7.2            1.0

Cabbage (Brassica      8     901 [+ or -]   219 [+ or -]   47 [+ or -]
oleracea)                    3.4            3.2            3.3

                                        g/kg DM

Product                     CF            NfE            Ash

Fish meal              13 [+ or -]    67 [+ or -]    182 [+ or -]
(Rastrineobola         0.6            1.0            1.5
argentea)

Fresh water shrimp     50 [+ or -]    74 [+ or -]    228 [+ or -]
(Caridina nilotica)    1.8            2.1            2.5

Cow (Bos taurus)       11 [+ or -]    453 [+ or -]   98 [+ or -]
blood meal             1.5            1.7            1.7

Cow (Bos taurus)       88 [+ or -]    310 [+ or -]   95 [+ or -]
offals                 1.6            1.6            1.6

Cassava (Manihot       145 [+ or -]   388 [+ or -]   97 [+ or -]
esculenta) leaves      4.             2.1            5.2

Cassava (Manihot       70 [+ or -]    801 [+ or -]   92 [+ or -]
esculenta) flour       4.6            4.6            4.6

Maize (Zea mays)       155 [+ or -]   591 [+ or -]   29 [+ or -]
bran                   3.7            3.5            3.3

Maize(Zea mays)        89 [+ or -]    62 [+ or -]    112 [+ or -]
corn glutten           0.7            3.5            1.3

Arrow root (Maranta    106 [+ or -]   402 [+ or -]   93 [+ or -]
arundinacea) leaves    4.6            2.1            2.3

Sweet Potatoe          116 [+ or -]   389 [+ or -]   113 [+ or -]
(Ipomoea batatus)      3.6            1.1            3.6
leaves

Papaya (Carica         128 [+ or -]   325 [+ or -]   161 [+ or -]
papaya)                13             3.3            1.2

Mchicha (Amaranthus    107 [+ or -]   384 [+ or -]   97 [+ or -]
blitum)                36             1.1            3.6

Avocado (Persea        130 [+ or -]   159 [+ or -]   124 [+ or -]
americana)             13             3.3            1.2

Lucerne                112 [+ or -]   388 [+ or -]   107 [+ or -]
(Chamaecytisus         36             1.1            3.6
palmensis)

Sunflower              368 [+ or -]   268 [+ or -]   51 [+ or -]
(Helianthus annuus)    02             0.8            0.1
seed cake

Cotton (Gossypium      249 [+ or -]   193 [+ or -]   63 [+ or -]
spp) seed cake         45             2.6            4.6

Cabbage (Brassica      98 [+ or -]    499 [+ or -]   137 [+ or -]
oleracea)              3.4            1.1            3.2

DM = Dry matter, CP = Crude Protein, EE = Ether Extracts,
CF = Crude Fibre, NfE = N-free Extracts.

Table 4: Proximate composition of different feed ingredients
analysed in Rwanda ([bar.x]  [+ or -] S.E)

Product                 n                        CP             EE

                                 g/kg               g/kg DM

Cow (Bos taurus)        9    912 [+ or -]   459 [+ or -]   39 [+ or -]
blood meal                       1.5            1.6            1.6

Cow (Bos taurus)        8    909 [+ or -]   407 [+ or -]   98 [+ or -]
offals                           1.6            1.7            1.6

Rice (Oryza sativa)     9    921 [+ or -]   75 [+ or -]    45 [+ or -]
bran                             4.3            3.7            2.5

Maize (Zea mays)        8    899 [+ or -]   120 [+ or -]   109 [+ or -]
bran                             3.0            4.5            2.6

Wheat (Triticum         9    888 [+ or -]   178 [+ or -]   67 [+ or -]
aestivum) bran                   1.7            6.2            2.3

Arrow root (Maranta     9    905 [+ or -]   322 [+ or -]   83 [+ or -]
arundinacea) leaves              2.7            1.3            1.5

Sweet Potatoe           8    895 [+ or -]   359 [+ or -]   53 [+ or -]
(Ipomoea batatus)                1.8            3.8            3.8
leaves

Banana (Musa            9    899 [+ or -]   170 [+ or -]   127 [+ or -]
paradisiaca) leaves              1.0            1.8            1.4

Papaya (Carica          9    903 [+ or -]   282 [+ or -]   105 [+ or -]
papaya) leaves                   2.9            5.0            2.5

Mchicha (Amaranthus     8    891 [+ or -]   359 [+ or -]   53 [+ or -]
papaya) leaves                   1.6            3.6            3.7

Avocado (Persea         8    903 [+ or -]   182 [+ or -]   405 [+ or -]
americana)                       2.9            5.0            2.5

Lucerne                 8    898 [+ or -]   329 [+ or -]   56 [+ or -]
(Chamaecytisus                   1.7            2.6            3.7
palmensis)

Peanut (Arachis         8    921 [+ or -]   229 [+ or -]   94 [+ or -]
hypogaea) cake                   1.4            0.1            0.8

Cabbage (Brassica       9    900 [+ or -]   211 [+ or -]   57 [+ or -]
oleracea)                        2.3            3.3            3.3

Kitchen wastes          9    865 [+ or -]   189 [+ or -]   86 [+ or -]
                                 2.1            2.2            1.4

                                           g/kg DM

Product                     CF            NfE            Ash

                       g/kg DM

Cow (Bos taurus)       16 [+ or -]    387 [+ or -]   99 [+ or -]
blood meal                 1.8            1.0            1.0

Cow (Bos taurus)       98 [+ or -]    300 [+ or -]   97 [+ or -]
offals                     1.4            1.0            1.6

Rice (Oryza sativa)    311 [+ or -]   338 [+ or -]   231 [+ or -]
bran                       2.4            1.0            2.4

Maize (Zea mays)       155 [+ or -]   584 [+ or -]   32 [+ or -]
bran                       2.7            1.0            1.3

Wheat (Triticum        122 [+ or -]   563 [+ or -]   70 [+ or -]
aestivum) bran             2.3            1.0            2.6

Arrow root (Maranta    109 [+ or -]   389 [+ or -]   97 [+ or -]
arundinacea) leaves        4.6            1.0            2.3

Sweet Potatoe          112 [+ or -]   372 [+ or -]   104 [+ or -]
(Ipomoea batatus)          3.4            1.0            3.6
leaves

Banana (Musa           241 [+ or -]   338 [+ or -]   124 [+ or -]
paradisiaca) leaves        1.8            1.0            3.6

Papaya (Carica         130 [+ or -]   329 [+ or -]   154 [+ or -]
papaya) leaves             1.3            1.0            1.2

Mchicha (Amaranthus    107 [+ or -]   384 [+ or -]   97 [+ or -]
papaya) leaves              36            1.0            3.6

Avocado (Persea        130 [+ or -]   159 [+ or -]   124 [+ or -]
americana)                 1.3            1.0            1.2

Lucerne                112 [+ or -]   396 [+ or -]   107 [+ or -]
(Chamaecytisus             3.6            1.0            3.6
palmensis)

Peanut (Arachis        68 [+ or -]    547 [+ or -]   62 [+ or -]
hypogaea) cake             0.2            1.0            0.1

Cabbage (Brassica      98 [+ or -]    497 [+ or -]   137 [+ or -]
oleracea)                  3.4            1.0            3.2

Kitchen wastes         142 [+ or -]   462 [+ or -]   121 [+ or -]
                           1.4            1.0            1.2

DM = Dry matter, CP = Crude Protein, EE = Ether Extracts,
CF = Crude Fibre, NfE - N-free Extracts.

Table 5: Comparison of nutritive levels of selected common animal
and plant feed ingredients of the current study in Kenya, Tanzania
& Rwanda and previous studies elsewhere in the world.

Product                     * DM   CP       EE     CF     NfE    Ash

                            g/kg   g/kg DM

Fresh water shrimp (Caridina nilotica) meal

Current study               903    635      85     106    81     93
Kenya
India                       --     455      --     --     --     221-
Madagascar                  --     736      66     --     --     186-
Malaysia                    795    455      21     400    --     124

Maize (Zea mays) bran

Current study               894    118      107    55     349    29
Tanzania                    890    106      48     13     19     814
Thailand                    880    109      50     34     29     768

Wheat (Triticum aestivum) bran

Current study               882    171      58     127    582    60
Tanzania                    876    169      38     64     113    616
India                       --     128      31     86     --     45
Malaysia                    881    188      46     54     97     616
India                       907    139      83     46     131    601

Rice (Oryza sativa) bran

Current study               923    70       41     309    349    229
India                       913    137      54     181    488    181
Thailand                    886    174      27     104    509    106
Malaysia                    899    109      108    136    454    136

Arrow root (Maranta arundinacea) leaves

Current study               903    335      85     106    381    93

Banana(Musa paradisiaca) peel

Current study               901    72       79     113    627    109
Nigeria                     141    79       --     --     --     134

Cotton (Gossyium spp) seed cake

Current study               892    388      107    249    192    63
Egypt                       879    264      57     66     242    371
USA                         989    461      7      71     151    310
Israel                      923    477      54     66     125    278

Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) cake

Current study               929    259      54     368    266    51
Uganda                      910    341      143    132    318    66
Rwanda                      918    269      --     69     --     .0
Nigeria                     --     411      --     -      --     --
China                       --     316      89     24     --     64

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) leaves

Current study               919    308      86     156    368    82
Nigeria                     256    147             --     --     161

Papaya (Carica papaya) leaves

Current study               903    282      105    130    329    154
Nigeria                     184    91       56     --     --     172

Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus) leaves

Current study               892    353      43     105    388    104
Israel                      892    194      37     259    105    408
Malaysia                    913    188      23     113    188    488
Trinidad                    877    219      34     150    180    417
Nigeria                     946    28.55    --     --     --     475

Water fern (Salvinia auriculata)

Current study               888    232      49     302    239    179
India                       --     116      28     204    469    183

Cotton (Gossyium spp) husks

Current study               878    638      12     179    51     120
Brewery by-product
Current study               --     455      --     --     --     221-
India                       291    243      52     196    451    58

Tilapia (Oreochromis spp) fillet remains

Current study               --     736      66     --     --     186-

Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fillet remain

Current study               795    455      21     400    --     124

DM = Dry matter, CP = Crude Protein, EE = Ether Extracts,
CF = Crude Fibre, NfE = N-free Extracts.
COPYRIGHT 2012 Rural Outreach Program
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2012 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

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Author:Munguti, Jonathan; Charo-Karisa, H.; Opiyo, M.A.; Ogello, E.O.; Marijani, E.; Nzayisenga, L.; Liti,
Publication:African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:6RWAN
Date:May 1, 2012
Words:7657
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