Nutritional composition of red meat.KEY POINTS
The lean component of red meat is:
* An excellent source of high biological value protein, vitamin B vitamin B
1. Vitamin B complex.
2. A member of the vitamin B complex, especially thiamine.
vitamin B, vitamin B complex
a group of water-soluble substances described separately. 12, niacin niacin: see coenzyme; vitamin.
or nicotinic acid or vitamin B3
Water-soluble vitamin of the vitamin B complex, essential to growth and health in animals, including humans. , vitamin B6, iron, zinc and phosphorus
* A source of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fats Polyunsaturated fats
A non-animal oil or fatty acid rich in unsaturated chemical bonds not associated with the formation of cholesterol in the blood.
Mentioned in: Cholesterol, High , riboflavin riboflavin: see coenzyme; vitamin.
or vitamin B2
Yellow, water-soluble organic compound, abundant in whey and egg white. It has a complex structure incorporating three rings. , pantothenic acid pantothenic acid (păn`təthĕn`ĭk): see coenzyme; vitamin.
Organic compound, essential in animal metabolism. , selenium selenium (səlē`nēəm), nonmetallic chemical element; symbol Se; at. no. 34; at. wt. 78.96; m.p. 217°C;; b.p. about 685°C;; sp. gr. 4.81 at 20°C;; valence −2, +4, or +6. and, possibly, also vitamin D vitamin D
Any of a group of fat-soluble alcohols important in calcium metabolism in animals to form strong bones and teeth and prevent rickets and osteoporosis. It is formed by ultraviolet radiation (sunlight) of sterols (see steroid) present in the skin.
* Relatively low in fat and sodium
* A source of a range of endogenous antioxidants Antioxidants
Substances that reduce the damage of the highly reactive free radicals that are the byproducts of the cells.
Mentioned in: Aging, Nutritional Supplements
n. and other bioactive substances, including taurine taurine /tau·rine/ (taw´ren) an oxidized sulfur-containing amine occurring conjugated in the bile, usually as cholyltaurine or chenodeoxycholyltaurine; it may also be a central nervous system neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. , carnitine carnitine /car·ni·tine/ (kahr´ni-ten) a betaine derivative involved in the transport of fatty acids into mitochondria, where they are metabolized.
n. , carnosine, ubiquinone ubiquinone /ubi·qui·none/ (Q) (Q10) (u?bi-kwi-non´) a quinone derivative with an unsaturated branched hydrocarbon side chain occurring in the lipid core of inner mitochondrial membranes and functioning in the electron transport chain. , glutathione glutathione: see coenzyme. and creatine creatine /cre·a·tine/ (kre´ah-tin) an amino acid occurring in vertebrate tissues, particularly in muscle; phosphorylated creatine is an important storage form of high-energy phosphate.
The Food Standards Australia New Zealand Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ, formally ANZFA) is the governmental body responsible for developing food standards for Australia and New Zealand.
FSANZ develops food standards after consulting with other government agencies and stakeholders. (FSANZ FSANZ Food Standards Australia New Zealand ) Food Standards Code defines meat as 'the whole or part of the carcass of any buffalo, camel, cattle, deer, goat, hare, pig, poultry, rabbit or sheep, slaughtered other than in a wild state, but does not include eggs, or foetuses'. (1) This definition does not include kangaroo meat, which is now widely available for purchase in Australia and is likely to be considered as meat.
The term 'meat' may refer only to meat flesh (skeletal muscle plus any attached connective tissue or fat), but the FSANZ definition also includes offal offal
1. nonmeat edible products from animal slaughter. Includes brains, thymus, pancreas, liver, heart, kidney, tripes, sausage casings, chitterlings, crackling rind.
2. by-product of milling, called also weatlings, middlings. A high-protein supplement for herbivores. (i.e. meat other than meat flesh, including brain, heart, kidney, liver, pancreas, spleen, thymus thymus
Pyramid-shaped lymphoid organ (see lymphoid tissue) between the breastbone and the heart. Starting at puberty, it shrinks slowly. It has no lymphatic vessels draining into it and does not filter lymph; instead, stem cells in its outer cortex develop into , tongue and tripe tripe
the scalded and cleaned rumen and reticulum. The omasum is discarded because of the difficulty in cleaning between the leaves. ) although it excludes bone and bone marrow.
In Australia, the term 'red meat' is used by the meat industry to refer to meat from cattle, sheep and goat (i.e. beef, veal, lamb, mutton mutton, flesh of mature sheep prepared as food (as opposed to the flesh of young sheep, which is known as lamb). Mutton is deep red with firm, white fat. In Middle Eastern countries it is a staple meat, but in the West, with the exception of Great Britain, Australia, and goat meat). It does not include meat from pigs (e.g. pork, bacon, ham) or kangaroo, nor less common game meats like buffalo and camel, although nutrient composition of some of these products is now becoming available. (2) Purchased red meat usually consists of both lean tissue lean tissue
muscle tissue without fat. (muscle) and fat tissue, which can be either distributed throughout the muscle as marbling marbling, in bookbinding, a process of coloring the sides, edges, or end papers of a book in a design that suggests the veins and mottles of marble. In tree marbling, as of tree calf bindings, the design suggests also the trunk and branches of a tree. (internal fat) or surrounding the muscle meat as selvage or external fat. In trimmed lean meat, it is usually the external fat only that is removed. (3) Processed meat means a product containing no less than 30% meat, that has undergone a method of preservation other than freezing, and includes manufactured meat and cured and/or dried meat flesh (e.g. sausages, salami, canned meats). (1) This paper outlines the key nutrients for which red meat could be considered a significant dietary source based on data of relative composition.
NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF RED MEAT
Red meat contains high biological value protein and important micronutrients This is a list of micronutrients.
Table 1 presents the typical nutrient composition of samples of fat-trimmed Australian red meat (beef, veal, lamb and mutton), based on recent analyses of national retail samples, (5-7) and compares this with the new Australian recommended dietary intakes (RDI RDI - Receiver Data Interface ). (8) While there are some differences between the four meats, in general lean red meat is a particularly good source of protein, niacin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, phosphorus, zinc and iron, with 100 g providing more than 25% RDI of these nutrients. It also provides more than 10% RDI of riboflavin, pantothenic acid and selenium. Of the four meats, mutton is particularly nutrient-dense, and the richest source of thiamin thiamin
or vitamin B1
Organic compound, part of the vitamin B complex, necessary in carbohydrate metabolism. It carries out these functions in its active form, as a component of the coenzyme thiamin pyrophosphate. , vitamins B6 and B12, phosphorus, iron and copper.
Protein and amino acids
Raw red muscle meat contains around 20-25 g protein/100 g. Cooked red meat contains 28-36 g/100 g, because the water content decreases and nutrients become more concentrated during cooking. The protein is highly digestible digestible
having the quality of being able to be digested.
the proportion of the potential energy in a feed which is in fact digested.
see digestible protein. , around 94% compared with the digestibility digestibility
the proportion of a feed or diet which can be digested by the normal animal of the subject species.
see digestibility coefficient. of 78% in beans and 86% in whole wheat. (9) Protein from meat provides all essential amino acids (lysine lysine (lī`sēn), organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein. , threonine threonine (thrē`ənēn), organic compound, one of the 22 α-amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein. , methionine methionine (mĕthī`ənēn), organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the L-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein. , phenylalanine phenylalanine (fĕn'əlăl`ənēn'), organic compound, one of the 22 α-amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein. , tryptophan tryptophan (trĭp`təfăn), organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein. , leucine leucine (l`sēn), organic compund, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. , isoleucine isoleucine (ī'səl`sēn), organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. , valine valine (văl`ēn), organic compound, one of the 22 α-amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein. ) and has no limiting amino acids. Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score is a method of evaluating the protein quality, with a maximum possible score of 1.0. Animal meats like beef have a score of approximately 0.9, compared with values of 0.5-0.7 for most plant foods. (10) The amino acid glutamic acid/glutamine is present in meat in the highest amounts (16.5%), followed by arginine arginine (är`jənĭn), organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer participates in the biosynthesis of proteins. , alanine alanine (ăl`ənēn'), organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer participates in the biosynthesis of proteins (see stereochemistry). and aspartic acid aspartic acid (əspär`tĭk), organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer participates in the biosynthesis of proteins. .
Table 2 shows examples of the amount of separable sep·a·ra·ble
Possible to separate: separable sheets of paper.
sep fat found on typical retail cuts of red meat available for sale in Australia. (4,11) There is a wide variation in the amount of total separable fat between the different beef and lamb cuts, ranging from 37% in loin loin (loin) the part of the back between the thorax and pelvis.
The part of the body on either side of the spinal column between the ribs and the pelvis. lamb chops to only 1% in veal steak.
The gross composition values show that there generally appears to be less separable fat in the untrimmed raw retail samples collected in 2002 compared with those reported from 1983 to 1986. (12,13) For example, the percentage separable fat has declined from 18% to 12% in rump steak and from 10% to 6.6% in fillet steak. This trend to lower-fat cuts has been due to three factors: selective breeding and feeding practices designed to increase the carcase lean-to-fat ratio; meat classification and marketing systems designed to favour leaner products; and modern butchery techniques such as seaming out whole muscles and trimming away inter-muscular fat. (14)
Given the trend to prepare and consume meat after trimming external fat, the most recent nutritional analyses show that all trimmed lean red meats are relatively low in fat (<7%) and have moderate cholesterol content, with the exception of mince meats (Table 3). An important contributor to the leanness of muscle meat in Australian beef and lamb is that almost all animals are pasture (grass) fed for most of their lives, although some are given short periods of grain finishing before slaughter (D Thomason, MLA MLA
Modern Language Association
MLA n abbr (BRIT POL) (= Member of the Legislative Assembly) → miembro de la asamblea legislativa
MLA (Brit , personal communication).
While discussion on the fat content of red meat may focus on the saturated fat saturated fat, any solid fat that is an ester of glycerol and a saturated fatty acid. The molecules of a saturated fat have only single bonds between carbon atoms; if double bonds are present in the fatty acid portion of the molecule, the fat is said to be content, the amount of saturated fat in Australian beef and lamb is actually lower than the total amount of unsaturated fats on a per edible portion basis.
Table 4 shows the average fatty acid profiles of beef, veal, lamb and mutton compared with other white meats and fish. Saturated fatty acids
Most commonly occurring saturated fatty acids are:
A fatty acid, such as stearic acid, whose carbon chain contains no unsaturated linkages between carbon atoms and hence cannot incorporate any more hydrogen atoms. in both the lean and fat component of red meat is palmitic acid palmitic acid /pal·mit·ic ac·id/ (pal-mit´ik) a 16-carbon saturated fatty acid found in most fats and oils, particularly associated with stearic acid; one of the most prevalent saturated fatty acids in body lipids. (16:0), and about a third is stearic acid stearic acid /ste·a·ric ac·id/ (ste-ar´ik) a saturated 18-carbon fatty acid occurring in most fats and oils, particularly of tropical plants and land animals; used pharmaceutically as a tablet and capsule lubricant and as an emulsifying (18:0). In lamb and mutton, the proportions of these two fatty acids are more similar. There is little variation between cuts in the proportion of fatty acids.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acid.
polyunsaturated fatty acid
polyunsaturated fatty acids. ) range from 11% to 29% of total fatty acids. Pasture fed beef is a better source of omega-3 fats than grain feed beef, and this explains the better fatty acid ratio in Australian red meat compared with that in the USA, where there is extensive grain feeding. (17,18) Beef and lamb also have more omega-3 fatty acids This is a list of omega-3 fatty acids.
Common name Lipid name Chemical name
α-Linolenic acid (ALA) 18:3 (n-3) octadeca-9,12,15-trienoic acid
Stearidonic acid 18:4 (n-3) octadeca-6,9,12,15-tetraenoic acid than either chicken or pork, although fish is still a significantly better source than any of the red meats.
The recent development of Nutrient Reference Values ref·er·ence values
A set of laboratory test values obtained from an individual or from a group in a defined state of health. for Australians recommended a daily adequate intake adequate intake (AI),
n the consumption and absorption of sufficient food, vitamins, and essential minerals necessary to maintain health. See also dietary reference intakes; estimated average requirement; recommended dietary allowances; and upper intake of long-chain omega-3 fats (docosahexaenoic acid docosahexaenoic acid /do·co·sa·hexa·eno·ic ac·id/ (do-ko?sah-hek?sah-e-no´ik) an omega-3, polyunsaturated, 22-carbon fatty acid found almost exclusively in fish and marine animal oils. (DHA DHA docosahexaenoic acid.
n.pr See acid, docosahexaenoic. ), eicosapentaenoic acid eicosapentaenoic acid /ei·co·sa·pen·ta·eno·ic ac·id/ (EPA) (i-ko?sah-pen?tah-e-no´ik) an omega-3, polyunsaturated, 20-carbon fatty acid found almost exclusively in fish and marine animal oils. (EPA EPA eicosapentaenoic acid.
n.pr See acid, eicosapentaenoic.
n. ) and docosapentaenoic acid) of 160 mg for men and 90 mg for women, with higher targets of 610 mg and 430 mg respectively to reduce the risk of long-term chronic disease. (8) As the levels of long-chain PUFA found in Australian beef, veal and lamb muscle meat are greater than 30 mg per serving (135 g) of red meat, they are considered a source of long-chain omega-3 PUFA according to Australian food regulations (Food Standards Australia New Zealand 2002) (1). Mutton muscle meat, which has more than 60 mg EPA + DHA per serving of red meat, can be described as a good source of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fats. Red meat is frequently consumed by Australians and makes the second greatest contribution to intake of long-chain omega-3 PUFA, after fish, in the Australian diet. (19)
Trans-fatty acids are found in ruminant ruminant, any of a group of hooved mammals that chew their cud, i.e., that regurgitate and chew again food that has already been swallowed. Ruminants have an even number of toes on each foot and a stomach with either three or four chambers. fat as a result of biohydrogenation by rumen rumen
pl. rumens, rumina; the largest of the compartments of the forestomach of ruminant animals that serves as a fermentating vat. It is lined by a keratinized epithelium bearing numerous absorptive papillae; it is partly subdivided by folds (pillars). bacteria. Trans-fatty acids (18:1 trans) in raw muscle meat vary from as little as 22 mg/100 g in veal to 123 mg/100 g in lamb, but is generally less than 3% of the total fatty acid content. (15) Levels in both raw and cooked muscle meat are higher in lamb and mutton than in beef and veal.
Choline choline: see vitamin.
Organic compound related to vitamins in its activity. It is important in metabolism as a component of the lipids that make up cell membranes and of acetylcholine.
Choline is a precursor of a number of compounds, including neurotransmitters and membrane phospholipids. Although choline can be made in the body, dietary essentiality has been demonstrated, and the new Australian Nutrient Reference Values recommend an adequate intake of 550 mg/day for men and 425 mg/day for women. (8) The best dietary sources are milk, liver and eggs, but meat is also a significant source and beef contains 78 mg/100 g. (20)
As with other animal foods, red meat is an excellent source of bioavailable vitamin B12, providing over two-thirds of the daily requirement in a 100 g serve (Table 1). Up to 25% RDI of riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6 and pantothenic acid can also be provided by 100 g of red meat, but compared with pork, it is a relatively poor source of thiamin. Liver is an excellent source of vitamin A vitamin A
also called retinol
Fat-soluble alcohol, most abundant in fatty fish and especially in fish-liver oils. It is not found in plants, but many vegetables and fruits contain beta-carotene (see and folate folate /fo·late/ (fo´lat)
1. the anionic form of folic acid.
2. more generally, any of a group of substances containing a form of pteroic acid conjugated with l-glutamic acid and having a variety of substitutions. , but the levels in lean muscle meat tissue are low. For all these vitamins, older animals tend to have higher concentrations, so the levels in beef are generally higher than those in veal, and mutton has more than lamb. Levels of vitamin D in meat are low and difficult to measure and have often not been included in food composition data previously. However, recent assays of meat in New Zealand have reported levels of 0.10 [micro]g vitamin D3 and 0.45 [micro]g 25-OH D3 per 100 g in beef and levels of 0.04 and 0.93 [micro]g/100 g respectively in lamb. (21) Given the higher biological activity of the 25-OH vitamin D, this means that 100 g of cooked beef could provide 12% of the estimated adequate intake of 10 [micro]g/day for a 51- to 70-year-old individual, (8) and cooked lamb could provide more than 25%, and hence be an important source of this nutrient, especially for housebound house·bound
Confined to one's home, as by illness.
politically correct Politically sensitive adjective elderly people.
Beef and lamb meat are among the richest sources of the minerals iron and zinc, with 100 g providing at least one-quarter of daily adult requirements (Table 1). The iron in meat is mostly haem haem
see heme. iron, which is well absorbed, and meat protein also appears to enhance the absorption of iron from meat. Similarly, absorption of zinc from a diet high in animal protein is greater than from plant foods, and the requirements for zinc may be as much as 50% higher for vegetarians. (8) Red meats are also good sources of selenium, providing over 20% RDI per 100 g serve, although it is likely that selenium values in meat will be significantly affected by where animals feed and the time of the year of sampling. Lean meat is low in sodium, with a potassium-sodium ratio of >5. The copper content in raw lean cuts range from 0.055 to 0.190 mg/100g in beef and veal, 0.090 to 0.140 mg/100 g in lamb, and 0.190 to 0.240 mg/100 g in mutton, all significantly higher than values reported in British meat. (22)
MEAT-BASED BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS
In addition to the traditional essential nutrients with defined requirements, there are a number of meat-based bioactive substances that have been studied for their potential beneficial effects. (23)
An amino acid in meat of particular interest is taurine. Meat is rich in taurine (110 mg/100 g in lamb and 77 mg/100 g in beef), (24) and is the most abundant dietary source. While taurine can be derived from methionine and cysteine metabolism, there have been suggestions that it should be considered a conditionally essential amino acid during lactation lactation
Production of milk by female mammals after giving birth. The milk is discharged by the mammary glands in the breasts. Hormones triggered by delivery of the placenta and by nursing stimulate milk production. , during times of immune challenge, and may offer protection against oxidative stress. (25,26)
L-carnitine (beta-hydroxy-gamma-trimethyl amino butyric acid) transports long-chain fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membranes to produce energy during exercise. Although not an essential nutrient, needs appear to be increased during pregnancy and after strenuous exercise, and a recommended intake of 24-81 mg/day has been proposed. (27) It is found in skeletal muscle and is particularly abundant in sheep muscle at up to 209 mg/100 g (28) and in beef at around 60 mg/100 g. (29)
Conjugated linoleic acid Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a family of many isomers of linoleic acid (at least 13 are reported), which are found primarily in the meat and dairy products of ruminants. As implied by the name, the double bonds of CLAs are conjugated.
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA CLA,
n.pr See acid, conjugated linoleic. ) has antioxidant antioxidant, substance that prevents or slows the breakdown of another substance by oxygen. Synthetic and natural antioxidants are used to slow the deterioration of gasoline and rubber, and such antioxidants as vitamin C (ascorbic acid), butylated hydroxytoluene and immunomodulatory properties and may also play a role in the control of obesity. (30) As rumen bacteria convert linoleic acid to CLA, it is most abundant in the fat of ruminant animals, although CLA is also present in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils. The CLA content of meat is affected by several factors, including breed, age and food composition. (31) It is mostly present in the fat component of red meat (approximately 1 g/100 g) but is also found in the muscle meat: 10-46 mg/100 g in raw meat and 30-100 mg/100 g in cooked red meat. (15)
Several endogenous compounds (including ubiquinone, glutathione, lipoic acid, spermine spermine
a polyamine first found in human semen but now known to occur in almost all tissues, in association with nucleic acids. , carnosine, anserine anserine /an·ser·ine/ (an´ser-in) pertaining to or like a goose.
anseriform, anserine ) have been studied in skeletal muscle. (32) Both carnosine and anserine are antioxidative histidyl dipeptides and the most abundant antioxidants in meat. Carnosine is present at around 365 mg/100 g in beef (33) and 400 mg/100 g in lamb. (24) Because carnosine is absorbed into the plasma intact, it is a potentially important dietary antioxidant. (34) Coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinone) also has antioxidant properties, and supplements have shown beneficial effects in some studies. (35) Levels in meat are estimated to be around 2 mg/100 g in both beef and sheep meat. (33) Glutathione is a component of glutathione peroxidase enzymes, which have an important antioxidant role in the body. It may also play a role in immune response and enhancing iron absorption by contributing to the 'meat factor'. Glutathione levels in red meat are estimated to be 12-26 mg/100 g in beef, (36) and most meats contain approximately twice the level of glutathione of poultry and up to 10 times the content found in fish.
Creatine and its phosphorylated derivative creatine phosphate play an important role in muscle energy metabolism and, under some circumstances, creatine supplements can enhance muscle performance. (37) Red meat contains approximately 350 mg/100 g (33) and is the principal dietary source for humans. Creatine in meat is readily absorbed, (38) but typical intakes are unlikely to provide the levels of creatine used for supplementation of sports performance (up to 15 g/day).
NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF ORGAN MEATS
Table 5 provides a comparison of the nutrient content of liver, kidney, heart, brains and tripe from beef and lamb. From this table, the following general statements can be made:
* All organ meats (except tripe) are extremely rich in vitamin B12, with much more than 100% of the RDI in 100 g
* Liver is a rich source of protein, iron, zinc, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin A and folate
* Kidney is rich in protein, thiamin, riboflavin, iron and a source of folate
* Heart is a good source of iron and zinc, but not as good as liver and kidney
* Brains and tripe are not particularly good sources of vitamins or minerals
* All organ meats are high in cholesterol, especially brains, and mostly low in sodium
* Liver is such a rich source of retinol retinol: see Vitamin A under vitamin. that consumption of large amounts is not recommended in pregnancy. (40)
The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating recommends that a healthy diet include 1-2 serves per day of meat or equivalents such as eggs, nuts or legumes Legumes
A family of plants that bear edible seeds in pods, including beans and peas.
Mentioned in: Cholesterol, High
legumes (l . (41) However, the vegetarian alternatives that are used as protein sources have very different nutritional profiles from red meat, as shown in Table 6, which compares the percentage of an adult male daily requirement provided by 100 g of food. Lean beef and lamb are better protein sources than all the options except cheese, and are mostly lower in sodium. The meats are higher in zinc and niacin than all the alternatives, and also higher in omega-3 fats than the vegetable sources; a better source of vitamin B6 (except for the walnuts); richer in selenium (except in comparison to eggs); and are the best source of vitamin B12, which is absent entirely from the vegetable products. Egg, cheese and nuts are also much higher sources of total fat than lean beef or lamb. Thus, data on the nutritional composition of lean red meat highlight the relative value of this food category in delivering essential nutrients in a reasonably balanced form.
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in full Uniform Resource Locator
Address of a resource on the Internet. The resource can be any type of file stored on a server, such as a Web page, a text file, a graphics file, or an application program. : http://www.rirdc.gov.au/reports/NAP/07-036.pdf
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33 Purchas R, Busboom J. The effect of production system and age on levels of iron, taurine, carnosine, coenzyme Q10, and creatine in beef muscles and liver. Meat Sci 2005; 70: 589-96.
34 Decker E, Ivanov V, Zhu B et al. Inhibition of low density lipoprotein Low density lipoprotein (LDL)
A fraction of total serum lipids, the so called "bad" cholesterol.
Mentioned in: Hypercholesterolemia oxidation by carnosine and histidine histidine (hĭs`tĭdēn), organic compound, one of the 22 α-amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein. . J Agric Food Chem 2001; 49: 511-16.
35 Overvad K, Diamant B, Holm L et al. Coenzyme Q10 in health and disease. Eur J Clin Nutr 1999; 53: 764-70.
36 Jones D, Coates R, Flagg E et al. Glutathione in foods listed in the National Cancer Institute's health habits and history food frequency questionnaire. Nutr Cancer 1992; 17: 57-75.
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38 Harris R, Nevill M, Harris D et al. Absorption of creatine supplied as a drink, in meat or in solid form. J Sports Sci 2002; 20: 147-51.
39 US Department of Agriculture. USDA USDA,
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40 Better Health Victoria. Pregnancy and Diet, 2007. (Cited 7 June 2007.) Available from URL: http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Pregnancy_and_diet?open
41 Smith A, Kellett E, Schmerlaib Y. The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Background Information for Nutrition Educators. Canberra: Commonwealth Department of Health, 1998.
This section begins with the nutritional composition of red meat, and then focuses on the key nutrients delivered through the consumption of red meat in the context of the Australian diet. The reviews draw on the scientific literature to provide an overview of the metabolism and associations with clinical conditions of each of these nutrients. They then provide a perspective on the contributions of red meat in the diet to meet nutritional requirements. Williams provides up-to-date nutritional composition information; Truswell outlines the clinical conditions associated with vitamin B12 deficiency vitamin B12 deficiency Megalobalstic anemia, see there ; Samman focuses on metabolism, food sources and requirements for iron and zinc; and Howe and colleagues provide an update on the nutritional implications of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids. To conclude this section, Baghurst provides a perspective on food guides and the implications for red meat as a core food in the diet
ARC Key Centre for Smart Foods, University of Wollongong History
The University of Wollongong was founded in 1951 when a Division of the then New South Wales University of Technology (re-named the University of New South Wales in 1958) was established in Wollongong. , Wollongong, New South Wales Wollongong is the 3rd largest city in the state of New South Wales, Australia, after Sydney and Newcastle. It is also a Local Government Area administered by the Wollongong City Council. , Australia
Table 1 Average nutrient composition (per 100 g) of the lean component of Australian red meat (5-7) Adult Australian Beef (a) Veal (b) Lamb (c) Mutton (d) RDI Moisture (g) 73.1 74.8 72.9 73.2 Protein (g) 23.2 24.8 21.9 21.5 46-64 Fat (g) 2.8 1.5 4.7 4.0 - Energy (kJ) 498 477 546 514 6.5-15.8 MJ Cholesterol (mg) 50 51 66 66 - Thiamin (mg) 0.04 0.06 0.12 0.16 1.1-1.2 Riboflavin (mg) 0.18 0.20 0.23 0.25 1.1-1.6 Niacin (mg) 5.0 16.0 5.2 8.0 14-16 Vitamin B6 (mg) 0.52 0.8 0.10 0.8 1.3-1.7 Vitamin B12 2.5 1.6 0.96 2.8 2.4 ([micro]g) Pantothenic acid 0.35 1.50 0.74 1.33 4-6 (mg) Vitamin A <5 <5 8.6 7.8 700-900 ([micro]g) [micro]g RE (e) Beta-carotene 10 <5 <5 <5 700-900 ([micro]g) [micro]g RE (e) Alpha-tocopherol 0.63 0.50 0.44 0.20 7-10 (mg) Sodium (mg) 51 51 69 71 460-920 Potassium (mg) 363 362 344 365 2800-3800 Calcium (mg) 4.5 6.5 7.2 6.6 1000-1300 Iron (mg) 1.8 1.1 2.0 3.3 8-18 Zinc (mg) 4.6 4.2 4.5 3.9 8-14 Magnesium (mg) 25 26 28 28 310-420 Phosphorus (mg) 215 260 194 290 1000 Copper (mg) 0.12 0.08 0.12 0.22 1.2-1.7 Selenium 17 <10 14 <10 60-70 ([micro]g) (a) Mean values for diced, stir-fry, round, rump, topside, silverside, fillet, sirloin, scotch fillet, T-bone, blade and chuck steak. (b) Mean values for stir-fry, diced, leg steak and culet. (c) Mean values for diced, stir-fry, leg roast, easy-carve roast, mini- roast, chump chop, loin chop, cutlet and easy-carve shoulder. (d) Mean values for leg roast and casserole mutton. (e) RE = retinol equivalents (=1 [micro]g retinol or 6 [micro]g or beta- carotene). RDI = recommended dietary intake. Table 2 Lean and separable fat from untrimmed raw boneless Australian red meat (mean weight) (4,11) Meat cut % Lean % External fat % Internal fat Beef Topside roast 91 6 3 Silverside roast 89 7 4 Blade steak 88 6 6 Porterhouse steak 77 18 5 Stir-fry 98 2 0 Scotch fillet 81 8 11 Veal Leg steak 99 0 1 Diced 98 2 0 Cutlet 93 1 6 Lamb Leg roast 83 11 6 Chump chop 75 15 10 Diced 98 2 0 Easy-carve shoulder 77 12 11 Loin chop 63 29 8 Mutton Leg 85 9 6 Casserole 90 10 0 Table 3 Fat and cholesterol content of trimmed raw and cooked Australian red meat (per 100 g) (5) Meat cut Total fat (g) Cholesterol (mg) Beef Diced, raw 2.7 54 Diced, cooked 3.0 77 Round steak, raw 1.7 62 Round steak, cooked 2.0 75 Topside roast, raw 4.7 35 Topside roast, cooked 2.8 62 Sirloin steak, raw 1.9 58 Sirloin steak, cooked 3.8 70 Scotch fillet, raw 2.8 58 Scotch fillet, cooked 4.5 70 Regular mince, raw 10.8 76 Regular mince, cooked 12.7 99 Low-fat mince, raw 6.8 61 Low-fat mince, cooked 9.0 81 Veal Leg steak, raw 1.5 57 Leg steak, cooked 1.9 85 Cutlet, raw 1.1 35 Cutlet, cooked 2.0 41 Lamb Diced, raw 5.2 78 Diced, cooked 6.5 96 Leg roast, raw 3.2 71 Leg roast, cooked 6.0 80 Easy-carve shoulder, raw 4.3 54 Easy-carve shoulder, cooked 5.4 86 Chump chop, raw 4.3 73 Chump chop, cooked 10.2 93 Cutlet, raw 6.7 67 Cutlet, cooked 8.6 96 Lamb mince, raw 6.9 61 Lamb mince, cooked 8.5 93 Mutton Leg roast, raw 4.2 76 Leg roast, cooked 11.4 130 Casserole, raw 3.8 56 Casserole, cooked 7.7 63 Table 4 Fatty acid profile of raw lean meats (g/100 g edible portion) Fatty acid Beef (a) Veal (a) Lamb (b) Mutton (a) C14:0 0.096 0.034 0.101 0.060 C15:0 0.012 0.006 0.016 0.011 C16:0 0.607 0.215 0.842 0.667 C17:0 0.028 0.009 0.051 0.036 C18:0 0.356 0.119 0.644 0.609 Total saturated 1.149 0.409 1.730 1.464 C14:1 0.025 0.007 0.004 0.003 C16:1 0.082 0.033 0.066 0.039 C18:1 1.103 0.356 1.995 1.370 C20:1 0.015 0.048 0.010 0.011 Total monounsaturated 1.205 0.399 2.066 1.413 C18:2 [omega]-6 0.204 0.090 0.321 0.339 C18:3 [omega]-3 0.048 0.022 0.072 0.107 C20:3 [omega]-6 0.020 0.012 0.009 0.009 C20:4 [omega]-6 0.076 0.056 0.094 0.101 C20:5 [omega]-3 (EPA) 0.031 0.028 0.028 0.044 C22:5 [omega]-3 (DPA) 0.051 0.033 0.044 0.053 C22:6 [omega]-3 (DHA) 0.006 0.003 0.013 0.020 Total polyunsaturated 0.448 0.259 0.603 0.673 Total [omega]-3 0.136 0.086 0.157 0.224 Total [omega]-6 0.300 0.244 0.424 0.449 Ratio [omega]-3/ 0.45 0.36 0.37 0.50 [omega]-6 Skinless Lean White Oily Fatty acid chicken (b) pork (c) fish (d) fish (e) C14:0 0.020 0.010 0.020 0.680 C15:0 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.070 C16:0 0.340 0.250 0.180 2.170 C17:0 0.010 0.000 0.000 0.050 C18:0 0.120 0.130 0.050 0.350 Total saturated 0.500 0.400 0.300 3.320 C14:1 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 C16:1 0.004 0.030 0.060 0.590 C18:1 0.620 0.390 0.110 2.190 C20:1 0.010 0.010 0.010 1.340 Total monounsaturated 0.700 0.430 0.200 5.390 C18:2 [omega]-6 0.210 0.120 0.010 0.250 C18:3 [omega]-3 0.010 0.010 0.000 0.130 C20:3 [omega]-6 0.008 0.003 0.000 0.000 C20:4 [omega]-6 0.030 0.019 0.040 0.050 C20:5 [omega]-3 (EPA) 0.005 0.000 0.048 0.913 C22:5 [omega]-3 (DPA) 0.009 0.006 0.021 0.194 C22:6 [omega]-3 (DHA) 0.009 0.004 0.111 1.118 Total polyunsaturated 0.300 0.200 0.200 2.655 Total [omega]-3 0.033 0.020 0.180 2.355 Total [omega]-6 0.258 0.148 0.050 0.250 Ratio [omega]-3/ 0.13 0.14 3.60 10.42 [omega]-6 (a) Average values from 2002 analyses of Australian red meat. (15) (b) Values for raw lean chicken breast from NUTTAB 2006. (16) (c) Values for raw lean pork fillet from NUTTAB 2006. (16) (d) Values for raw flathead from NUTTAB 2006. (16) (e) Values for canned red salmon from NUTTAB 2006. (16) DHA = docosahexaenoic acid; DPA = docosapentaenoic acid; EPA = eicosapentaenoic acid. Table 5 Selected nutrients (per 100 g) in raw liver, kidney, heart, brain and tripe (a) Liver Kidney Beef Lamb Beef Lamb Protein (g) 20.0 21.4 18.2 17.1 Fat (g) 8.6 7.5 1.6 2.5 Saturated fat (g) 2.8 2.2 0.6 0.9 Long-chain omega-3 561 361 47 103 fat (mg) Cholesterol (mg) 271 433 313 338 Thiamin (mg) 0.23 0.24 0.40 0.56 Riboflavin (mg) 4.80 2.80 3.60 2.10 Niacin (mg) 9.4 10.9 6.5 7.6 Folate ([micro]g) 290 230 98 28 Vitamin B12 59 90 28 52 ([micro]g) Retinol equivalents 13877 31400 155 93 ([micro]g) Zinc (mg) 3.6 4.3 1.8 2.6 Iron (mg) 5.8 9.5 5.4 9.8 Magnesium (mg) 15 19 15 16 Sodium (mg) 78 67 160 190 Potassium (mg) 320 300 250 260 Heart Brain Tripe Beef Lamb Lamb Beef Protein (g) 18.2 17.8 12.3 13.2 Fat (g) 3.0 5.6 8.0 2.1 Saturated fat (g) 1.2 2.3 2.2 0.9 Long-chain omega-3 54 102 574 20 fat (mg) Cholesterol (mg) 103 129 1352 82 Thiamin (mg) 0.50 0.61 0.14 0 Riboflavin (mg) 1.50 1.10 0.40 0.10 Niacin (mg) 6.9 5.9 5.1 0.2 Folate ([micro]g) 3 2 3 5 Vitamin B12 9 10 11 1 ([micro]g) Retinol equivalents 10 0 0 0 ([micro]g) Zinc (mg) 1.6 1.6 1.1 1.2 Iron (mg) 5.0 3.9 1.7 0.4 Magnesium (mg) 17 17 12 6 Sodium (mg) 91 82 120 100 Potassium (mg) 280 260 340 23 (a) Folate values from US data; (39) all other values from NUTTAB 2006. (16) Table 6 Percentage of male adult recommended dietary intake (RDI) or adequate intake (AI) provided by 100 g of lean red meat and some vegetarian protein sources RDI/AI for men Beef (a) Lamb (a) Egg (b) aged 31-50 years % of RDI % % Protein 64 g 36 34 21 Long-chain 160 mg 50 53 111 omega-3 fat Thiamin 1.2 mg 3 8 8 Riboflavin 1.3 mg 25 15 31 Niacin 16 mg 31 70 0 Vitamin B6 1.3 mg 23 43 5 Vitamin B12 2.4 [micro]g 79 71 58 Pantothenic 6 mg 12 13 34 acid Vitamin A 900 [micro]g <1 <1 25 Vitamin E 10 mg 7 5 22 Phosphorus 1000 mg 22 23 20 Zinc 14 mg 30 31 9 Iron 8 mg 24 25 26 Magnesium 420 mg 6 6 2 Selenium 70 [micro]g 29 21 37 Sodium 920 mg 6 7 13 Potassium 3800 mg 9 9 3 Cheddar Baked beans Walnuts (b) cheese (b) salt reduced (b) % Protein 40 7 23 Long-chain 55 0 0 omega-3 fat Thiamin 3 4 28 Riboflavin 39 0 14 Niacin <1 5 9 Vitamin B6 6 8 33 Vitamin B12 35 0 0 Pantothenic 7 <1 11 acid Vitamin A 43 <1 <1 Vitamin E 40 1 26 Phosphorus 47 8 37 Zinc 26 4 18 Iron 3 20 31 Magnesium 7 6 36 Selenium 15 5 3 Sodium 72 23 <1 Potassium 2 6 12 (a) Average values from 2002 analyses of Australian red meat. (5) (b) Values from NUTTAB 2006. (16)