Nursing in war and peace: the life of Matron Rose Creal (1865-1921).
Rose Creal's parents were born in Ireland and they belonged to the Catholic faith. They were poor, relatively uneducated and a record of their lives did not warrant inclusion in history. In contrast, Rose Creal was an Australian woman who held a senior position in a sought-after profession for more than 20 years prior to her death. She was well educated, well paid, had the fight to vote in political elections and earned the respect and affection of her colleagues and members of the community. She served in the Australian Army Nursing Service (AANS) with distinction and provided support to Harry Chauvel's lighthorsemen as they moved through Palestine and liberated Jerusalem. When she died, mourners were turned away in their hundreds.
Early family life
Matters of religion are often bound to significant events in life such as births, deaths and marriages. On 17 March 1872 a young mother, Ann Creal, aged 34, was about to give birth to her seventh child. The birth of a child for any woman, be it her first or seventh, is a significant event, but this day proved to be monumental for the Creal family--not only did the newborn son die but so too did his mother. Such catastrophes were, unfortunately, not uncommon in the gold-mining districts of Australian colonies in the 1870s. Ann and her son, Hugh, were buffed in Forbes in the central-west of the colony of New South Wales New South Wales, state (1991 pop. 5,164,549), 309,443 sq mi (801,457 sq km), SE Australia. It is bounded on the E by the Pacific Ocean. Sydney is the capital. The other principal urban centers are Newcastle, Wagga Wagga, Lismore, Wollongong, and Broken Hill. .
John Creal was 39 when he married Ann Brady, who was 15 years his junior. It was not unusual at this time for the children of a marriage to be born at home, often without access to a midwife or doctor. Unfortunately, it was also not unusual for children to die during birth or their first year, and within a year of her marriage Ann gave birth to a daughter, Elizabeth, who died that same year. The places the Creal children were born, baptised and buried were the centres closest to new discoveries of gold in New South Wales--Young, Forbes and Parkes. The new-born baby Elizabeth died at Young and her death was registered at Forbes.
The following year, in 1864, William Henry Noun 1. William Henry - English chemist who studied the quantities of gas absorbed by water at different temperatures and under different pressures (1775-1836)
Henry was born and Rose Ann was born on 3 November 1865 at a place called 'Five Mile Rush' near Young. She was baptised in a Roman Catholic church Roman Catholic Church, Christian church headed by the pope, the bishop of Rome (see papacy and Peter, Saint). Its commonest title in official use is Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church. on 10 December the same year, also at Young. In quick succession another three children were born, John Thomas
- :In the United Kingdom, John Thomas is sometimes used as a euphemism for the penis.
John Thomas is the name of: A politician:
Education and nurse training
John Creal was responsible for two sons and three daughters aged from two to eight years. Rose was educated at home by her father, but as the eldest female in the family she would have had a high level of responsibility for her younger siblings. When she was in England after World War I, awaiting transport duty home, Creal enrolled in the Merrick Non-Military Employment Scheme and elected to complete a course in 'elocution' which suggests a degree of self-consciousness about her schooling.' It was not uncommon for young girls to receive most of their education from their parents and extended family within their home at this time.
Education for children was perceived as something of a luxury and it was certainly not of particular importance to the residents of Young at this time. When a proposal to build a school was put to the community the response was hardly enthusiastic. The formal response to the Department of Education was that:
... we are not particularly desirous to obtain education for our children, in as much as they are very useful to us at home; but should the board establish a school, erect buildings and appoint teachers without trouble or expense to us, then--to oblige the commissioner--we should have no objection to sending them to school when they can be spared. (2)
Creal received sufficient education to be considered a conscientious worker at the local hospital in Parkes when she was 15 years old. She reputedly re·put·ed
Generally supposed to be such. See Synonyms at supposed.
Adv. 1. had a high degree of common sense, as outlined in a letter about how she came to begin her training at Sydney Hospital The Sydney Hospital is a major hospital in Sydney, Australia, located on Macquarie Street in the Sydney central business district. It is the oldest hospital in Australia, dating back to 1788, and at its current location since 1811. . It reads:
Rather interesting how Miss Creal began her training at Sydney Hospital. The story goes that in a country hospital the surgeon in the operating theatre struck trouble, great trouble. Not enough assistance, so he says, 'Tell Rose to come to the theatre and scrub up, she is a very sensible gift and will do as she is told.' Rose did so and acquitted herself so well that she was sent to Sydney Hospital to train. (3)
The matron of the hospital in Parkes enabled Creal to gain a position as a probationer at Sydney Hospital. Creal had started work in Parkes as an unskilled assistant in 1881 and within 10 years she was a head nurse at Sydney Hospital; her natural ability as a nurse was apparent. As a nurse leader she was described as a strict disciplinarian dis·ci·pli·nar·i·an
One that enforces or believes in strict discipline.
a person who practises strict discipline
Noun 1. who evoked respect as well as affection. Unfortunately for her nurses, she found the workload of a nurse to be easy going, indicating she had grown up in an environment where hard work was the norm. (4)
Nightingale nurses in Sydney
There is no evidence that being Catholic was a barrier to Creal entering a nurse training program at Sydney Hospital--which was administered by nurses, who were well schooled in the importance of religious egalitarianism. The founder of the Nightingale system of nurse training, Florence Nightingale, had already grappled and come to terms with a number of issues relating to relating to relate prep → concernant
relating to relate prep → bezüglich +gen, mit Bezug auf +acc religious sectarianism when she founded the Nightingale system of nurse training. (5)
Twenty years TWENTY YEARS. The lapse of twenty years raises a presumption of certain facts, and after such a time, the party against whom the presumption has been raised, will be required to prove a negative to establish his rights.
2. before the Crimean War Crimean War (krīmē`ən), 1853–56, war between Russia on the one hand and the Ottoman Empire, Great Britain, France, and Sardinia on the other. The causes of the conflict were inherent in the unsolved Eastern Question. the first Catholic bishop in Australia, Dr John Polding John Bede Polding OSB (18 November 1794 – 16 March 1877) was the first Roman Catholic bishop and archbishop of Sydney Australia.
Polding was born to a Roman Catholic family in Liverpool, England, albeit a recusant one rather than an Irish one. , asked the Mother Superior of the Sisters of Charity in Ireland to send out some nuns to attend to the needs of the poor, the infirm INFIRM. Weak, feeble.
2. When a witness is infirm to an extent likely to destroy his life, or to prevent his attendance at the trial, his testimony de bene esge may be taken at any age. 1 P. Will. 117; see Aged witness.; Going witness. and the sick. Five Sisters arrived four years later on 31 December 1838 and initially worked from a house in Parramatta Parramatta (pâr'əmăt`ə), city (1996 pop. 139,157), New South Wales, SE Australia, a suburb of Sydney, on the Parramatta River. It is the regional center for the western suburbs of Sydney. , in the colony of New South Wales, but a number moved to Sydney in 1839, where they served the community. The need for a free hospital became apparent and in February 1856 the residence 'Tarmons', which was situated on the harbour, was transferred to the Sisters of Charity. While it is claimed that 'the only criteria for admission to the hospital, called St Vincent's Hospital, were sickness and poverty' the founding charge sister, Sister Baptist de Lacy, was obliged to leave when it was discovered that she had allowed Protestant bibles into the hospital 'for use by certain patients'. (6)
Florence Nightingale, a Protestant and the founder of secular nursing, had gained a strong reputation following the Crimean War and had introduced the Nightingale System of Nurse Training at St Thomas' Hospital, London. Miss Lucy
- The schoolyard rhyme sometimes known as "Miss Lucy" is found at "Miss Susie".
Miss Lucy (born Lucy Offerall, d.1991) was a member of the '60s group the GTOs. Osburn and four other Nightingale-trained nurses arrived in New South Wales on 5 March 1868 to introduce the Nightingale principles and begin, rather like missionaries, training others along similar lines. (7) The site of the then Sydney Hospital had been decided by Governor Macquarie, who named the new street after himself, and the hospital was commissioned in 1816. It was staffed by qualified doctors and convict men and women who acted as nurses. (8)
Osburn, although a Protestant, was often accused of trying to create a culture of Catholicism in the hospital. She was even criticised by the Protestant Standard for worshipping at the Anglican Christ Church Christ Church may refer to the following churches:
In the United Kingdom:
- Christ Church Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, England
- Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford, the cathedral of Oxford, England, and also the chapel of the Oxford University college known as
The preoccupation with secular matters during the development of nursing in Australia Historical
Prior to the transfer of nursing education to the university sector, nurses were trained in a course of instruction in hospital nursing schools that awarded a certificate in general nursing. reflects the general distrust between Catholics and Protestants. These matters were not ancient history when the Irish Catholic Irish Catholics is a term used to describe people of Roman Catholic background who are Irish or of Irish descent.
The term is of note due to Irish immigration to many countries of the English speaking world, particularly as a result of the Irish Famine in the 1840s - 1850s, , Rose Creal, was trying to gain entry into the training program. For instance, when the now Royal Melbourne Hospital The Royal Melbourne Hospital (RMH) in Parkville is one of Australia’s leading public hospitals. It is a major teaching hospital for tertiary health care with a reputation in clinical research. sought funds to erect the hospital in the 1850s it was essential that the administrators had the support of all the clergy without appearing to be denominational. This was during a time when a Catholic priest felt he could not, in conscience, reciprocate re·cip·ro·cate
v. re·cip·ro·cat·ed, re·cip·ro·cat·ing, re·cip·ro·cates
1. To give or take mutually; interchange.
2. To show, feel, or give in response or return.
v. the courtesy call of an Anglican minister. (12)
Matronship of the Sydney Hospital
In 1884 Miss Rebecca McKay became the most senior nurse of Sydney Hospital and the following year the title of 'matron' was introduced. (13) When McKay took over the reins from Osburn there was ever-increasing pressure on Sydney Hospital to supply 'trained nurses' for senior positions in country hospitals and 20 additional probationers were hired; Creal was probably one of them. (14) Significantly it was not until 1887 that the board of directors required nurses to complete a two-year training course and pass a prescribed examination before issuing a hospital nursing certificate; these decisions and requirements were locally determined by each hospital. (15)
Creal was fortunate when she became assistant matron to Julia Ellen (Nellie) Gould. Gould was a Welsh-born, well-educated woman who had migrated to Australia and began her training at the (later Royal) Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney. During Gould's matronship, in 1895, the title of 'head nurse' once again reverted to 'sister' and 'with this change disappeared the last trace of religious intolerance'. (16)
Gould was a competent leader who resigned the matronship in 1898. Creal became acting matron and her appointment was confirmed in February 1899. (17) Creal was 34 years old, the same age as her mother at the time of her death; two women who had vastly different lives due, in part, to the developing professionalism of nursing and the autonomy it brought to certain women. Like Gould before her and Adelaide Maud Kellett after her, Rose Creal, as matron of Sydney Hospital, regularly attended services at St James' Anglican Church. (18) The need for an association of trained nurses in Sydney was mooted as early as 1892 but it was not until 21 July 1899 that the NSW NSW New South Wales
Noun 1. NSW - the agency that provides units to conduct unconventional and counter-guerilla warfare
Naval Special Warfare Trained Nurses' Association came into existence. It was in the boardroom of the Sydney Hospital that it was deemed necessary to form a committee so as to 'distinguish the trained nurse from the untrained nurse amongst the many so-called trained nurses'. (19) Rose Creal, matron and superintendent of the training school of Sydney Hospital, was in attendance at the first and subsequent meetings. Due to the growing interest by nurses, doctors and the community in the role of the association a name change was needed to reflect the expanding role. The Australasian Trained Nurses' Association (ATNA) came into effect at the meeting of 1 December 1899. (20)
Dr Norton Manning was the first president and it was 30 years before a nurse was finally appointed to this position. (21) Like Nightingale, the Australian nurse leaders harnessed the support of sympathetic and powerful medical leaders like Norton Manning (a mental health reformer) who was convinced that trained nurses were an advantage to the health and welfare of his patients. (22) The original ATNA register incorporated the names of 598 nurses 'from all states of Australia, New Zealand New Zealand (zē`lənd), island country (2005 est. pop. 4,035,000), 104,454 sq mi (270,534 sq km), in the S Pacific Ocean, over 1,000 mi (1,600 km) SE of Australia. The capital is Wellington; the largest city and leading port is Auckland. and Fiji' and included information about their hospital training and occasionally their family history. Significantly no reference was made to their religion. (23)
When Rose Creal became matron of Sydney Hospital it was at a high point of its reputation--buildings had been completed, its nursing staff was in high demand and valued due to their competence and there was no obvious discord between the board of directors, the honorary medical officers or the nursing staff. (24) The colony of New South Wales was coming out of a serious economic downturn and the rural areas had suffered a severe drought. Colonial troops Colonial troops or colonial army refers to various military units recruited from, or used as garrison troops in, colonial territories. Colonial background and colonial nurses were in South Africa South Africa, Afrikaans Suid-Afrika, officially Republic of South Africa, republic (2005 est. pop. 44,344,000), 471,442 sq mi (1,221,037 sq km), S Africa. as Britain fought the Boers. (25) Colonial troops volunteered out of patriotism and colonial nurses, including those from New South Wales led by Nellie Gould, volunteered to nurse these patriots who died of disease twice as often as they died of wounds. (26) On Gould's return to the newly federated Australia she became instrumental in establishing the Australian Army Nursing Service (AANS). (27)
Creal was a low-profile high-achiever; she was a participant in most of the significant events which shaped nursing in Australia at the turn of the 20th century, including military nursing. Nurses who joined the AANS during peacetime and attended prescribed lectures were the first to be called upon when World War I broke out in August 1914. These civilian trained nurses, including Creal, were known as 'efficients'. Each of the six states was assigned a principal matron. (28) When Gould left Australia for overseas duty with the first contingent of the Australian Imperial Force (AIF AIF Annual Information Form
AIF Apoptosis-Inducing Factor
AIF Agence Intergouvernementale de la Francophonie (French: Intergovernmental Agency for Francophony)
AIF Australian Imperial Force ), Creal was once again her successor and she became the principal matron of 2 Military District (NSW). (29) Miss Gould records that:
... Miss Creal, R. took over the duties of Principal Matron from the 28th September in No. 2 Military District, and very ably did she do it, as witnessed the thorough way in which all details of equipment were carried out, as each batch of reinforcements came forward. (30)
Creal's role in this position was an adjunct to her main duties and she, like a number of hospital matrons, was feeling the effects of nursing staff shortages due to the enthusiasm of nurses who wanted to serve overseas. (31) One of her main responsibilities was to interview prospective nurses for overseas duty, including 12 New Zealand nurses who were attached to the AANS in 1915. (32) Creal was acutely aware that many of her trainee nurses would ultimately end up being part of the AANS and their first postgraduate nursing experience would be in a war zone. The need for excellent surgical skills as opposed to paediatric Adj. 1. paediatric - of or relating to the medical care of children; "pediatric dentist"
pediatric experience may account for the apparent emphasis on the former at the expense of the latter. (33)
Although a number of nurses joined the AANS during World War I, only those who served overseas enlisted with the AIF. (34) Creal was 49 in 1916 when she enlisted with the AIF and the attestation papers she signed elicited personal details including her religion, which she clearly wrote was Church of England Church of England: see England, Church of. . (35) The years 1914-18 beggar description from a humanistic viewpoint and 1916 in Australia was a watershed at a political level. (36) Creal's decision to leave her beloved Sydney Hospital at this time may have been influenced by a number of external political events such as the Easter Uprising in Ireland and the conscription conscription, compulsory enrollment of personnel for service in the armed forces. Obligatory service in the armed forces has existed since ancient times in many cultures, including the samurai in Japan, warriors in the Aztec Empire, citizen militiamen in ancient debate in Australia.
A question of conscription
In Ireland, there had been a slim chance Noun 1. slim chance - little or no chance of success
probability, chance - a measure of how likely it is that some event will occur; a number expressing the ratio of favorable cases to the whole number of cases possible; "the probability that an for 'home rule' and it was hoped that finally what was referred to as the 'Irish Question' by the politicians and 'The Troubles' by the people of Ireland would be amicably resolved. (37) However, the Sinn Feiners did not want home rule but preferred to be a separate nation severing all ties with Britain. To this end, in Dublin, on 24 April 1916, Padraic (Patrick) Pearse proclaimed a provisional government of the Irish Republic In the Easter Rising in Dublin on 24 April 1916, the Proclamation of the Irish Republic read by Pádraig Pearse was headed and signed as being issued by the 'Provisional Government of the Irish Republic'. . (38) The next five days witnessed a brutal response by the British forces and the terms 'Easter Rising' and 'Bloody Sunday' entered the lexicon. Fourteen rebel leaders were court-martialled and executed on subsequent days; Pearse was the first to be shot by a firing squad on 3 May 1916 at 3.30am. (39)
Although the rebellion was quickly quashed it had global ramifications. Irish Catholics were scattered around the world and many like those living in Australia were being asked to volunteer to defend the 'Mother Country'. (40) Australian Prime Minister William (Billy) Hughes introduced a debate on military conscription; he was either in contempt of, or oblivious to, the implications of such a debate which was in direct contravention A term of French law meaning an act violative of a law, a treaty, or an agreement made between parties; a breach of law punishable by a fine of fifteen francs or less and by an imprisonment of three days or less. In the U.S. of the spirit of his Labor Party policy platform. (41) Hughes spent a great deal of 1916 in Canada and England convincing the Allies of Australia's commitment to victory at all costs. (42) On his return to Australia, Hughes argued that an additional 130,000 Australian men were needed by March 1917 and the conscription question should be put to a national referendum. A parliamentary majority approved the referendum question being put to the people but 27 Labor parliamentarians voted against it. (43)
Hughes pursued a 'yes' vote with a vengeance and many unions tried to thwart his zeal by appealing to the rank-and-file workers on the basis of class. Archbishop Daniel Mannix For other people called Daniel Mannix, see Daniel Mannix (disambiguation)
Daniel Patrick Mannix (March 4, 1864 - November 2, 1963), Irish-born Australian Catholic clergyman, Archbishop of Melbourne for 46 years, was one of the most influential public figures in 20th opposed Hughes on what many interpreted as sectarian lines. Mannix, an Irish Catholic, felt compelled to take up a public anti-conscription position following the Easter Rebellion Easter Rebellion: see Ireland. . (44) Patriotism was often touted during the vicious public brawls which were supposed to be political debates. To be Irish and Catholic attracted public attention in 1916.
On 19 August 1916 Rose Creal accepted the position of matron of 14 Australian General Hospital (14 AGH AGH Akademia Gorniczo-Hutnicza
AGH Allegheny General Hospital (Pittsburgh, PA, USA)
AGH Alpena General Hospital (Michigan)
AGH Helsingborg, Sweden - Angelholm/Helsingborg (Airport Code) ), Egypt, which was to be the main hospital for the Australian soldiers who were about to invade Palestine. The Battle of Romani The Battle of Romani took place near the Egyptian town of Romani which lies 23 miles east of the Suez Canal near the Mediterranean shore of the Sinai peninsula. On the night of August 3, 1916, an Ottoman army, under the command of Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein, attacked (3-4 August 1916) demonstrated to the powers that be in Britain that an opportunity to successfully invade Palestine, as opposed to merely defending Egypt, existed. (45) Within five days of enlisting, Creal embarked on the Karoola in Melbourne and a month later she disembarked at Suez and was preparing 14 AGH at Abbassia, a Cairo suburb, for an influx of casualties . (46)
Therefore, Creal was on active service when the results were announced on 28 October 1916 that the first referendum on conscription was defeated nationally, although there was majority support for conscription in Victoria, Western Australia Western Australia, state (1991 pop. 1,409,965), 975,920 sq mi (2,527,633 sq km), Australia, comprising the entire western part of the continent. It is bounded on the N, W, and S by the Indian Ocean. Perth is the capital. and Tasmania. Despite the failure, Hughes felt vindicated because a majority of soldiers who were on overseas duty voted in favour of conscription . (47)
The outcome of the first referendum was to signify the end of the Labor Party as such because Hughes had lost all credibility among the core members. On 14 November 1916, after failing to win support at a special meeting of the Labor Party in Parliament House, then in Melbourne, Hughes made a statement about his position and asked those who wished to follow him to do so. From the 64 delegates, 24 went with Hughes and within 24 hours a new political party, the National Labor Party, was formed. Hughes became leader of the National Labor Party with the support of the opposition for the duration of the war. (48)
The formation of this new political party led to a split in the natural membership of an essentially 'labour' party at a federal and state level. (49) By December 1917, when a second referendum was held, Hughes had lost support for conscription from both the troops and those at home. By this time the horror of the Somme, particularly Pozieres, was fresh in the memory of soldiers who were now unwilling to send another man to war '... against his will'. (50) Nevertheless, the conscription debate 'had exalted the issue to one ... almost of a fundamental religious belief' in Australia. (51)
Despite Creal's dominance in the AANS in Egypt at a time when the Australian lighthorsemen were gaining folklore status, there is minimal historical information about Creal as a military nurse leader. The letters and postcards of nurses who served under her at 14 AGH describe a matron who was kind, firm and just. She met her new recruits at the station to personally welcome them to Egypt. (52) It was necessary for Creal to treat her military hospital nurses, who trained in various hospitals throughout Australia and indeed the world, the same as she treated 'her' Sydney Hospital nurses. One new recruit to the 14 AGH who trained at Sydney Hospital wrote to her mother: 'Matron is so good to our girls tho' we won't admit it to anyone.' (53) There is no evidence that Creal gave preferential treatment to Sydney Hospital nurses--she was 'good' to all nurses who were under her leadership.
Once acute casualties were appropriately managed, Creal allowed her nurses to care for their sick or wounded brothers, friends or loved ones. (54) She attempted to give her nurses additional leave when they had friends or brothers in town on military leave. (55) One nurse recorded that Creal tried to dissuade her nurses from volunteering for service in Salonica because of the shocking conditions endured by those who served on this front. Creal instigated a program whereby the staff of 14 AGH sent 'parcels of groceries to the girls in Salonica' because of the scarcity of foodstuffs foodstuffs npl → comestibles mpl
foodstuffs npl → denrées fpl alimentaires
foodstuffs food npl → . (56) Sister Lowrey (AANS) sent a postcard to her Sydney Hospital training colleague, Sister Campbell (AANS), who was in Salonica. Lowrey reported that 'Matron Creal has a puppy dog and it sleeps on her bed'; a very comforting thought for her friend, who was living an abnormal life under dismal wartime conditions. (57)
At an administrative level Creal had the double task of keeping the two Australian matrons-in-chief (Miss Tracey Richardson Tracey Richardson (born on October 26, 1982, Hornchurch, Essex, England) is a British diver.
She competed in 3 metre springboard at the 2004 Summer Olympics and finished 26th.
She trains in Southend at the diving club there. , Melbourne, and the matron-in-chief in England, Miss Evelyn Conyers, Horseferry Rd, London) fully informed. She was also responsible for chaperoning white, Christian women in a religiously diverse country as they cared for thousands of men. Creal--although told by her superiors that nurses should not be encouraged to marry--attended a number of their weddings in Egypt. She didn't break the rules and those who married were not allowed to return to duty, but she certainly did not judge them harshly for making such a decision. She was a disciplinarian but staunchly defended any accusation of misconduct laid against her nurses with vigour. (58) Rose Creal had a civilising presence at an uncivilised time in history.
The official historian of the Sinai campaign, H. S. Gullett, recorded that there were
... no words which to tell of the service of the splendid band of Australian nursing sisters who, under the inspiration of ... Rose Creal, matron at the No. 14 General Hospital, greeted the battered men from the front as they reached hospital and nursed them back to strength, or softened the close of their soldier life. (59)
On 1 January 1919 Creal was awarded the Royal Red Cross The Royal Red Cross is a military decoration awarded in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth for exceptional services in military nursing.
The award was established on 27 April1883 by Queen Victoria, with a single class of Member. (1st class) 'in recognition for her valuable services with the British forces in Egypt'. (60)
After the war Creal was transferred to England where her nurses were dispatched for duty in a number Australian auxiliary hospitals nursing Australian soldiers who were awaiting transportation home. Creal not only used the opportunity to undertake elocution lessons under the Merrick scheme, she was granted 10 weeks paid leave to tour British hospitals and learn as much as possible before returning to the Sydney Hospital, where she resumed the matronship in April 1920. (61)
Australia and the influenza pandemic
- Note: For information about the content, tone and sourcing of this article, please see the tags at the bottom of this page.
Antibiotics are effective against bacterial infections but are impotent when faced with a virus. We now know that two surface proteins--hemagglutinin and neuraminidase--define the identity of the influenza virus influenza virus
Any of three viruses of the genus Influenzavirus designated type A, type B, and type C, that cause influenza and influenzalike infections. which caused the death of about 20 million people in less than a year at the end of 1918 and early 1919. (62) Returning soldiers inadvertently brought home the deadly virus (H1N1) and the resultant pandemic pandemic /pan·dem·ic/ (pan-dem´ik)
1. a widespread epidemic of a disease.
2. widely epidemic.
Epidemic over a wide geographic area.
n. was raging in many parts of the world, including Australia.
While Creal and her nurses were caring for convalescent con·va·les·cent
Relating to convalescence.
A person who is recovering from an illness, an injury, or a surgical operation.
1. pertaining to or characterized by convalescence.
2. soldiers in England, sectarian bigotry was escalating in Australia. In 1918 the Melbourne Exhibition Building took on a life as an emergency hospital and Archbishop Mannix offered the services of the nursing nuns in the east Melbourne district. Initially the offer was gratefully accepted by the government of the day but confusion about the role of the secular matron, the indomitable in·dom·i·ta·ble
Incapable of being overcome, subdued, or vanquished; unconquerable.
[Late Latin indomit Jane Bell (a Protestant), and the Mother Rectress of St Vincent's Hospital resulted in the arousal of public suspicion. (63) This soon escalated into hostile church meetings. A leader of the Wesleyan church
- For the former Wesleyan Methodist Church of Great Britain, see Methodist Church of Great Britain.
The Wesleyan Church is a religious denomination in the United States and Canada associated with the holiness movement that has roots in Methodism and , the Rev. H. Worrall, asserted that the 'garb worn by the nuns and brothers, the ceremonies they observe, and the customs they follow are not things which should be introduced into a public hospital'. (64)
The competence of the nursing nuns is not debatable; they preceded the establishment of secular nursing by centuries. Such bigotry at a time when exhausted army nurses were returning home after four years of war and then having to pull their sleeves up again during one of the worst pandemics of the 20th century is difficult to comprehend. A number of AANS nurses died during the aftermath of the war from influenza. (65)
More than a year after the armistice Armistice
(Nov. 11, 1918) Agreement between Germany and the Allies ending World War I. Allied representatives met with a German delegation in a railway carriage at Rethondes, France, to discuss terms. The agreement was signed on Nov. , Rose Creal disembarked from the Aeneas on 12 January 1920 and she was discharged from the AIF at the end of May. There may have been an element of pragmatism in Creal. When she signed her attestation papers on 14 August 1916 she claimed she was 49 years old, but when she was discharged in 1919 she recorded that she was only 45. (66) The reasons for these discrepancies do not relate to female vanity but to the constant revision of the AANS military regulations by the AIF. When the AANS was a reserve during peacetime the age requirements did not need to be too prescriptive. They allowed for a retirement age of 55 years and included a special provision for an extension of two years. (67) However, with the advent of war the standing orders were changed and only single or widowed nurses between the ages of 20 and 45 years were accepted for enlistment. (68) Therefore Rose Creal was outside the acceptable age margin while she was sent overseas. When she returned to Sydney Hospital as the matron in 1920 she was, in reality, 55 years old.
At the time of her discharge, Creal had developed a '... post influenzal cervical adenitis adenitis /ad·e·ni·tis/ (ad?e-ni´tis) inflammation of a gland.
Bartholin adenitis inflammation of the greater vestibular gland (Bartholin's gland) resulting from acute infection of the gland. with pressure on left brachial plexus brachial plexus
A network of nerves located in the neck and axilla, composed of the anterior branches of the lower four cervical and first two thoracic spinal nerves and supplying the chest, shoulder, and arm. causing neuritis neuritis (nrī`tĭs, ny in left arm ...' but signed a medical report stating: 'I am not suffering from any disability due to or aggravated by war service and feel fit and well.' (69) Adenitis is defined as 'inflammation of a gland' but she most likely had a nerve compression nerve compression,
n pressure on a nerve or nerves may often be caused by hypertonicity in adjacent muscles. in her cervical spine cervical spine Clinical anatomy The region of the vertebral column encompassing C1 through C7 which caused pain in her shoulder which radiated down her arm. (70) This type of pain was not uncommon in nurses who tended to use their neck and shoulders to lift heavy patients and was referred to as 'a shoulder lift'. Creal's decision to seek medical advice demonstrates that she was not opposed to approaching doctors for help when needed and her behaviour, when faced with severe, acute pain the following year was indeed out of character. In August 1921 Creal:
... had acute abdominal pain and refused to see a surgeon. Dr Walker Perry was the Medical Superintendent at the time. Miss Creal absolutely refused to see a surgeon until the pain became unbearable, then it was too late. Miss Creal was taken from her bedroom straight to the operating theatre (ruptured appendix). But all the surgeon could do was incision and drainage Incision and drainage is a minor surgical procedure to release pus or pressure built up under the skin, such as from an abscess or boil. It is performed by treating the area with an antiseptic, such as iodine based solution, and then making a small incision to puncture the skin tubes, after about a week, an embolism embolism
Obstruction of blood flow by an embolus—a substance (e.g., a blood clot, a fat globule from a crush injury, or a gas bubble) not normally present in the bloodstream. Obstruction of an artery to the brain may cause stroke. and her death in a few hours, (Sir Herbert Maitland, the surgeon).' (71)
Creal's death certificate supports the nurse's account of the cause of her death on 7 August 1921; appendicitis Appendicitis Definition
Appendicitis is an inflammation of the appendix, which is the worm-shaped pouch attached to the cecum, the beginning of the large intestine. The appendix has no known function in the body, but it can become diseased. (one week) and pyelophlebitis (one week). (72) Pyelophlebitis is defined as 'inflammation of the portal vein [supplies the liver] which gives rise to severe symptoms of septicaemia septicaemia or septicemia
an infection of the blood which develops in a wound [Greek sēptos decayed + haima blood]
septicemia, septicaemia or pyaemia' [toxins in the blood] and the best course of treatment is antibiotics (which were still 20 years from development at the time of Creal's death). (73)
Early surgical intervention may have saved her life and the reason for such irrational behaviour from an otherwise rational person is difficult to discern. As already outlined she was noticed by a surgeon as having a natural aptitude in the operating theatres as a young woman. (74) Therefore, the operating theatre held no particular fear for her as a nurse. It is unlikely that she did not trust the surgeon--Sir Herbert Maitland was a renowned neck and head surgeon who also mastered the skill of plastic surgery at a time when many soldiers were returning home disfigured. He was a remarkable sportsmen and also:
... lectured to Sydney Hospital nurses in 1900-09, and was an early medical member of the Australasian Trained Nurses' Association from 1899 and on its first board of examiners (1906-08). He was first lecturer in clinical surgery when Sydney Hospital became a clinical school of the university in 1909. Students and young doctors were attracted to the hospital for the sole reason that Maitland was there. (75)
Creal and Maitland were contemporaries and ironically two years after Creal died Maitland felt a little unwell and went to his rooms where he died of coronary vascular disease. He, like her, was buried with Anglican rites at Waverley Cemetery
- See also:
The Waverley Cemetery opened in 1877 and is a major cemetery at Bronte in the eastern suburbs of Sydney. . (76)
Three days after her death Rose Creal she was given a full military funeral A military funeral is a funeral given by a country's military for a veteran, a soldier who died in battle, or another prominent military figure. When heads of state die, they often receive military funerals. . St James' Anglican Church was filled to capacity--hundreds of mourners had to be turned away. (77) Media tributes were extensive and in one titled 'Farewell Matron Creal--Mother Chief of Hospital--Friend of Broken Humanity' she was described as a 'woman with a deep religious belief'. (78) There is no doubt she lived a Christian life.
While Creal was known as a Protestant all her siblings remained Catholic including her only remaining sister, Elizabeth, who was later interred with Rose Creal in her Protestant grave at Waverley Cemetery. (79) Nurses of Sydney Hospital also contributed to a trust for the maintenance of her grave in perpetuity Of endless duration; not subject to termination.
The phrase in perpetuity is often used in the grant of an Easement to a utility company.
in perpetuity adj. forever, as in one's right to keep the profits from the land in perpetuity. . This responsibility now rests with members of the Sydney Hospital Graduate Nurses Association, who are in the process of restoring her grave, which had fallen into disrepair. (80)
Creal's estate was extensive when she died and included cash, shares in public companies, furniture, paintings, war bonds, property and interest earned from a number of mortgages to individuals. Total assets were valued at 5892 [pounds sterling] and her debts were in the vicinity of only 166 [pounds sterling] indicating she was a very competent business woman. Her last will and testament was signed on 18 August 1916, the day before she enlisted with the AIF. Her sister and remaining two brothers were the only legatees. (81)
Following Creal's death past and present nurses contributed to a collection to provide prizes in memory of Miss Rose Creal. The monies were invested and a cheque to the value of the interest (6 per cent in 1925) was drawn each year by the board of directors and the amount was divided equally between the two nurses who gained the highest passes in the May and November fourth-year examinations. The Rose Creal Memorial Prize was highly valued by nurses of Sydney Hospital, but was discontinued in 1985 following the transfer of nurse education into the tertiary education Tertiary education, also referred to as third-stage, third level education, or higher education, is the educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education, such as a high school, secondary school, or gymnasium. sector. (82)
During extensive wars such as the 1914-18 conflict it is easy to paint history with a broad brush stroke--the danger is in missing the details of the picture. The life and subsequent death of Rose Creal was such a detail. Her contribution to those for whom she cared--family, patients, nurses, soldiers, community--was appreciated and noted. Creal, like many individuals who bypass historical scrutiny, often have hidden stories but when combined with her decision to no longer practise as a Catholic, and instead become a prominent Protestant, at a time of heightened cultural, social and political pressure, these achievements become even more significant.
While it is not possible to ascertain what Creal believed, it is possible to record what she did and the historical framework in which she operated. There is sufficient evidence to conclude that she was a prominent and successful Australian nurse leader. Nursing was to a great extent merit based and there is no evidence that nurses were themselves anything but ecumenical in their approach, but they did not choose their leaders at this time. Politicians, board directors, leaders of the community and medical practitioners determined which nurses would become leaders at the turn of the 20th century.
Those nurses, like Creal, who obtained positions of authority, ensured they did not waste the opportunity; many of the nursing organisations which exist today were founded at this time. Women like Creal approached their task quietly but extremely effectively; the personal cost can only be surmised. Rose Creal lived a full life and there is no doubt that her legacy to Australian nursing is much more than a coveted memorial prize. The political and social environment into which she was born was not atypical but her achievements within that atmosphere of sectarian mistrust were remarkable.
Apart from being a credit to her profession she was a conscientious citizen, which was amply demonstrated by the outpouring of grief at the time of her death. She related to a broad spectrum of society from powerful politicians to the poorest patients; the most revered military leaders to the enlisted man who faced death in the desert; the unskilled probationary nurse to world-renowned nurse leaders. Rose Creal epitomised egalitarianism which is inherent in the principles of secular nursing--no judgments--just an all-encompassing competence and compassion for every patient.
I am indebted to David Kent, Professor in History (University of New England The University of New England can refer to:
- University of New England, Maine, in Biddeford, Maine
- University of New England, Australia, in New South Wales
(1) Rose Creal, AIF Service Record, record of non-military employment, form D.29, National Archives of Australia, Canberra. While awaiting their return to Australia, a scheme of nonmilitary employment was developed by an Australian, George Merrick Long, to enable soldiers and nurses to attend courses at universities, technical colleges and within industry. An estimated 12,800 soldiers and nurses participated in courses in England.
(2) Young Historical Society, Now and Then 1861-1984. Young Public School 1861-1940: an historical account, 1984, p .8.
(3) Letter, Alisha Baird Omar, 53 Carcoar Street, Blayney (previously Deputy Matron Bridgman of Sydney Hospital), received at Sydney Hospital, 19 January 1961, Lucy Osburn-Florence Nightingale Museum, Sydney Hospital, historical file.
(4) Freda MacDonnell, 'Creal, Rose Ann (1865-1921)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, vol. 8, Melbourne, 1981, pp. 142-43.
(5) Cecil Woodham-Smith Cecil Blanche Woodham-Smith (née Fitzgerald) (April 29, 1896 – March 16, 1977) was an acclaimed British historian and biographer. Her reputation rests on four popular classics of history, each dealing with a different aspect of the Victorian era. , Florence Nightingale 1820-1910, London, 1950, pp. 73-74.
(6) Bartz Schultz, A Tapestry of Service: The evolution of nursing in Australia--Foundation to Federation 1788-1900, vol. 1, Melbourne, 1991, p. 22.
(7) John Griffith John Griffith may refer to:
- John H. Griffith, test pilot
- Saint John Jones
- John G. Griffith, football coach
(8) Frederick Watson, The History of the Sydney Hospital from 1811 to 1911, Sydney, p. 36.
(9) Griffith, pp. 377-78.
(10) Schultz, p. 220.
(11) Watson, p. 139.
(12) Alan Gregory, The Ever Open Door: a history of the Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, 1998, p. 24.
(13) Watson, p. 168; Schultz, p. 87.
(14) Schultz, p. 87.
(15) Watson, p. 168.
(16) Watson, p. 179.
(17) Ruth Rae, 'Julia Ellen Gould: a civilian nurse and founder of the military nursing tradition in Australia (1860-1941)', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society The Royal Australian Historical Society is a voluntary organisation founded in Sydney, Australia in 1901 to encourage Australians to understand more about their history. It has a membership throughout Australia and all its activities and facilities are funded by contributions from , vol. 92 (part 2), 2006, pp. 165-66; MacDonnell, pp. 142-43.
(18) MacDonnell, pp. 142-43.
(19) Schultz, p. 350.
(20) Watson, p. 168; Schultz, p. 351.
(21) Schultz, p. 351; Ann M. Mitchell, 'Kellett, Adelaide Maud (1873-1945)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, vol. 9, Melbourne, 1983, pp. 549-550. Adelaide Maud Kellett, a Sydney Hospital trainee and assistant matron to Rose Creal, succeeded her as matron. A distinguished civilian and military nurse, Kellett was appointed the first nurse president of ATNA in 1929/30.
(22) Schultz, p. 194.
(23) 'Australasian Trained Nurses' Association Historical Background', ATNA Records ML MSS 4144 23 (56), State Library of NSW, Sydney, January 1969. While ATNA included New Zealand trained nurses, New Zealand had addressed the need to differentiate the trained nurse from the untrained nurse with the introduction of a Nurses' Registration Act as early as 1901. See Anna Rogers, While You're Away: New Zealand nurses at war 1899-1948, Auckland, 2003, p. 14.
(24) Watson, pp. 171-77.
(25) Manning Clark, A History of Australia The history of Australia began when people first migrated to the Australian continent from the north, at least 40,000-45,000 years ago. The written history of Australia began when Dutch explorers first sighted the country in the 17th century. : the people make laws 1888-1915, vol. 5, Melbourne, 1981, p. 170.
(26) Stuart Braga, Anzac Doctor: the life of Sir Neville Howse, VC, Sydney, 2000, p. 49. The British Empire sent 500,000 men to the Boer War; 100,000 became casualties, including 63,644 who were repatriated due to illness, 13,250 died of illness, 5774 were killed in action, 2018 died of wounds.
(27) For a fuller account of the life of Nellie Gould see Ruth Rae, 'Julia Ellen Gould: a civilian nurse and founder of the military nursing tradition in Australia (1860-1941)', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, vol. 92 (part 2), 2006, pp. 163-182.
(28) Ruth Rae, Scarlet Poppies: The army experience of Australian nurses during World War One, Sydney, 2004, pp. 37, 56.
(29) Report by Miss E. J. Gould, 'New South Wales assistance asked in connection with the collection of historical material for Australian Army Nursing Service, AIF,' AWM 4364/34/6, Butler Papers, Australian War Memorial, Canberra, 22 May 1933, p. 2 (hereafter referred to as 'The Gould Report').
(30) The Gould Report, p. 2.
(31) Miss Tait, Acting Lady Superintendent, 'Lady Superintendents Reports', Royal Melbourne Hospital Archives, Melbourne, 2 November 1914; Rose A. Kirkcaldie, In Grey and Scarlet, Melbourne, 1922, p. 14.
(32) Rogers, p. 55.
(33) Ruth Rae, 'Jessie Tomlins: An Australian army nurse World War One', PhD thesis, University of Sydney The University of Sydney, established in Sydney in 1850, is the oldest university in Australia. It is a member of Australia's "Group of Eight" Australian universities that are highly ranked in terms of their research performance. , 2001, p. 67.
(34) The claim that the AANS nurses were part of the AIF continues to be contentious, as Colonel Butler claimed the AANS 'is not part of the Defence Force', but the service record of AANS personnel more often than not includes a signed 'AIF Attestation Paper for Persons enlisted for Service Abroad'. Rupert Goodman, Our War Nurses: The history of the Royal Australian Army Corps 1902 -1988, Brisbane, 1988, pp. 26-27.
(35) Rose Creal, AIF Service Record, Attestation Paper, National Archives of Australia, Canberra.
(36) L. F. Crisp, The Australian Federal Labor Party 1901-1951, Sydney, 1978, p. 166.
(37) N. Brennan, Daniel Mannix, Rigby Ltd, Adelaide, 1964, p. 115.
(38) Patrick Pearse, 'Proclamation of the Irish Republic', speech presented on 24 April 1916 quoted in The Penguin Book of Twentieth Century Speeches, Brian MacArthur (ed.), London, 1992, pp. 46-48.
(39) MacArthur, p. 47; Brennan, p. 127.
(40) Brennan, pp. 126-28.
(41) Crisp, pp. 135-36. Crisp correctly asserts that Hughes had not contravened anything written in the federal platform but concedes that five of the six states and the spirit of the federal Labor Party were known to be anti-conscription. Ironically, Hughes could have introduced conscription without a referendum by claiming a 'moral mandate' via normal parliamentary processes--see Crisp, p. 211 (n).
(42) J. T. Lang, The Turbulent Years--The autobiography of J. T. Lang, Sydney, 1970, pp. 40-42.
(43) Graham Fricke, Profiles of Power: The Prime Ministers of Australia, Melbourne, 1990, p. 73.
(44) Manning Clark, A History of Australia: The Old Dead Tree and the Young Tree Green 191635, vol. 6, Melbourne, 1987, pp. 33, 87.
(45) H. S. Gullett, Official History of Australia in the War of 1914-18: Sinai and Palestine, vol. 7, Sydney, 1944, p. 190.
(46) Rose Creal, AIF Service Record, Casualty Form--Active Service Army Form B 103, National Archives of Australia, Canberra.
(47) Charles E. W. Bean, Anzac to Amiens: A shorter history of the Australian fighting services in the First World War, 5th edn., 1968, Canberra, p. 294; Letter, Fred Tomlins (1st Australian Light Horse soldier) to Margaret Tomlins (sister), 15 November 1916 in 'Fred Tomlins Papers 1914-1918', ML MSS 5975, State Library of NSW, Sydney (copy in possession of author); Rae, Scarlet Poppies, pp. 62-63.
(48) Clark, vol. 6, pp. 41-42.
(49) Lang, p. 47.
(50) Bean, p. 294. Australian troops had succeeded in taking the French village of Pozieres from the Germans during the Battle of the Somme. When the Germans realised their position had been lost they bombarded the Australian position for three days. Pozieres is synonymous with the most severe bombardment encountered by any troops on the front in France. The 1st Australian Division lost 5285 officers and men and those who survived had a first-hand account of hell--see Bean, pp. 241-49.
(51) Bean, p. 296.
(52) Letter, Jessie Tomlins (AANS) to 'My Dear People', 14 January 1917 (copy in possession of author).
(53) Letter, Jessie Tomlins (AANS) to Margaretta Tomlins (mother), 4 May 1917 (copy in possession of author) cited in Rae, Scarlet Poppies, p. 35.
(54) Letter, Jessie Tomlins (AANS) to 'My Dear Mother', 18 November 1917 (copy in possession of author).
(55) Letter, Jessie Tomlins (AANS) to 'My Dear Mother', 28 July 1917 (copy in possession of author).
(56) Letter, Jessie Tomlins (AANS) to 'My Dear Mother ', 6 October 1917 (copy in possession of author); Letter, Jessie Tomlins (AANS) to 'My Dear Mother', 28 July 1917 (copy in possession of author).
(57) Postcard, Lowrey (AANS) to Campbell (AANS), in Lucy Osburn-Florence Nightingale Museum, Sydney Hospital, historical file; Rae, Scarlet Poppies, pp. 172-82.
(58) Goodman, p. 86.
(59) Gullett, p. 645.
(60) Correspondence from Base Records Office, AIF (including extract from Second Supplement No. 31093, to the London Gazette dated 1 January 1919, AIF) to Miss E. F. Creal, c/o Miss Turpey, Anson Street, Orange, in Rose Creal Service Record.
(61) Rose Creal, AIF Service Record, record of non-military employment, Form D.29, National Archives of Australia, Canberra.
(62) Jamie Shreeve, 'The killer that came in from the cold', 1 July 2006, in The Good Weekend Sydney Morning Herald Magazine, Sydney, pp. 36-37.
(63) Brennan, pp. 167-68. Jane Bell was born in Scotland and regularly attended Scots Church in Collins Street, Melbourne--J. A. Williams and R. D. Goodman, Jane Bell, OBE (1873-1959): Lady Superintendent, The Royal Melbourne Hospital (1910-1934), Royal Melbourne Graduate Nurses' Association, Melbourne, 1988, p. 40.
(64) Rev H. Worrall, quoted in Brennan, p. 168.
(65) Rae, Scarlet Poppies, pp. 251-53 (appendix 3).
(66) Rose Creal, AIF Service Record, Attestation Papers, National Archives of Australia, Canberra.
(67) Extract from standing orders--syllabus of qualifications necessary to become members of the Australian Army Nursing Service, quoted in Goodman, p. 15.
(68) Extract from standing orders--conditions of enrolment, AANS, AIF, quoted in Goodman, p. 27.
(69) Rose Creal, AIF Service Record, Discharge Summary discharge summary A document prepared by the attending physician of a hospitalized Pt that summarizes the admitting diagnosis, diagnostic procedures performed, therapy received while hospitalized, clinical course during hospitalization, prognosis, and plan of , National Archives of Australia, Canberra.
(70) B. F. Cape, Bailliere's Nurses' Dictionary (14th ed.), London, 1957, p. 6.
(71) Letter, Alisha Baird Omar, 53 Carcoar Street, Blayney (previously Deputy Matron Bridgman of Sydney Hospital), received at Sydney Hospital, 19 January 1961, Lucy Osburn-Florence Nightingale Museum, Sydney Hospital, historical file.
(72) Death certificate, Rose Ann Creal, Births, Deaths and Marriages Registration Act 1995 (No. 1921/009915) (copy in possession of author).
(73) Cape, pp. 67-68,259,284.
(74) McDonnell, pp. 142-43.
(75) Ann M. Mitchell, 'Maitland, Sir Herbert Lethington (1868-1923)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, vol. 10, Melbourne, 1986, pp. 387-88.
(76) Mitchell, pp. 387-88.
(77) McDonnell, pp. 142-43.
(78) WST WST
In currencies, this is the abbreviation for the Samoan Tala.
The currency market, also known as the Foreign Exchange market, is the largest financial market in the world, with a daily average volume of over US $1 trillion. , 'Farewell Matron Creal--Mother Chief of Hospital--Friend of Broken Humanity' (n/d), in Lucy Osburn-Florence Nightingale Museum, Sydney Hospital, historical file (copy in possession of author). The author gratefully acknowledges Elinor Wroebel, Lucy Osburn-Nightingale Foundation of Nursing, Nightingale Wing, Sydney Hospital for providing details of Rose Creal's funeral and burial.
(79) Correspondence Miss E. Pidgeon, Matron, Nightingale Wing, Sydney Hospital, Sydney to F. Arnold, Monumental Sculptors, 53 Regent Street, Sydney, 14 May 1948, in Lucy Osburn-Florence Nightingale Museum, Sydney Hospital, historical file (copy in possession of author).
(80) Photograph, Ruth Rae, October 2008; Correspondence, Ruth Rae to Terry Clout (chief executive, South East Sydney Illawarra Area Health Service, NSW Health), 4 November 2008; Correspondence, Terry Clout to Ruth Rae, 28 November 2008.
(81) Last will and testament of Rose Ann Creal dated 18 August 1916 in probate file of Rose Ann Creal (copy in possession of author). The author gratefully acknowledges Selena Williams for providing probate details of Rose Creal.
(82) Judith Cornell, 'Sydney Hospital Special Nursing Awards', in Lucy Osburn-Florence Nightingale Museum, Sydney Hospital, historical file (copy in possession of author). When the 'NSW Nurses' Registration Board changed to a new system of electronically generated and marked, multiple-choice format for examinations, hospital based examinations were abandoned' and the 'Rose Creal prize was awarded to the Sydney Hospital nurse who gained the highest marks in the State examinations'.
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|Publication:||Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society|
|Date:||Jun 1, 2009|
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