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Notes on Current Labor Statistics.

This section of the Review presents the principal statistical series collected and calculated by the Bureau of Labor Statistics: series on labor force; employment; unemployment; labor compensation; consumer, producer, and international prices; productivity; international comparisons; and injury and illness statistics. In the notes that follow, the data in each group of tables are briefly described; key definitions are given; notes on the data are set forth; and sources of additional information ate cited.

General notes

The following notes apply to several tables in this section:

Seasonal adjustment. Certain monthly and quarterly data are adjusted to eliminate the effect on the data of such factors as climatic conditions, industry production schedules, opening and closing of schools, holiday buying periods, and vacation practices, which might prevent short-term evaluation of the statistical series. Tables containing data that have been adjusted are identified as "seasonally adjusted." (All other data are not seasonally adjusted.) Seasonal effects are estimated on the basis of past experience. When new seasonal factors are computed each year, revisions may affect seasonally adjusted data for several preceding years.

Seasonally adjusted data appear in tables 1-14, 16-17, 39, and 43. Seasonally adjusted labor force data in tables 1 and 4-9 were revised in the February 1998 issue of the Review. Seasonally adjusted establishment survey data shown in tables 1, 12-14 and 16-17 were revised in the July 1998 Review and reflect the experience through March 1998. A brief explanation of the seasonal adjustment methodology appears in "Notes on the data."

Revisions in the productivity data in table 45 are usually introduced in the September issue. Seasonally adjusted indexes and percent changes from month-to-month and quarter-to-quarter are published for numerous Consumer and Producer Price Index series. However, seasonally adjusted indexes are not published for the U.S. average All-Items CPI. Only seasonally adjusted percent changes are available for this series.

Adjustments for price changes. Some data--such as the "real" earnings shown in table 14--are adjusted to eliminate the effect of changes in price. These adjustments are made by dividing current-dollar values by the Consumer Price Index or the appropriate component of the index, then multiplying by 100. For example, given a current hourly wage rate of $3 and a current price index number of 150, where 1982 = 100, the hourly rate expressed in 1982 dollars is $2 ($3/150 x 100 = $2). The $2 (or any other resulting values) are described as "real," "constant," or "1982" dollars.

Sources of information

Data that supplement the tables in this section are published by the Bureau in a variety of sources. Definitions of each series and notes on the data are contained in later sections of these Notes describing each set of data. For detailed descriptions of each data series, see BLS Handbook of Methods, Bulletin 2490. Users also may wish to consult Major Programs of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Report 919. News releases provide the latest statistical information published by the Bureau; the major recurring releases are published according to the schedule appearing on the back cover of this issue.

More information about labor force, employment, and unemployment data and the household and establishment surveys underlying the data are available in the Bureau's monthly publication, Employment and Earnings. Historical unadjusted and seasonally adjusted data from the household survey are available on the Internet:

http://stats.bls.gov/cpshome.htm Historically comparable unadjusted and seasonally adjusted data from the establishment survey also are available on the Internet:

http://stats.bls.gov/ceshome.htm Additional information on labor force data for sub-States are provided in the BLS annual report, Geographic Profile of Employment and Unemployment.

For a comprehensive discussion of the Employment Cost Index, see Employment Cost Indexes and Levels, 1975-95, BLS Bulletin 2466. The most recent data from the Employee Benefits Survey appear in the following Bureau of Labor Statistics bulletins: Employee Benefits in Medium and Large Firms; Employee Benefits in Small Private Establishments; and Employee Benefits in State and Local Governments.

More detailed data on consumer and producer prices are published in the monthly periodicals, The CPI Detailed Report and Producer Price Indexes. For an overview of the 1998 revision of the CPI, see the December 1996 issue of the Monthly Labor Review. Additional data on international prices appear in monthly news releases.

For a listing of available industry productivity indexes and their components, see Productivity Measures for Selected Industries, BLS Bulletin 2491.

For additional information on international comparisons data, see International Comparisons of Unemployment, BLS Bulletin 1979.

Detailed data on the occupational injury and illness series are published in Occupational Injuries and Illnesses in the United States, by Industry, a BLS annual bulletin.

Finally, the Monthly Labor Review carries analytical articles on annual and longer term developments in labor force, employment, and unemployment; employee compensation and collective bargaining; prices; productivity; international comparisons; and injury and illness data.

Symbols

n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified.

n.e.s. = not elsewhere specified.

p = preliminary. To increase the timeliness of some series, preliminary figures are issued based on representative but incomplete returns.

r = revised. Generally, this revision reflects the availability of later data, but also may reflect other adjustments.

Comparative Indicators

(Tables 1-3)

Comparative indicators tables provide an overview and comparison of major BLS statistical series. Consequently, although many of the included series are available monthly, all measures in these comparative tables are presented quarterly and annually.

Labor market indicators include employment measures from two major surveys and information on rates of change in compensation provided by the Employment Cost Index (ECI) program. The labor force participation rate, the employment-to-population ratio, and unemployment rates for major demographic groups based on the Current Population ("household") Survey are presented, while measures of employment and average weekly hours by major industry sector are given using nonfarm payroll data. The Employment Cost Index (compensation), by major sector and by bargaining status, is chosen from a variety of BLS compensation and wage measures because it provides a comprehensive measure of employer costs for hiring labor, not just outlays for wages, and it is not affected by employment shifts among occupations and industries.

Data on changes in compensation, prices, and productivity are presented in table 2. Measures of rates of change of compensation and wages from the Employment Cost Index program are provided for all civilian nonfarm workers (excluding Federal and household workers) and for all private nonfarm workers. Measures of changes in consumer prices for all urban consumers; producer prices by stage of processing; overall prices by stage of processing; and overall export and import price indexes are given. Measures of productivity (output per hour of all persons) are provided for major sectors.

Alternative measures of wage and compensation rates of change, which reflect the overall trend in labor costs, are summarized in table 3. Differences in concepts and scope, related to the specific purposes of the series, contribute to the variation in changes among the individual measures.

Notes on the data

Definitions of each series and notes on the data are contained in later sections of these notes describing each set of data.

Employment and Unemployment Data

(Tables 1; 4-20)

Household survey data

Description of the series

Employment data in this section are obtained from the Current Population Survey, a program of personal interviews conducted monthly by the Bureau of the Census for the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The sample consists of about 50,000 households selected to represent the U.S. population 16 years of age and older. Households are interviewed on a rotating basis, so that three-fourths of the sample is the same for any 2 consecutive months.

Definitions

Employed persons include (1) all those who worked for pay any time during the week which includes the 12th day of the month or who worked unpaid for 15 hours or more in a family-operated enterprise and (2) those who were temporarily absent from their regular jobs because of illness, vacation, industrial dispute, or similar reasons. A person working at more than one job is counted only in the job at which he or she worked the greatest number of hours.

Unemployed persons are those who did not work during the survey week, but were available for work except for temporary illness and had looked for jobs within the preceding 4 weeks. Persons who did not look for work because they were on layoff are also counted among the unemployed. The unemployment rate represents the number unemployed as a percent of the civilian labor force.

The civilian labor force consists of all employed or unemployed persons in the civilian noninstitutional population. Persons not in the labor force are those not classified as employed or unemployed. This group includes discouraged workers, defined as persons who want and are available for a job and who have looked for work sometime in the the past 12 months (or since the end of their last job if they held one within the past 12 months), but are not currently looking, because they believe there are no jobs available or there are none for which they would qualify. The civilian noninstitutional population comprises all persons 16 years of age and older who are not inmates of penal or mental institutions, sanitariums, of homes for the aged, infirm, or needy. The civilian labor force participation rate is the proportion of the civilian noninstitutional population that is in the labor force. The employment-population ratio is employment as a percent of the civilian noninstitutional population.

Notes on the data

From time to time, and especially after a decennial census, adjustments are made in the Current Population Survey figures to correct for estimating errors during the intercensal years. These adjustments affect the comparability of historical data. A description of these adjustments and their effect on the various data series appears in the Explanatory Notes of Employment and Earnings.

Labor force data in tables 1 and 4-9 are seasonally adjusted. Since January 1980, national labor force data have been seasonally adjusted with a procedure called X-11 ARIMA which was developed at Statistics Canada as an extension of the standard X11 method previously used by BLS. A detailed description of the procedure appears in the X-11 ARIMA Seasonal Adjustment Method, by Estela Bee Dagum (Statistics Canada, Catalogue No. 12-564E, January 1983).

At the end of each calendar year, historical seasonally adjusted data usually are revised, and projected seasonal adjustment factors are calculated for use during the January-June period. Because of the redesign of the survey, seasonally adjusted data back to 1994 usually are revised. In July, new seasonal adjustment factors, which incorporate the experience through June, are produced for the July-December period, but no revisions are made in the historical data.

Revisions to household data

Data beginning in 1998 are not strictly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years because of the introduction of new composite estimation procedures and updated population controls. Additional information on these revisions appears in the February 1998 issue of Employment and Earnings.

For additional information on national household survey data, contact the Division of Labor Force Statistics: (202) 606-6378.

Establishment survey data

Description of the series

Employment, hours, and earnings data in this section are compiled from payroll records reported monthly on a voluntary basis to the Bureau of Labor Statistics and its cooperating State agencies by about 390,000 establishments representing all industries except agriculture. Industries are classified in accordance with the 1987 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) Manual. In most industries, the sampling probabilities are based on the size of the establishment; most large establishments are therefore in the sample. (An establishment is not necessarily a firm; it may be a branch plant, for example, or warehouse.) Self-employed persons and others not on a regular civilian payroll are outside the scope of the survey because they are excluded from establishment records. This largely accounts for the difference in employment figures between the household and establishment surveys.

Definitions

An establishment is an economic unit which produces goods or services (such as a factory or store) at a single location and is engaged in one type of economic activity.

Employed persons are all persons who received pay (including holiday and sick pay) for any part of the payroll period including the 12th day of the month. Persons holding more than one job (about 5 percent of all persons in the labor force) are counted in each establishment which reports them.

Production workers in manufacturing include working supervisors and nonsupervisory workers closely associated with production operations. Those workers mentioned in tables 11-16 include production workers in manufacturing and mining; construction workers in construction; and nonsupervisory workers in the following industries: transportation and public utilities; wholesale and retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. These groups account for about four-fifths of the total employment on private nonagricultural payrolls.

Earnings are the payments production or nonsupervisory workers receive during the survey period, including premium pay for overtime or late-shift work but excluding irregular bonuses and other special payments. Real earnings are earnings adjusted to reflect the effects of changes in consumer prices. The deflator for this series is derived from the Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers (CPI-W).

Hours represent the average weekly hours of production or nonsupervisory workers for which pay was received, and are different from standard or scheduled hours. Overtime hours represent the portion of average weekly hours which was in excess of regular hours and for which overtime premiums were paid.

The Diffusion Index represents the percent of industries in which employment was rising over the indicated period, plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment; 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment. In line with Bureau practice, data for the 1-, 3-, and 6-month spans are seasonally adjusted, while those for the 12-month span are unadjusted. Data are centered within the span. Table 17 provides an index on private nonfarm employment based on 356 industries, and a manufacturing index based on 139 industries. These indexes are useful for measuring the dispersion of economic gains or losses and are also economic indicators.

Notes on the data

Establishment survey data are annually adjusted to comprehensive counts of employment (called "benchmarks"). The latest adjustment, which incorporated March 1997 benchmarks, was made with the release of May 1998 data, published in the July 1998 issue of the Review. Coincident with the benchmark adjustment, historical seasonally adjusted data were revised to reflect updated seasonal factors and refinement in the seasonal adjustment procedures. Unadjusted data from April 1997 forward and seasonally adjusted data from January 1994 forward are subject to revision in future benchmarks.

Revisions in State data (table 11) occurred with the publication of January 1998 data.

Beginning in June 1996, the BLS uses the X-12 ARIMA methodology to seasonally adjust establishment survey data. This procedure, developed by the Bureau of the Census, controls for the effect of varying survey intervals (also known as the 4- versus 5-week effect), thereby providing improved measurement of over-the-month changes and underlying economic trends. Revisions of data, usually for the most recent 5-year period, are made once a year coincident with the benchmark revisions.

In the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months are based on incomplete returns and are published as preliminary in the tables (12-17 in the Review). When all returns have been received, the estimates are revised and published as "final" (prior to any benchmark revisions) in the third month of their appearance. Thus, December data are published as preliminary in January and February and as final in March. For the same reasons, quarterly establishment data (table 1) are preliminary for the first 2 months of publication and final in the third month. Thus, fourth-quarter data are published as preliminary in January and February and as final in March.

A comprehensive discussion of the differences between household and establishment data on employment appears in Gloria P. Green, "Comparing employment estimates from household and payroll surveys," Monthly Labor Review, December 1969, pp. 9-20.

For additional information on establishment survey data, contact the Division of Monthly Industry Employment Statistics: (202) 606-6555.

Unemployment data by State

Description of the series

Data presented in this section are obtained from the Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program, which is conducted in cooperation with State employment security agencies.

Monthly estimates of the labor force, employment, and unemployment for States and sub-State areas are a key indicator of local economic conditions, and form the basis for determining the eligibility of an area for benefits under Federal economic assistance programs such as the Job Training Partnership Act. Seasonally adjusted unemployment rates are presented in table 10. Insofar as possible, the concepts and definitions underlying these data are those used in the national estimates obtained from the CPS.

Notes on the data

Data refer to State of residence. Monthly data for all States and the District of Columbia are derived using standardized procedures established by BLS. Once a year, estimates are revised to new population controls, usually with publication of January estimates, and benchmarked to annual average CPS levels.

For additional information on data in this series, call (202) 606-6392 (table 10) or (202) 606-6559 (table 11).

Compensation and Wage Data

(Tables 1-3; 21-27)

Compensation and wage data are gathered by the Bureau from business establishments, State and local governments, labor unions, collective bargaining agreements on file with the Bureau, and secondary sources.

Employment Cost Index

Description of the series

The Employment Cost Index (ECI) is a quarterly measure of the rate of change in compensation per hour worked and includes wages, salaries, and employer costs of employee benefits. It uses a fixed market basket of labor--similar in concept to the Consumer Price Index's fixed market basket of goods and services--to measure change over time in employer costs of employing labor.

Statistical series on total compensation costs, on wages and salaries, and on benefit costs are available for private nonfarm workers excluding proprietors, the self-employed, and household workers. The total compensation costs and wages and salaries series are also available for State and local government workers and for the civilian nonfarm economy, which consists of private industry and State and local government workers combined. Federal workers are excluded.

The Employment Cost Index probability sample consists of about 4,400 private nonfarm establishments providing about 23,000 occupational observations and 1,000 State and local government establishments providing 6,000 occupational observations selected to represent total employment in each sector. On average, each reporting unit provides wage and compensation information on five well-specified occupations. Data are collected each quarter for the pay period including the 12th day of March, June, September, and December.

Beginning with June 1986 data, fixed employment weights from the 1980 Census of Population are used each quarter to calculate the civilian and private indexes and the index for State and local governments. (Prior to June 1986, the employment weights are from the 1970 Census of Population.) These fixed weights, also used to derive all of the industry and occupation series indexes, ensure that changes in these indexes reflect only changes in compensation, not employment shifts among industries or occupations with different levels of wages and compensation. For the bargaining status, region, and metropolitan/nonmetropolitan area series, however, employment data by industry and occupation are not available from the census. Instead, the 1980 employment weights are reallocated within these series each quarter based on the current sample. Therefore, these indexes are not strictly comparable to those for the aggregate, industry, and occupation series.

Definitions

Total compensation costs include wages, salaries, and the employer's costs for employee benefits.

Wages and salaries consist of earnings before payroll deductions, including production bonuses, incentive earnings, commissions, and cost-of-living adjustments.

Benefits include the cost to employers for paid leave, supplemental pay (including nonproduction bonuses), insurance, retirement and savings plans, and legally required benefits (such as Social Security, workers' compensation, and unemployment insurance).

Excluded from wages and salaries and employee benefits are such items as payment-in-kind, free room and board, and tips.

Notes on the data

The Employment Cost Index for changes in wages and salaries in the private nonfarm economy was published beginning in 1975. Changes in total compensation cost--wages and salaries and benefits combined--were published beginning in 1980. The series of changes in wages and salaries and for total compensation in the State and local government sector and in the civilian nonfarm economy (excluding Federal employees) were published beginning in 1981. Historical indexes (June 1981 = 100) are available on the Internet:

http://stats.bls.gov/ecthome.htm

For additional information on the Employment Cost Index, contact the Office of Compensation Levels and Trends: (202) 606-6199.

Employee Benefits Survey

Description of the series

Employee benefits data are obtained from the Employee Benefits Survey, an annual survey of the incidence and provisions of selected benefits provided by employers. The survey collects data from a sample of approximately 6,000 private sector and State and local government establishments. The data are presented as a percentage of employees who participate in a certain benefit, or as an average benefit provision (for example, the average number of paid holidays provided to employees per year). Selected data from the survey are presented in table 25 for medium and large private establishments and in table 26 for small private establishments and State and local government.

The survey covers paid leave benefits such as lunch and rest periods, holidays and vacations, and personal, funeral, jury duty, military, parental, and sick leave; sickness and accident, long-term disability, and life insurance; medical, dental, and vision care plans; defined benefit and defined contribution plans; flexible benefits plans; reimbursement accounts; and unpaid parental leave.

Also, data are tabulated on the incidence of several other benefits, such as severance pay, child-care assistance, wellness programs, and employee assistance programs.

Definitions

Employer-provided benefits are benefits that are financed either wholly or partly by the employer. They may be sponsored by a union or other third party, as long as there is some employer financing. However, some benefits that are fully paid for by the employee also are included. For example, long-term care insurance and postretirement life insurance paid entirely by the employee are included because the guarantee of insurability and availability at group premium rates are considered a benefit.

Participants are workers who are covered by a benefit, whether or not they use that benefit. If the benefit plan is financed wholly by employers and requires employees to complete a minimum length of service for eligibility, the workers are considered participants whether or not they have met the requirement. If workers are required to contribute towards the cost of a plan, they are considered participants only if they elect the plan and agree to make the required contributions.

Defined benefit pension plans use predetermined formulas to calculate a retirement benefit, and obligate the employer to provide those benefits. Benefits are generally based on salary, years of service, or both.

Defined contribution plans generally specify the level of employer and employee contributions to a plan, but not the formula for determining eventual benefits. Instead, individual accounts are set up for participants, and benefits are based on amounts credited to these accounts.

Tax-deferred savings plans are a type of defined contribution plan that allow participants to contribute a portion of their salary to an employer-sponsored plan and defer income taxes until withdrawal.

Flexible benefit plans allow employees to choose among several benefits, such as life insurance, medical care, and vacation days, and among several levels of care within a given benefit.

Notes on the data

Surveys of employees in medium and large establishments conducted over the 1979-86 period included establishments that employed at least 50, 100, or 250 workers, depending on the industry (most service industries were excluded). The survey conducted in 1987 covered only State and local governments with 50 or more employees. The surveys conducted in 1988 and 1989 included medium and large establishments with 100 workers or more in private industries. All surveys conducted over the 1979-89 period excluded establishments in Alaska and Hawaii, as well as part-time employees.

Beginning in 1990, surveys of State and local governments and small establishments are conducted in even-numbered years and surveys of medium and large establishments are conducted in odd-numbered years. The small establishment survey includes all private nonfarm establishments with fewer than 100 workers, while the State and local government survey includes all governments, regardless of the number of workers. All three surveys include full- and part-time workers, and workers in all 50 States and the District of Columbia.

For additional information on the Employee Benefits Survey, contact the Office of Compensation Levels and Trends (202) 606-6222 or the Internet:

http://stats.bls.gov/ebshome.htm

Work stoppages

Description of the series

Data on work stoppages measure the number and duration of major strikes or lockouts (involving 1,000 workers or more) occurring during the month (or year), the number of workers involved, and the amount of time lost because of stoppage. These data are presented in table 27.

Data are largely from newspaper accounts and cover only establishments directly involved in a stoppage. They do not measure the indirect or secondary effect of stoppages on other establishments whose employees are idle owing to material shortages or lack of service.

Definitions

Number of stoppages: The number of strikes and lockouts involving 1,000 workers or more and lasting a full shift or longer.

Workers involved: The number of workers directly involved in the stoppage.

Number of days idle: The aggregate number of workdays lost by workers involved in the stoppages.

Days of idleness as a percent of estimated working time: Aggregate workdays lost as a percent of the aggregate number of standard workdays in the period multiplied by total employment in the period.

Notes on the data

This series is not comparable with the one terminated in 1981 that covered strikes involving six workers or more.

For additional information on work stoppages data, contact the Office of Compensation Levels and Trends: (202) 6066282, or the Internet:

http://stats.bls.gov/cbahome.htm

Price Data

(Tables 2; 28-38)

Price data are gathered by the Bureau of Labor Statistics from retail and primary markets in the United States. Price indexes are given in relation to a base period--1982 = 100 for many Producer Price Indexes, 1982-84 = 100 for many Consumer Price Indexes (unless otherwise noted), and 1990 = 100 for International Price Indexes.

Consumer Price Indexes

Description of the series

The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is a measure of the average change in the prices paid by urban consumers for a fixed market basket of goods and services. The CPI is calculated monthly for two population groups, one consisting only of urban households whose primary source of income is derived from the employment of wage earners and clerical workers, and the other consisting of all urban households. The wage earner index (CPI-W) is a continuation of the historic index that was introduced well over a half-century ago for use in wage negotiations. As new uses were developed for the CPI in recent years, the need for a broader and more representative index became apparent. The all-urban consumer index (CPI-U), introduced in 1978, is representative of the 1993-95 buying habits of about 87 percent of the noninstitutional population of the United States at that time, compared with 32 percent represented in the CPI-W. In addition to wage earners and clerical workers, the CPI-U covers professional, managerial, and technical workers, the self-employed, short-term workers, the unemployed, retirees, and others not in the labor force.

The CPI is based on prices of food, clothing, shelter, fuel, drugs, transportation fares, doctors' and dentists' fees, and other goods and services that people buy for day-to-day living. The quantity and quality of these items are kept essentially unchanged between major revisions so that only price changes will be measured. All taxes directly associated with the purchase and use of items are included in the index.

Data collected from more than 23,000 retail establishments and 5,800 housing units in 87 urban areas across the country are used to develop the "U.S. city average." Separate estimates for 14 major urban centers are presented in table 29. The areas listed are as indicated in footnote 1 to the table. The area indexes measure only the average change in prices for each area since the base period, and do not indicate differences in the level of prices among cities.

Notes on the data

In January 1983, the Bureau changed the way in which homeownership costs are measured for the CPI-U. A rental equivalence method replaced the asset-price approach to homeownership costs for that series. In January 1985, the same change was made in the CPI-W. The central purpose of the change was to separate shelter costs from the investment component of home-ownership so that the index would reflect only the cost of shelter services provided by owner-occupied homes. An updated CPI-U and CPI-W were introduced with release of the January 1987 data.

For additional information on consumer prices, contact the Division of Consumer Prices and Price Indexes: (202) 606-7000.

Producer Price Indexes

Description of the series

Producer Price Indexes (PPI) measure average changes in prices received by domestic producers of commodities in all stages of processing. The sample used for calculating these indexes currently contains about 3,200 commodities and about 80,000 quotations per month, selected to represent the movement of prices of all commodities produced in the manufacturing; agriculture, forestry, and fishing; mining; and gas and electricity and public utilities sectors. The stage-of-processing structure of PPI organizes products by class of buyer and degree of fabrication (that is, finished goods, intermediate goods, and crude materials). The traditional commodity structure of PPI organizes products by similarity of end use or material composition. The industry and product structure of PPI organizes data in accordance with the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) and the product code extension of the SIC developed by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.

To the extent possible, prices used in calculating Producer Price Indexes apply to the first significant commercial transaction in the United States from the production or central marketing point. Price data are generally collected monthly, primarily by mail questionnaire. Most prices are obtained directly from producing companies on a voluntary and confidential basis. Prices generally are reported for the Tuesday of the week containing the 13th day of the month.

Since January 1992, price changes for the various commodities have been averaged together with implicit quantity weights representing their importance in the total net selling value of all commodities as of 1987. The detailed data are aggregated to obtain indexes for stage-of-processing groupings, commodity groupings, durability-of-product groupings, and a number of special composite groups. All Producer Price Index data are subject to revision 4 months after original publication.

For additional information on producer prices, contact the Division of Industrial Prices and Price Indexes: (202) 606-7705.

International Price Indexes

Description of the series

The International Price Program produces monthly and quarterly export and import price indexes for nonmilitary goods traded between the United States and the test of the world. The export price index provides a measure of price change for all products sold by U.S. residents to foreign buyers. ("Residents" is defined as in the national income accounts; it includes corporations, businesses, and individuals, but does not require the organizations to be U.S. owned nor the individuals to have U.S. citizenship.) The import price index provides a measure of price change for goods purchased from other countries by U.S. residents.

The product universe for both the import and export indexes includes raw materials, agricultural products, semifinished manufactures, and finished manufactures, including both capital and consumer goods. Price data for these items are collected primarily by mail questionnaire. In nearly all cases, the data are collected directly from the exporter or importer, although in a few cases, prices are obtained from other sources.

To the extent possible, the data gathered refer to prices at the U.S. border for exports and at either the foreign border or the U.S. border for imports. For nearly all products, the prices refer to transactions completed during the first week of the month. Survey respondents are asked to indicate all discounts, allowances, and rebates applicable to the reported prices, so that the price used in the calculation of the indexes is the actual price for which the product was bought or sold.

In addition to general indexes of prices for U.S. exports and imports, indexes are also published for detailed product categories of exports and imports. These categories are defined according to the five-digit level of detail for the Bureau of Economic Analysis End-use Classification (SITC), and the four-digit level of detail for the Harmonized System. Aggregate import indexes by country or region of origin are also available.

BLS publishes indexes for selected categories of internationally traded services, calculated on an international basis and on a balance-of-payments basis.

Notes on the data

The export and import price indexes are weighted indexes of the Laspeyres type. Price relatives are assigned equal importance within each harmonized group and are then aggregated to the higher level. The values assigned to each weight category are based on trade value figures compiled by the Bureau of the Census. The trade weights currently used to compute both indexes relate to 1990.

Because a price index depends on the same items being priced from period to period, it is necessary to recognize when a product's specifications or terms of transaction have been modified. For this reason, the Bureau's questionnaire requests detailed descriptions of the physical and functional characteristics of the products being priced, as well as information on the number of units bought or sold, discounts, credit terms, packaging, class of buyer or seller, and so forth. When there are changes in either the specifications or terms of transaction of a product, the dollar value of each change is deleted from the total price change to obtain the "pure" change. Once this value is determined, a linking procedure is employed which allows for the continued repricing of the item.

For the export price indexes, the preferred pricing is f.a.s. (free alongside ship) U.S. port of exportation. When firms report export prices f.o.b. (free on board), production point information is collected which enables the Bureau to calculate a shipment cost to the port of exportation. An attempt is made to collect two prices for imports. The first is the import price f.o.b, at the foreign port of exportation, which is consistent with the basis for valuation of imports in the national accounts. The second is the import price c.i.f.(costs, insurance, and freight) at the U.S. port of importation, which also includes the other costs associated with bringing the product to the U.S. border. It does not, however, include duty charges. For a given product, only one price basis series is used in the construction of an index.

For additional information on international prices, contact the Division of International Prices: (202) 606-7155.

Productivity Data

(Tables 2; 39-42)

Business sector and major sectors

Description of the series

The productivity measures relate real output to real input. As such, they encompass a family of measures which include single-factor input measures, such as output per unit of labor input (output per hour) or output per unit of capital input, as well as measures of multifactor productivity (output per unit of combined labor and capital inputs). The Bureau indexes show the change in output relative to changes in the various inputs. The measures cover the business, nonfarm business, manufacturing, and nonfinancial corporate sectors.

Corresponding indexes of hourly compensation, unit labor costs, unit nonlabor payments, and prices are also provided.

Definitions

Output per hour of all persons (labor productivity) is the quantity of goods and services produced per hour of labor input. Output per unit of capital services (capital productivity) is the quantity of goods and services produced per unit of capital services input. Multifactor productivity is the quantity of goods and services produced per combined unit of labor and capital inputs.

Compensation per hour is total compensation divided by hours at work. Total compensation equals the wages and salaries of employees plus employers' contributions for social insurance and private benefit plans, plus an estimate of these payments for the self-employed (except for nonfinancial corporations in which there are no self-employed). Real compensation per hour is compensation per hour deflated by the change in the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers.

Unit labor costs are the labor compensation costs expended in the production of a unit of output and are derived by dividing compensation by output. Unit nonlabor payments include profits, depreciation, interest, and indirect taxes per unit of output. They are computed by subtracting compensation of all persons from current-dollar value of output and dividing by output.

Unit nonlabor costs contain all the components of unit nonlabor payments except unit profits.

Unit profits include corporate profits with inventory valuation and capital consumption adjustments per unit of output.

Hours of all persons are the total hours at work of payroll workers, self-employed persons, and unpaid family workers.

Labor inputs are hours of all persons adjusted for the effects of changes in the education and experience of the labor force.

Capital services are the flow of services from the capital stock used in production. It is developed from measures of the net stock of physical assets--equipment, structures, land, and inventories--weighted by rental prices for each type of asset.

Combined units of labor and capital inputs are derived by combining changes in labor and capital input with weights which represent each component's share of total output. The indexes for capital services, labor inputs, and combined units of labor and capital are based on changing weights which are averages of the shares in the current and preceding year (the Tomquist index-number formula).

Notes on the data

Business sector output is an annually-weighted index constructed by excluding from real gross domestic product (GDP) the following outputs: general government, nonprofit institutions, paid employees of private households, and the rental value of owner-occupied dwellings. Nonfarm business also excludes farming. Private business and private nonfarm business further exclude government enterprises. The measures are supplied by the U.S. Department of Commerce's Bureau of Economic Analysis. Annual estimates of manufacturing sectoral output are produced by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Quarterly manufacturing output indexes from the Federal Reserve Board are adjusted to these annual output measures by the BLS. Compensation data are developed from data of the Bureau of Economic Analysis and the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Hours data are developed from data of the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

The productivity and associated cost measures in tables 39-42 describe the relationship between output in real terms and the labor and capital inputs involved in its production. They show the changes from period to period in the amount of goods and services produced per unit of input.

Although these measures relate output to hours and capital services, they do not measure the contributions of labor, capital, or any other specific factor of production. Rather, they reflect the joint effect of many influences, including changes in technology; shifts in the composition of the labor force; capital investment; level of output; changes in the utilization of capacity, energy, material, and research and development; the organization of production; managerial skill; and characteristics and efforts of the work force.

For additional information on this productivity series, contact the Division of Productivity Research: (202) 606-5606.

Industry productivity measures

Description of the series

The BLS industry productivity data supplement the measures for the business economy and major sectors with annual measures of labor productivity for selected industries at the three- and four-digit levels of the Standard Industrial Classification system. The industry measures differ in methodology and data sources from the productivity measures for the major sectors because the industry measures are developed independently of the National Income and Product Accounts framework used for the major sector measures.

Definitions

Output per employee hour is derived by dividing an index of industry output by an index of aggregate hours of all employees. Output indexes are based on quantifiable units of products or services, or both, combined with value-share weights. Whenever possible, physical quantities are used as the unit of measurement for output. If quantity data are not available for a given industry, data on the constant-dollar value of production are used.

The labor input series consist of the hours of all employees (production and nonproduction workers), the hours of all persons (paid employees, partners, proprietors, and unpaid family workers), or the number of employees, depending upon the industry.

Notes on the data

The industry measures are compiled from data produced by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the Departments of Commerce, Interior, and Agriculture, the Federal Reserve Board, regulatory agencies, trade associations, and other sources.

For most industries, the productivity indexes refer to the output per hour of all employees. For some transportation industries, only indexes of output per employee are prepared. For some trade and service industries, indexes of output per hour of all persons (including self-employed) are constructed.

For additional information on this series, contact the Division of Industry Productivity Studies: (202) 606-5618.

International Comparisons

(Tables 43-45)

Labor force and unemployment

Description of the series

Tables 43 and 44 present comparative measures of the labor force, employment, and unemployment--approximating U.S. concepts--for the United States, Canada, Australia, Japan, and several European countries. The unemployment statistics (and, to a lesser extent, employment statistics) published by other industrial countries are not, in most cases, comparable to U.S. unemployment statistics. Therefore, the Bureau adjusts the figures for selected countries, where necessary, for all known major definitional differences. Although precise comparability may not be achieved, these adjusted figures provide a better basis for international comparisons than the figures regularly published by each country.

Definitions

For the principal U.S. definitions of the labor force, employment, and unemployment, see the Notes section on Employment and Unemployment Data: Household survey data.

Notes on the data

The adjusted statistics have been adapted to the age at which compulsory schooling ends in each country, rather than to the U.S. standard of 16 years of age and older. Therefore, the adjusted statistics relate to the population aged 16 and older in France, Sweden, and the United Kingdom; 15 and older in Canada, Australia, Japan, Germany, Italy from 1993 onward, and the Netherlands; and 14 and older in Italy prior to 1993. The institutional population is included in the denominator of the labor force participation rates and employment-population ratios for Japan and Germany; it is excluded for the United States and the other countries.

In the U.S. labor force survey, persons on layoff who are awaiting recall to their jobs are classified as unemployed. European and Japanese layoff practices are quite different in nature from those in the United States; therefore, strict application of the U.S. definition has not been made on this point. For further information, see Monthly Labor Review, December 1981, pp. 8-11.

The figures for one or more recent years for France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom are calculated using adjustment factors based on labor force surveys for earlier years and are considered preliminary. The recent-year measures for these countries, therefore, are subject to revision whenever data from more current labor force surveys become available.

There are breaks in the data series for the United States (1990, 1994), France (1992), Italy (1991, 1993), the Netherlands (1988), and Sweden (1987).

For the United States, the break in series reflects a major redesign of the labor force survey questionnaire and collection methodology introduced in January 1994. Revised population estimates based on the 1990 census, adjusted for the estimated undercount, also were incorporated. In 1996, previously published data for the 1990-93 period were revised to reflect the 1990 census-based population controls, adjusted for the undercount. Therefore, data for 1994 onward are not directly comparable with data for 1993 and earlier years because of the redesign, and data for 1990 onward are not directly comparable with data for 1989 and earlier years because of the introduction of the 1990 census-based population controls, adjusted for the undercount. See the Notes section on Employment and Unemployment Data of this Review.

For France, the 1992 break reflects the substitution of standardized European Union Statistical Office (EUROSTAT) unemployment statistics for the unemployment data estimated according to the International Labor Office (ILO) definition and published in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) annual yearbook and quarterly update. This change was made because the EUROSTAT data are more up-to-date than the OECD figures. Also, since 1992, the EUROSTAT definitions are closer to the U.S. definitions than they were in prior years. The impact of this revision was to lower the unemployment tate by 0.1 percentage point in 1992 and 1993, by 0.4 percentage point in 1994, and 0.6 percentage point in 1995.

For Italy, the 1991 break reflects a revision in the method of weighting sample data. The impact was to increase the unemployment rate by approximately 0.3 percentage point, from 6.6 to 6.9 percent in 1991.

In October 1992, the survey methodology was revised and the definition of unemployment was changed to include only those who were actively looking for a job within the 30 days preceding the survey and who were available for work. In addition, the lower age limit for the labor force was raised from 14 to 15 years. (Prior to these changes, BLS adjusted Italy's published unemployment rate downward by excluding from the unemployed those persons who had not actively sought work in the past 30 days.) The break in the series also reflects the incorporation of the 1991 population census results. The impact of these changes was to raise Italy's adjusted unemployment rate by approximately 1.2 percentage points, from 8.3 to 9.5 percent in fourth-quarter 1992. These changes did not affect employment significantly, except in 1993. Estimates by the Italian Statistical Office indicate that employment declined by about 3 percent in 1993, rather than the nearly 4 percent indicated by the data shown in table 44. This difference is attributable mainly to the incorporation of the 1991 population benchmarks in the 1993 data. Data for earlier years have not been adjusted to incorporate the 1991 census results.

For the Netherlands, a new survey questionnaire was introduced in 1992 that allowed for a closer application of ILO guidelines. EUROSTAT has revised the Dutch series back to 1988 based on the 1992 changes. The 1988 revised unemployment rate is 7.6 percent; the previous estimate for the same year was 9.3 percent.

There have been two breaks in series in the Swedish labor force survey, in 1987 and 1993. Adjustments have been made for the 1993 break back to 1987. In 1987, a new questionnaire was introduced. Questions regarding current availability were added and the period of active workseeking was reduced from 60 days to 4 weeks. These changes lowered Sweden's 1987 unemployment rate by 0.4 percentage point, from 2.3 to 1.9 percent. In 1993, the measurement period for the labor force survey was changed to represent all 52 weeks of the year rather than one week each month and a new adjustment for population totals was introduced. The impact was to raise the unemployment rate by approximately 0.5 percentage point, from 7.6 to 8.1 percent. Statistics Sweden revised its labor force survey data for 1987-92 to take into account the break in 1993. The adjustment raised the Swedish unemployment rate by 0.2 percentage point in 1987 and gradually rose to 0.5 percentage point in 1992.

Beginning with 1987, BLS has adjusted the Swedish data to classify students who also sought work as unemployed. The impact of this change was to increase the adjusted unemployment rate by 0.1 percentage point in 1987 and by 1.8 percentage points in 1994, when unemployment was higher. By 1994, the adjusted unemployment rate had risen from 7.8 to 9.6 percent due to the adjustment to include students.

The net effect of the 1987 and 1993 changes and the BLS adjustment for students seeking work lowered Sweden's 1987 unemployment rate from 2.3 to 2.2 percent.

For additional information on this series, contact the Division of Foreign Labor Statistics: (202) 606-5654.

Manufacturing productivity and labor costs

Description of the series

Table 45 presents comparative indexes of manufacturing labor productivity (output per hour), output, total hours, compensation per hour, and unit labor costs for the United States, Canada, Japan, and nine European countries. These measures are trend comparisons--that is, series that measure changes over time--rather than level comparisons. There are greater technical problems in comparing the levels of manufacturing output among countries.

BLS constructs the comparative indexes from three basic aggregate measures--output, total labor hours, and total compensation. The hours and compensation measures refer to all employed persons (wage and salary earners plus self-employed persons and unpaid family workers) in the United States, Canada, Japan, France, Germany, Norway, and Sweden, and to all employees (wage and salary earners) in the other countries.

Definitions

Output, in general, refers to value added in manufacturing from the national accounts of each country. However, the output series for Japan prior to 1970 is an index of industrial production, and the national accounts measures for the United Kingdom are essentially identical to their indexes of industrial production. While methods of deriving national accounts measures differ from country to country, BLS has reviewed these methods and determined that the series are sufficiently comparable for measuring comparative trends in productivity and unit labor costs.

The 1977-94 output data for the United States are the gross product originating (value added) measures prepared by the Bureau of Economic Analysis of the U.S. Department of Commerce. Comparable manufacturing output data currently are not available prior to 1977. The 1994-95 percent changes in manufacturing output are based on the trend shown by the industrial production index published by the U.S. Federal Reserve Board for the manufacturing sector.

U.S. gross product originating is a chain-type annual-weighted series. (For more information on the U.S. measure, see Robert E. Yuskavage, "Improved Estimates of Gross Product by Industry, 1959-94," Survey of Current Business, August 1996, pp. 133-55.) The Japanese value added series is based upon one set of fixed price weights for the years 1970 through 1996. Output series for the other foreign economies also employ fixed price weights, but the weights are updated periodically (for example, every 5 or 10 years).

To preserve the comparability of the U.S. measures with those for other economies, BLS uses gross product originating in manufacturing for the United States for these comparative measures. The gross product originating series differs from the manufacturing output series that BLS publishes in its news releases on quarterly measures of U.S. productivity and costs (and that underlies the measures that appear in tables 39 and 41 in this section). The quarterly measures are on a "sectoral output" basis, rather than a value-added basis. Sectoral output is gross output less intrasector transactions.

Total labor hours refers to hours worked in all countries. The measures are developed from statistics of manufacturing employment and average hours. The series used for France (from 1970 forward), Norway, and Sweden are official series published with the national accounts. Where official total hours series are not available, the measures are developed by BLS using employment figures published with the national accounts, or other comprehensive employment series, and estimates of annual hours worked. For Germany, BLS uses estimates of average hours worked developed by a research institute connected to the Ministry of Labor for use with the national accounts employment figures. For the other countries, BLS constructs its own estimates of average hours.

Denmark has not published estimates of average hours for 1994-96; therefore, the BLS measure of labor input for Denmark ends in 1993.

Total compensation (labor cost) includes all payments in cash or in-kind made directly to employees plus employer expenditures for legally required insurance programs and contractual and private benefit plans. The measures are from the national accounts of each country, except those for Belgium, which are developed by BLS using statistics on employment, average hours, and hourly compensation. For France and Sweden, compensation is increased to account for other significant taxes on payroll or employment. For the United Kingdom, compensation is reduced between 1967 and 1991 to account for employment-related subsidies. Self-employed workers are included in the all-employed-persons measures by assuming that their hourly compensation is equal to the average for wage and salary employees.

Notes on the data

In general, the measures relate to total manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification. However, the measures for France (for all years) and Italy (beginning 1970) refer to mining and manufacturing less energy-related products, and the measures for Denmark include mining and exclude manufacturing handicrafts from 1960 to 1966.

The measures for recent years may be based on current indicators of manufacturing output (such as industrial production indexes), employment, average hours, and hourly compensation until national accounts and other statistics used for the long-term measures become available.

For additional information on this series, contact the Division of Foreign Labor Statistics: (202) 606-5654.

Occupational Injury and Illness Data

(Table 46-47)

Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses

Description of the series

The Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses collects data from employers about their workers' job-related nonfatal injuries and illnesses. The information that employers provide is based on records that they maintain under the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. Self-employed individuals, farms with fewer than 11 employees, employers regulated by other Federal safety and health laws, and Federal, State, and local government agencies are excluded from the survey.

The survey is a Federal-State cooperative program with an independent sample selected for each participating State. A stratified random sample with a Neyman allocation is selected to represent all private industries in the State. The survey is stratified by Standard Industrial Classification and size of employment.

Definitions

Under the Occupational Safety and Health Act, employers maintain records of nonfatal work-related injuries and illnesses that involve one or more of the following: loss of consciousness, restriction of work or motion, transfer to another job, or medical treatment other than first aid.

Occupational injury is any injury such as a cut, fracture, sprain, or amputation that results from a work-related event or a single, instantaneous exposure in the work environment.

Occupational illness is an abnormal condition or disorder, other than one resulting from an occupational injury, caused by exposure to factors associated with employment. It includes acute and chronic illnesses or disease which may be caused by inhalation, absorption, ingestion, or direct contact.

Lost workday injuries and illnesses are cases that involve days away from work, or days of restricted work activity, or both.

Lost workdays include the number of workdays (consecutive or not) on which the employee was either away from work or at work in some restricted capacity, or both, because of an occupational injury or illness. BLS measures of the number and incidence rate of lost workdays were discontinued beginning with the 1993 survey. The number of days away from work or days of restricted work activity does not include the day of injury or onset of illness or any days on which the employee would not have worked, such as a Federal holiday, even though able to work.

Incidence rates are computed as the number of injuries and/or illnesses or lost work days per 100 full-time workers.

Notes on the data

The definitions of occupational injuries and illnesses are from Recordkeeping Guidelines for Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, September 1986).

Estimates ate made for industries and employment size classes for total recordable cases, lost workday cases, days away from work cases, and nonfatal cases without lost workdays. These data also are shown separately for injuries. Illness data are available for seven categories: occupational skin diseases or disorders, dust diseases of the lungs, respiratory conditions due to toxic agents, poisoning (systemic effects of toxic agents), disorders due to physical agents (other than toxic materials), disorders associated with repeated trauma, and all other occupational illnesses.

The survey continues to measure the number of new work-related illness cases which are recognized, diagnosed, and reported during the year. Some conditions, for example, long-term latent illnesses caused by exposure to carcinogens, often are difficult to relate to the workplace and are not adequately recognized and reported. These long-term latent illnesses are believed to be understated in the survey's illness measure. In contrast, the overwhelming majority of the reported new illnesses are those which are easier to directly relate to workplace activity (for example, contact dermatitis and carpal tunnel syndrome).

Most of the estimates are in the form of incidence rates, defined as the number of injuries and illnesses per 100 equivalent full-time workers. For this purpose, 200,000 employee hours represent 100 employee years (2,000 hours per employee). Full detail on the available measures is presented in the annual bulletin, Occupational Injuries and Illnesses: Counts, Rates, and Characteristics.

Comparable data for more than 40 States and territories are available from the BLS Office of Safety, Health and Working Conditions. Many of these States publish data on State and local government employees in addition to private industry data.

Mining and railroad data are furnished to BLS by the Mine Safety and Health Administration and the Federal Railroad Administration. Data from these organizations are included in both the national and State data published annually.

With the 1992 survey, BLS began publishing details on serious, nonfatal incidents resulting in days away from work. Included are some major characteristics of the injured and ill workers, such as occupation, age, gender, race, and length of service, as well as the circumstances of their injuries and illnesses (nature of the disabling condition, part of body affected, event and exposure, and the source directly producing the condition). In general, these data are available nationwide for detailed industries and for individual States at more aggregated industry levels.

For additional information on occupational injuries and illnesses, contact the Office of Occupational Safety, Health and Working Conditions at (202) 606-6180, or access the Internet at:

http://www.bls.gov/oshhome.htm

Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries

The Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries compiles a complete roster of fatal job-related injuries, including detailed data about the fatally injured workers and the fatal events. The program collects and cross checks fatality information from multiple sources, including death certificates, State and Federal workers' compensation reports, Occupational Safety and Health Administration and Mine Safety and Health Administration records, medical examiner and autopsy reports, media accounts, State motor vehicle fatality records, and follow-up questionnaires to employers.

In addition to private wage and salary workers, the self-employed, family members, and Federal, State, and local government workers are covered by the program. Institutionalized persons, such as prison inmates, are excluded. To be included in the fatality census, the decedent must have been employed (that is working for pay, compensation, or profit) at the time of the event, engaged in a legal work activity, or present at the site of the incident as a requirement of his or her job.

Definition

A fatal work injury is any intentional or unintentional wound or damage to the body resulting in death from acute exposure to energy, such as heat or electricity or kinetic energy from a crash, or from the absence of such essentials as heat or oxygen caused by a specific event or incident or series of events within a single workday or shift. Fatalities that occur during a person's commute to or from work are excluded from the census, as well as work-related illnesses, which can be difficult to identify due to long latency periods.

Notes on the data

Twenty-eight data elements are collected, coded, and tabulated in the fatality program, including information about the fatally injured worker, the fatal incident, and the machinery or equipment involved. Summary worker demographic data and event characteristics are included in a national news release that is available about 8 months after the end of the reference year. The Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries was initiated in 1992 as a joint Federal-State effort. Most States issue summary information at the time of the national news release.

For additional information on the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries contact the BLS Office of Safety, Health, and Working Conditions at (202) 606-6175, or the Internet at:

http://www.bls.gov/oshhome.htm
1. Labor market indicators
                                                          1996
Selected Indicators                     1996      1997
                                                           IV
         Employment data
Employment status of the
 civilian noninstitutionalized
 population (household survey):(1)
  Labor force participation rate        66.8     67.1      67.0
  Employment-population ratio           63.2     63.8      63.4
  Unemployment rate                      5.4      4.9       5.3
   Men                                   5.4      4.9       5.2
    16 to 24 years                      12.6     11.8      12.3
    25 years and over                    4.1      3.6       3.9
   Women                                 5.4      5.0       5.5
    16 to 24 years                      11.3     10.7      11.4
    25 years and over                    4.3      3.9       4.3
Employment, nonfarm (payroll
 data), in thousands:(1)
 Total                               119,608   122,690   120,655
  Private sector                     100,189   103,120   101,223
   Goods-producing                    24,493    24,934    24,648
    Manufacturing                     18,495    18,657    18,526
   Service-producing                  95,115    97,756    96,008
 Average hours:
  Private sector                        34.4     34.6      34.50
   Manufacturing                        41.6     42.0      41.80
    Overtime                             4.5      4.8       4.5

     Employment Cost Index(2)
Percent change in
 the ECI, compensation:
  All workers (excluding farm,
   household and Federal workers)        2.9      3.3        .5
    Private industry workers             3.1      3.4        .6
     Goods-producing(3)                  2.8      2.4        .6
     Service-producing(3)                3.2      3.9        .5
    State and local
     government workers                  2.6      2.3        .6
Workers by bargaining
 status (private industry):
  Union                                  2.4      2.1        .5
  Nonunion                               3.1      3.8        .5

     Selected Indicators
                                            1997
                                         I         II
       Employment data
Employment status of the
 civilian noninstitutionalized
 population (household survey):(1)
  Labor force participation rate        67.1      67.1
  Employment-population ratio           63.6      63.8
  Unemployment rate                      5.3       4.9
   Men                                   5.2       4.8
    16 to 24 years                      12.3      11.5
    25 years and over                    3.9       3.6
   Women                                 5.4       5.1
    16 to 24 years                      11.5      10.9
    25 years and over                    4.2       3.9
Employment, nonfarm (payroll
 data), in thousands:(1)
 Total                               121,461   122,317
  Private sector                     102,001   102,797
   Goods-producing                    24,787    24,881
    Manufacturing                     18,579    18,625
   Service-producing                  96,674    97,436
 Average hours:
  Private sector                        34.6      34.6
   Manufacturing                        41.9      42.0
    Overtime                             4.8       4.8
     Employment Cost Index(2)
Percent change in
 the ECI, compensation:
  All workers (excluding farm,
   household and Federal workers)         .8        .6
    Private industry workers              .8        .8
     Goods-producing(3)                   .4       1.0
     Service-producing(3)                1.1        .7
    State and local
     government workers                   .4        .1
Workers by bargaining
 status (private industry):
  Union                                   .2        .6
  Nonunion                               1.1        .8

     Selected Indicators
                                                  1997
                                              III       IV
       Employment data
Employment status of the
 civilian noninstitutionalized
 population (household survey):(1)
  Labor force participation rate        67.1      67.1
  Employment-population ratio           63.8      64.0
  Unemployment rate                      4.9       4.7
   Men                                   4.8       4.7
    16 to 24 years                      11.8      11.6
    25 years and over                    3.5       3.4
   Women                                 5.0       4.7
    16 to 24 years                      10.5      10.1
    25 years and over                    3.9       3.6
Employment, nonfarm (payroll
 data), in thousands:(1)
 Total                               122,995   123,934
  Private sector                     103,392   104,271
   Goods-producing                    24,963    25,108
    Manufacturing                     18,672    18,756
   Service-producing                  98,032    98,826
 Average hours:
  Private sector                        34.6      34.7
   Manufacturing                        41.9      42.1
    Overtime                             4.8       4.9

     Employment Cost Index(2)
Percent change in
 the ECI, compensation:
  All workers (excluding farm,
   household and Federal workers)        1.0        .80
    Private industry workers              .8        .9
     Goods-producing(3)                   .7        .4
     Service-producing(3)                1.0       1.1
    State and local
     government workers                  1.3        .5
Workers by bargaining
 status (private industry):
  Union                                  1.1        .2
  Nonunion                                .8       1.0

      Selected Indicators
                                                 1998
                                          I       II       III
       Employment data
Employment status of the
 civilian noninstitutionalized
 population (household survey):(1)
  Labor force participation rate        67.3     67.0      67.0
  Employment-population ratio           64.1     64.1      63.9
  Unemployment rate                      4.7      4.4       4.6
   Men                                   4.5      4.2       4.5
    16 to 24 years                      11.4     10.5      11.6
    25 years and over                    3.3      3.1       3.2
   Women                                 4.9      4.6       4.6
    16 to 24 years                      10.1      9.5       9.9
    25 years and over                    3.8      3.6       3.5
Employment, nonfarm (payroll
 data), in thousands:(1)
 Total                               124,795   125,516   126,141
  Private sector                     105,084   105,714   106,249
   Goods-producing                    25,296    25,315    25,210
    Manufacturing                     18,825    18,804    18,660
   Service-producing                  99,500   100,201   100,931
 Average hours:
  Private sector                        34.7     34.6      34.5
   Manufacturing                        42.0     41.7      41.7
    Overtime                             4.8      4.6       4.6

     Employment Cost Index(2)
Percent change in
 the ECI, compensation:
  All workers (excluding farm,
   household and Federal workers)         .8       .8       1.2
    Private industry workers              .9       .9       1.1
     Goods-producing(3)                   .7       .8        .7
     Service-producing(3)                1.0       .8       1.3
    State and local
     government workers                   .6       .3       1.5
Workers by bargaining
 status (private industry):
  Union                                   .4      1.0       1.1
  Nonunion                               1.0       .8       1.1


(1) Quarterly data seasonally adjusted.

(2) Annual changes are December-to-December changes. Quarterly changes are calculated using the last month of each quarter.

(3) Goods-producing industries include mining, construction, and manufacturing. Service-producing industries include all other private sector industries.

2. Annual and quarterly percent changes in compensation, prices, and productivity
                                                      1997
          Selected measures           1996    1997      IV
       Compensation data(1,2)
Employment Cost Index--compensation
 (wages, salaries, benefits):
 Civilian nonfarm                      2.9     3.3     0.5
   Private nonfarm                     3.1     3.4      .6
Employment Cost Index--wages and
 salaries:
 Civilian nonfarm                      3.3     3.8      .6
   Private nonfarm                     3.4     3.9      .6

            Price data(1)
Consumer Price Index (All Urban
 Consumers):  All Items                3.3     1.7      .5

Producer Price Index:
 Finished goods                        2.8    -1.2      .7
   Finished consumer goods             3.6    -1.4      .6
   Capital equipment                    .4     -.6     1.0
 Intermediate materials, supplies,
  and components                        .7     -.8     -.6
 Crude materials                      14.7   -11.3     7.7

        Productivity data(3)
Output per hour of all persons:
 Business sector                       2.7     1.7     1.5
 Nonfarm business sector               2.4     1.4     1.2
  Nonfinancial corporations(4)         2.8     2.6     2.1

                                                 1997
          Selected measures               I    II   III    IV
       Compensation data(1,2)
Employment Cost Index--compensation
 (wages, salaries, benefits):
 Civilian nonfarm                       0.8   0.6   1.0   0.8
   Private nonfarm                       .8    .8    .8    .9
Employment Cost Index--wages and
 salaries:
 Civilian nonfarm                        .9    .7   1.2    .9
   Private nonfarm                      1.0    .9   1.0   1.0

            Price data(1)
Consumer Price Index (All Urban
 Consumers):  All Items                  .9    .2    .6    .1

Producer Price Index:
 Finished goods                         -.5   -.4    .2   -.5
   Finished consumer goods              -.6   -.2    .4   -.8
   Capital equipment                     .1   -.5   -.7    .5
 Intermediate materials, supplies,
  and components                        -.3    .1    .2   -.8
 Crude materials                      -11.5   -.4   1.3   -.6

        Productivity data(3)
Output per hour of all persons:
 Business sector                        1.0   2.0   3.7    .9
 Nonfarm business sector                 .5   1.8   3.6    .9
  Nonfinancial corporations(4)          1.5   2.5   5.6   1.0

                                             1998
          Selected measures              I     II    III
       Compensation data(1,2)
Employment Cost Index--compensation
 (wages, salaries, benefits):
 Civilian nonfarm                      0.8    0.8    1.2
   Private nonfarm                      .9     .9    1.1
Employment Cost Index--wages and
 salaries:
 Civilian nonfarm                       .9     .7    1.3
   Private nonfarm                     1.1     .9    1.3

            Price data(1)
Consumer Price Index (All Urban
 Consumers):  All Items                 .6     .5     .4
Producer Price Index:
 Finished goods                        -.8     .5    -.1
   Finished consumer goods            -1.0     .8     .0
   Capital equipment                    .0    -.5    -.5
 Intermediate materials, supplies,
  and components                      -1.4     .2     .1
 Crude materials                      -8.8   -1.8   -4.8

        Productivity data(3)
Output per hour of all persons:
 Business sector                       4.1     .1    3.1
 Nonfarm business sector               3.5     .3    3.0
  Nonfinancial corporations(4)         2.6    3.1    4.6


(1) Annual changes are December-to-December changes. Quarterly changes are calculated using the last month of each quarter. Compensation and price data are not seasonally adjusted, and the price data are not computed.

(2) Excludes Federal and private household workers.

(3) Annual rates of change are computed by comparing annual averages. Quarterly percent changes reflect annual rates of change in quarterly indexes. The data are seasonally adjusted.

(4) Output per hour of all employees.

NOTE: Dash indicates data not available.

3. Alternative measures of wage and compensation changes
                                         Quarterly average

                                     1997             1998
                                  II    III   IV     I    II    III
Average hourly compensation:(1)
  All persons, business sector    2.6   4.1   5.3   4.9   4.1   3.8
  All persons, nonfarm business
   sector                         2.6   3.9   4.9   4.6   4.0   4.0
Employment Cost Index--
 compensation:
  Civilian nonfarm(2)              .6   1.0    .8    .8    .8   1.2
   Private nonfarm                 .8    .8    .9    .9    .9   1.1
   Union                           .6   1.1    .2    .4   1.0   1.1
  Nonunion                         .8    .8   1.0   1.0    .8   1.1
  State and local governments      .1   1.3    .5    .6    .3   1.5
Employment Cost Index--wages
 and salaries:
  Civilian nonfarm(2)              .7   1.2    .9    .9    .7   1.3
   Private nonfarm                 .9   1.0   1.0   1.1    .9   1.3
   Union                           .7   1.1    .5    .5    .8   1.3
  Nonunion                         .9   1.0   1.1   1.1    .9   1.3
  State and local governments      .1   1.6    .5    .5    .2   1.6

                                       Four quarters ending--
                                        1997            1998
                                  II    III   IV     I    II    III
Average hourly compensation:(1)
  All persons, business sector    3.5   3.5   4.0   4.2   4.6   4.5
  All persons, nonfarm business
   sector                         3.4   3.5   3.9   4.0   4.4   4.4
Employment Cost Index--
 compensation:
  Civilian nonfarm(2)             2.8   3.0   3.3   3.3   3.5   3.7
   Private nonfarm                2.9   3.2   3.4   3.5   3.5   3.8
   Union                          1.6   2.4   2.1   2.3   2.7   2.7
  Nonunion                        3.2   3.2   3.8   3.7   3.8   4.0
  State and local governments     2.4   2.4   2.3   2.5   2.7   3.0
Employment Cost Index--wages
 and salaries:
  Civilian nonfarm(2)             3.2   3.5   3.8   3.7   3.8   4.0
   Private nonfarm                3.3   3.6   3.9   4.0   4.0   4.3
   Union                          2.2   2.8   2.8   2.9   3.0   3.2
  Nonunion                        3.5   3.7   4.2   4.2   4.1   4.4
  State and local governments     2.7   2.7   2.7   2.8   3.0   3.0


[TABULAR DATA 4-5 NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

6. Selected unemployment indicators, monthly data seasonally adjusted [Unemployment rates]
     Selected categories          Annual average     1997     1998
                                   1996   1997   Nov.   Dec.   Jan.
       Characteristic
Total, all workers                  5.4    4.9    4.6    4.7    4.7
  Both sexes, 16 to 19 years       16.7   16.0   15.2   14.3   14.1
  Men, 20 years and over            4.6    4.2    3.9    4.1    3.8
  Women, 20 years and over          4.8    4.4    4.0    4.0    4.4
  White, total                      4.7    4.2    3.9    3.9    4.0
   Both sexes, 16 to 19 years      14.2   13.6   12.3   11.2   11.6
    Men, 16 to 19 years            15.5   14.3   12.8   11.3   14.2
    Women, 16 to 19 years          12.9   12.8   11.6   11.1    8.8
   Men, 20 years and over           4.1    3.6    3.4    3.6    3.3
   Women, 20 years and over         4.1    3.7    3.4    3.4    3.7
  Black, total                     10.5   10.0    9.7    9.9    9.3
   Both sexes, 16 to 19 years      33.6   32.4   33.3   34.4   30.1
    Men, 16 to 19 years            36.9   36.5   35.0   36.2   31.8
    Women, 16 to 19 years          30.3   28.7   31.9   33.1   28.5
   Men, 20 years and over           9.4    8.5    7.8    8.6    7.9
   Women, 20 years and over         8.7    8.8    8.4    8.1    8.0
  Hispanic origin, total            8.9    7.7    6.9    7.5    6.9
  Married men, spouse present       3.0    2.7    2.4    2.6    2.6
  Married women, spouse present     3.6    3.1    2.8    2.8    3.1
  Women who maintain families       8.2    8.1    8.1    7.7    7.6
  Full-time workers                 5.3    4.8    4.4    4.6    4.5
  Part-time workers                 5.8    5.5    5.4    5.0    5.4

Industry

Nonagricultural wage and salary
 workers                            5.5    5.0    4.7    4.8    4.7
  Mining                            5.1    3.8    3.3    3.3    4.0
  Construction                     10.1    9.0    7.9    8.9    7.9
  Manufacturing                     4.8    4.2    3.6    3.8    3.9
   Durable goods                    4.5    3.5    3.1    3.1    3.4
   Nondurable goods                 5.2    5.1    4.4    4.9    4.5
  Transportation and public
   utilities                        4.1    3.5    3.1    3.3    3.8
  Wholesale and retail trade        6.4    6.2    6.2    5.8    5.9
  Finance, insurance, and real
   estate                           2.7    3.0    2.4    2.8    2.6
  Services                          5.4    4.6    4.4    4.5    4.3
 Government workers                 2.9    2.6    2.3    2.1    2.4
 Agricultural wage and salary
  workers                          10.2    9.1    8.6    9.7   10.6

Educational attainment(1)
Less than a high school diploma     8.7    8.1    7.5    7.6    7.2
High school graduates, no
 college                            4.7    4.3    3.8    4.1    3.9
Some college, less than a
 bachelor's degree                  3.7    3.3    3.1    3.2    3.2
College graduates                   2.2    2.0    1.8    1.9    1.9

     Selected categories
                                  Feb.   Mar.   Apr.   May    June
       Characteristic
Total, all workers                 4.6    4.7    4.3    4.3    4.5
  Both sexes, 16 to 19 years      14.7   15.0   13.1   14.2   13.8
  Men, 20 years and over           3.8    3.9    3.4    3.5    3.9
  Women, 20 years and over         4.3    4.3    4.1    3.9    4.0
  White, total                     3.9    4.1    3.6    3.7    3.8
   Both sexes, 16 to 19 years     12.3   12.8   11.8   12.0   11.1
    Men, 16 to 19 years           14.7   14.9   12.7   14.0   13.1
    Women, 16 to 19 years          9.8   10.6   10.7    9.8    8.9
   Men, 20 years and over          3.2    3.4    2.9    3.1    3.3
   Women, 20 years and over        3.6    3.7    3.4    3.3    3.5
  Black, total                     9.7    9.2    8.9    9.0    8.2
   Both sexes, 16 to 19 years     31.5   29.1   24.7   29.4   20.2
    Men, 16 to 19 years           34.7   27.8   23.9   30.2   20.4
    Women, 16 to 19 years         28.4   30.3   25.3   28.8   20.1
   Men, 20 years and over          7.8    7.6    7.4    6.7    6.9
   Women, 20 years and over        8.6    8.2    8.2    8.4    7.7
  Hispanic origin, total           6.8    6.9    6.5    6.8    7.6
  Married men, spouse present      2.5    2.5    2.2    2.4    2.2
  Married women, spouse present    3.1    3.3    2.8    2.8    2.9
  Women who maintain families      7.6    7.6    7.6    7.7    6.9
  Full-time workers                4.5    4.5    4.2    4.2    4.4
  Part-time workers                5.2    5.7    4.8    4.7    5.2

Industry
Nonagricultural wage and salary
 workers                           4.7    4.7    4.3    4.5    4.7
  Mining                           2.6    3.7    2.3    1.3    3.9
  Construction                     7.8    8.6    6.3    8.0    8.0
  Manufacturing                    3.7    3.8    3.9    3.6    3.6
   Durable goods                   2.9    3.6    3.5    3.0    2.9
   Nondurable goods                5.0    4.2    4.4    4.6    4.6
  Transportation and public
   utilities                       3.2    3.3    3.1    3.0    3.6
  Wholesale and retail trade       5.8    5.4    5.2    5.1    5.7
  Finance, insurance, and real
   estate                          2.6    2.6    2.2    2.0    2.1
  Services                         4.7    4.7    4.3    4.8    4.7
 Government workers                2.3    2.9    2.0    2.4    2.0
 Agricultural wage and salary
  workers                          8.6    9.7    8.0    7.9    8.0
Educational attainment(1)
Less than a high school diploma    7.0    7.2    7.0    6.7    7.2
High school graduates, no
 college                           4.0    4.2    3.9    3.7    4.0
Some college, less than a
 bachelor's degree                 3.1    3.3    2.7    3.1    2.9
College graduates                  1.9    1.9    1.7    1.6    1.7

     Selected categories
                                  July   Aug.   Sept.   Oct.   Nov.
       Characteristic
Total, all workers                 4.5    4.5     4.6    4.6    4.4
  Both sexes, 16 to 19 years      13.8   15.0    15.4   16.0   15.1
  Men, 20 years and over           3.9    3.7     3.8    3.7    3.5
  Women, 20 years and over         4.0    4.1     4.0    4.0    4.1
  White, total                     3.8    4.0     3.9    4.0    3.8
   Both sexes, 16 to 19 years     11.1   13.1    13.0   13.7   13.0
    Men, 16 to 19 years           13.1   14.3    15.0   14.0   14.1
    Women, 16 to 19 years          8.9   11.9    10.7   13.4   11.9
   Men, 20 years and over          3.3    3.3     3.4    3.3    3.0
   Women, 20 years and over        3.3    3.5     3.3    3.4    3.4
  Black, total                     9.7    9.0     9.2    8.6    8.7
   Both sexes, 16 to 19 years     28.6   28.8    30.4   29.1   28.4
    Men, 16 to 19 years           30.6   29.7    34.1   35.1   34.4
    Women, 16 to 19 years         26.4   28.1    26.8   23.8   22.1
   Men, 20 years and over          8.9    7.8     7.2    6.9    7.1
   Women, 20 years and over        7.9    7.6     8.1    7.5    7.6
  Hispanic origin, total           7.2    7.5     7.4    7.2    7.0
  Married men, spouse present      2.3    2.4     2.3    2.3    2.2
  Married women, spouse present    2.8    3.2     2.6    2.6    3.0
  Women who maintain families      6.8    6.8     7.6    7.6    7.0
  Full-time workers                4.4    4.4     4.4    4.4    4.1
  Part-time workers                5.3    5.4     5.3    5.3    5.5

Industry
Nonagricultural wage and salary
 workers                           4.6    4.7     4.8    4.7    4.5
  Mining                           3.7    3.9     3.0    2.2    2.1
  Construction                     6.7    7.4     9.0    6.5    7.4
  Manufacturing                    4.4    3.9     4.1    4.0    3.7
   Durable goods                   4.3    3.7     3.8    3.1    3.0
   Nondurable goods                4.5    4.4     4.6    5.3    4.7
  Transportation and public
   utilities                       3.4    3.7     3.6    3.5    3.1
  Wholesale and retail trade       5.6    5.6     5.8    5.7    5.2
  Finance, insurance, and real
   estate                          2.0    2.7     2.3    2.5    2.9
  Services                         4.5    4.7     4.4    4.8    4.7
 Government workers                2.5    2.2     2.3    2.2    2.0
 Agricultural wage and salary
  workers                          8.2    7.0     7.9    6.3    7.4
Educational attainment(1)
Less than a high school diploma    7.2    7.1     6.9    6.8    7.2
High school graduates, no
 college                           4.1    4.0     4.1    4.0    3.9
Some college, less than a
 bachelor's degree                 3.0    2.8     3.0    3.0    2.8
College graduates                  1.7    1.8     1.6    2.0    1.9


(1) Data refer to persons 25 years and over

7 Duration of unemployment, monthly data seasonally adjusted [Numbers in thousands]
         Weeks of           Annual average       1997
       unemployment          1996    1997    Nov.    Dec.    Jan.

Less than 5 weeks           2,633   2,538   2,423   2,531   2,488
5 to 14 weeks               2,287   2,138   2,048   1,922   1,971
15 weeks and over           2,316   2,062   1,865   1,964   1,811
 15 to 26 weeks             1,053     995     899     936     773
 27 weeks and over          1,262   1,067     966   1,028   1,038

Mean duration, in weeks      16.7    15.8    15.6    16.3    15.6
Median duration, in weeks     8.3     8.0     7.8     7.7     7.4

         Weeks of                            1998
       unemployment          Feb.    Mar.    Apr.     May    June

Less than 5 weeks           2,622   2,858   2,632   2,634   2,519
5 to 14 weeks               1,909   1,979   1,901   1,954   2,084
15 weeks and over           1,830   1,731   1,417   1,462   1,621
 15 to 26 weeks               855     841     584     656     852
 27 weeks and over            974     891     833     806     769

Mean duration, in weeks      15.6    14.3    14.3    14.6    13.8
Median duration, in weeks     7.2     6.8     6.4     5.9     6.6

         Weeks of
       unemployment          July    Aug.   Sept.    Oct.    Nov.

Less than 5 weeks           2,625   2,675   2,639   2,857   2,468
5 to 14 weeks               1,983   1,960   1,999   1,841   2,038
15 weeks and over           1,600   1,647   1,651   1,589   1,630
 15 to 26 weeks               793     820     733     699     742
 27 weeks and over            807     827     918     890     888

Mean duration, in weeks      14.3    13.5    14.3    14.3    14.6
Median duration, in weeks     6.6     6.9     6.6     5.8     6.7


8. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment, monthly data seasonally adjusted

[Numbers in thousands]
Reason for                 Annual average      1997
unemployment               1996    1997    Nov.    Dec.    Jan.

Job losers(1)              3,370   3,037   2,886   2,991   2,807
 On temporary layoff       1,021     931     815     961     860
 Not on temporary layoff   2,349   2,106   2,071   2,030   1,947
Job leavers                  774     795     655     692     808
Reentrants                 2,512   2,338   2,229   2,170   2,229
New entrants                 580     569     560     552     518

Percent of unemployed

Job losers(1)               46.6    45.1    45.6    46.7    44.1
 On temporary layoff        14.1    13.8    12.9    15.0    13.5
 Not on temporary layoff    32.5    31.3    32.7    31.7    30.6
Job leavers                 10.7    11.8    10.3    10.8    12.7
Reentrants                  34.7    34.7    35.2    33.9    35.0
New entrants                 8.0     8.4     8.8     8.6     8.1

Percent of civilian
labor force
Job losers(1)                2.5     2.2     2.1     2.2     2.0
Job leavers                   .6      .6      .5      .5      .6
Reentrants                   1.9     1.7     1.6     1.6     1.6
New entrants                  .4      .4      .4      .4      .4

Reason for                                  1998
unemployment               Feb.    Mar.    Apr.     May    June

Job losers(1)              2,795   2,980   2,631   2,772   2,819
 On temporary layoff         821     980     696     786     841
 Not on temporary layoff   1,975   2,000   1,935   1,986   1,978
Job leavers                  786     744     625     748     766
Reentrants                 2,266   2,215   2,096   2,033   2,096
New entrants                 543     549     511     493     532

Percent of unemployed

Job losers(1)               43.7    45.9    44.9    45.8    45.4
 On temporary layoff        12.8    15.1    11.9    13.0    13.5
 Not on temporary layoff    30.9    30.8    33.0    32.8    31.8
Job leavers                 12.3    11.5    10.7    12.4    12.3
Reentrants                  35.5    34.1    35.7    33.6    33.7
New entrants                 8.5     8.5     8.7     8.2     8.6

Percent of civilian
labor force
Job losers(1)                2.0     2.2     1.9     2.0     2.1
Job leavers                   .6      .5      .5      .5      .6
Reentrants                   1.6     1.6     1.5     1.5     1.5
New entrants                  .4      .4      .4      .4      .4

Reason for
unemployment               July    Aug.    Sept.   Oct.    Nov.

Job losers(1)              2,908   2,852   2,902   2,815   2,743
 On temporary layoff         966     978     939     831     844
 Not on temporary layoff   1,941   1,874   1,963   1,984   1,900
Job leavers                  799     740     724     734     654
Reentrants                 2,042   2,132   2,195   2,170   2,156
New entrants                 463     503     487     589     545

Percent of unemployed

Job losers(1)               46.8    45.8    46.0    44.6    45.0
 On temporary layoff        15.6    15.7    14.9    13.2    13.8
 Not on temporary layoff    31.3    30.1    31.1    31.5    31.2
Job leavers                 12.9    11.9    11.5    11.6    10.7
Reentrants                  32.9    34.2    34.8    34.4    35.4
New entrants                 7.5     8.1     7.7     9.3     8.9

Percent of civilian
labor force
Job losers(1)                2.1     2.1     2.1     2.0     2.0
Job leavers                   .6      .5      .5      .5      .5
Reentrants                   1.5     1.6     1.6     1.6     1.6
New entrants                  .3      .4      .4      .4      .4


(1) Includes persons who completed temporary jobs.

9. Unemployment rates by sex and age, monthly data seasonally adjusted [Civilian workers]
                           Annual Average        1997
                           1996    1997    Nov.    Dec.    Jan.

Total, 16 years and over    5.4     4.9     4.6     4.7     4.7
  16 to 24 years           12.0    11.3    10.9    10.6    10.8
   16 to 19 years          16.7    16.0    15.2    14.3    14.1
    16 to 17 years         18.9    18.2    17.6    17.7    17.3
    18 to 19 years         15.2    14.5    13.6    11.7    11.6
   20 to 24 years           9.3     8.5     8.4     8.5     8.9
  25 years and over         4.2     3.8     3.4     3.6     3.5
     25 to 54 years         4.3     3.9     3.5     3.7     3.6
     55 years and over      3.4     3.0     2.8     2.8     2.7

  Men, 16 years and over    5.4     4.9     4.5     4.7     4.5
   16 to 24 years          12.6    11.8    11.6    11.1    11.2
    16 to 19 years         18.1    16.9    15.6    14.2    16.4
     16 to 17 years        20.8    19.1    18.2    18.4    18.3
     18 to 19 years        16.3    15.4    14.1    11.1    14.9
    20 to 24 years          9.5     8.9     9.3     9.3     8.1
   25 years and over        4.1     3.6     3.2     3.5     3.3
       25 to 54 years       4.2     3.7     3.3     3.6     3.4
       55 years and over    3.3     3.1     2.9     3.4     3.1

Women, 16 years and over    5.4     5.0     4.7     4.6     4.8
  16 to 24 years           11.3    10.7    10.1    10.2    10.4
   16 to 19 years          15.2    15.0    14.7    14.3    11.6
    16 to 17 years         16.9    17.2    17.0    17.0    16.3
    18 to 19 years         14.0    13.6    13.0    12.4     8.2
   20 to 24 years           9.0     8.1     7.4     7.6     9.7
  25 years and over         4.3     3.9     3.6     3.6     3.7
      25 to 54 years        4.4     4.1     3.8     3.9     3.9
      55 years and over     3.5     2.9     2.6     2.1     2.3

                                         1998
                           Feb.    Mar.    Apr.    May     June
Total, 16 years and over    4.6     4.7     4.3     4.3     4.5
  16 to 24 years           10.8    10.7     9.5    10.0    10.6
   16 to 19 years          14.7    15.0    13.1    14.2    14.6
    16 to 17 years         18.5    16.9    15.2    15.8    18.2
    18 to 19 years         11.3    13.7    11.6    13.2    12.3
   20 to 24 years           8.5     8.0     7.4     7.6     8.1
  25 years and over         3.5     3.6     3.2     3.3     3.4
     25 to 54 years         3.6     3.8     3.3     3.4     3.5
     55 years and over      2.7     2.9     2.5     2.4     2.5

  Men, 16 years and over    4.5     4.6     4.0     4.2     4.4
   16 to 24 years          11.7    11.2     9.7    11.0    10.8
    16 to 19 years         17.0    16.5    14.0    16.0    15.3
     16 to 17 years        21.0    18.5    14.9    17.9    21.0
     18 to 19 years        13.1    15.2    13.3    14.8    11.8
    20 to 24 years          8.7     8.1     7.3     8.1     8.2
   25 years and over        3.2     3.4     3.0     3.0     3.2
       25 to 54 years       3.2     3.5     3.0     3.1     3.3
       55 years and over    2.9     3.1     2.6     2.4     2.5

Women, 16 years and over    4.8     4.9     4.6     4.4     4.7
  16 to 24 years            9.8    10.1     9.2     9.0    10.3
   16 to 19 years          12.3    13.4    12.1    12.3    13.9
    16 to 17 years         16.0    15.2    15.5    13.5    15.1
    18 to 19 years          9.5    12.2     9.8    11.4    12.7
   20 to 24 years           8.3     7.9     7.5     6.9     8.0
  25 years and over         3.8     3.9     3.6     3.5     3.6
      25 to 54 years        4.1     4.1     3.7     3.8     3.8
      55 years and over     2.4     2.6     2.4     2.4     2.6

                           July    Aug.    Sept.    Oct.    Nov.
Total, 16 years and over    4.5     4.5      4.6     4.6     4.4
  16 to 24 years           10.3    11.1     11.0    10.5     9.9
   16 to 19 years          13.8    15.0     15.4    16.0    15.1
    16 to 17 years         15.2    17.1     17.9    18.8    18.4
    18 to 19 years         12.9    13.8     13.8    14.2    13.1
   20 to 24 years           8.2     8.7      8.3     7.2     6.7
  25 years and over         3.4     3.3      3.4     3.4     3.4
     25 to 54 years         3.5     3.4      3.5     3.6     3.4
     55 years and over      2.8     2.6      2.7     2.6     3.1

  Men, 16 years and over    4.6     4.4      4.6     4.4     4.2
   16 to 24 years          11.4    11.4     12.1    11.0    10.3
    16 to 19 years         15.9    15.8     17.7    16.8    16.6
     16 to 17 years        17.3    18.6     20.7    21.8    20.2
     18 to 19 years        14.6    14.2     15.7    13.5    14.6
    20 to 24 years          8.7     8.9      8.7     7.5     6.5
   25 years and over        3.4     3.2      3.2     3.2     3.1
       25 to 54 years       3.4     3.3      3.2     3.3     3.0
       55 years and over    2.9     2.5      3.1     2.8     3.1

Women, 16 years and over    4.4     4.7      4.5     4.7     4.6
  16 to 24 years            9.1    10.7      9.8    10.1     9.4
   16 to 19 years          11.5    14.2     12.9    15.1    13.4
    16 to 17 years         12.9    15.5     14.8    15.6    16.4
    18 to 19 years         11.2    13.3     11.9    14.8    11.4
   20 to 24 years           7.7     8.6      7.9     6.9     7.0
  25 years and over         3.5     3.5      3.5     3.6     3.7
      25 to 54 years        3.6     3.6      3.7     3.8     3.8
      55 years and over     2.6     2.8      2.3     2.4     3.0


10. Unemployment rates by State, seasonally adjusted
        State          Oct.   Sept.    Oct.
                       1997   1998    1998(P)
Alabama                 4.9     4.2       4.4
Alaska                  7.6     5.9       6.1
Arizona                 4.3     4.2       3.6
Arkansas                5.0     5.0       5.4
California              6.2     6.0       5.9

Colorado                3.0     3.6       3.7
Connecticut             4.8     3.9       3.8
Delaware                3.5     3.4       3.5
District of Columbia    8.3     8.9       9.0
Florida                 4.6     4.2       4.3

Georgia                 4.2     3.9       3.9
Hawaii                  6.1     6.1       5.8
Idaho                   5.3     5.0       5.0
Illinois                4.7     4.5       4.4
Indiana                 3.6     3.1       2.8

Iowa                    2.9     2.6       2.6
Kansas                  3.6     3.7       3.6
Kentucky                5.0     4.1       4.2
Louisiana               5.9     6.1       5.0
Maine                   5.4     4.3       4.5

Maryland                5.0     4.3       4.1
Massachusetts           3.9     3.3       3.3
Michigan                4.0     3.6       3.7
Minnesota               3.1     2.4       2.2
Mississippi             5.7     5.3       5.0

Missouri                4.1     3.7       3.8
Montana                 5.4     5.2       5.5
Nebraska                2.2     2.1       2.3
Nevada                  4.0     3.8       3.8
New Hampshire           3.0     2.4       2.9

New Jersey              5.0     4.7       4.5
New Mexico              6.0     6.5       6.5
New York                6.3     5.5       5.4
North Carolina          3.6     3.5       3.6
North Dakota            1.9     2.5       2.6

Ohio                    4.5     4.3       4.3
Oklahoma                3.9     4.3       4.3
Oregon                  5.6     5.7       5.7
Pennsylvania            5.0     4.5       4.7
Rhode Island            5.1     4.9       5.2

South Carolina          3.8     3.3       3.8
South Dakota            2.9     2.4       2.6
Tennessee               5.2     4.1       4.0
Texas                   5.2     5.0       4.9
Utah                    3.0     3.3       3.2

Vermont                 3.8     3.2       3.2
Virginia                3.7     3.1       3.1
Washington              4.5     5.1       4.8
West Virginia           6.7     6.4       6.6
Wisconsin               3.6     3.2       3.4
Wyoming                 4.8     4.6       4.8


P = preliminary

11. Employment of workers on nonfarm payrolls by State, seasonally adjusted

[In thousands]
                         Oct.      Sept.       Oct.
       State             1997       1998     1998(P)

Alabama                 1,870.7    1,886.1     1883.9
Alaska                    268.1      273.9      274.3
Arizona                 2,000.5    2,092.9       2092
Arkansas                1,107.2    1,125.5     1125.8
California             13,318.5   13,656.0    13688.8

Colorado                2,001.8    2,062.0     2068.8
Connecticut             1,627.2    1,640.7     1649.4
Delaware                  392.5      403.1      404.0
District of Columbia      612.9      612.2      611.2
Florida                 6,508.8    6,728.4     6745.9

Georgia                 3,664.2    3,752.8     3751.1
Hawaii                    533.4      531.0      526.3
Idaho                     512.9      519.1      522.6
Illinois                5,816.0    5,880.0     5887.5
Indiana                 2,868.9    2,884.9     2882.9

Iowa                    1,419.1    1,442.2     1448.7
Kansas                  1,281.9    1,309.2     1312.5
Kentucky                1,720.3    1,756.4     1755.3
Louisiana               1,863.9    1,884.8     1884.9
Maine                     558.5      567.9      569.2

Maryland                2,263.3    2,298.8     2314.9
Massachusetts           3,144.8    3,210.3     3212.2
Michigan                4,473.4    4,554.9     4571.4
Minnesota               2,504.5    2,547.5     2560.8
Mississippi             1,112.7    1,119.3    1,121.0

Missouri                2,649.5    2,686.7     2683.9
Montana                   386.6      370.1      370.7
Nebraska                  864.0      878.8      883.5
Nevada                    901.9      940.5      947.7
New Hampshire             573.4      569.3      572.7

New Jersey              3,748.4    3,815.0     3816.6
New Mexico                712.2      722.2      723.2
New York                8,075.7    8,187.1     8205.8
North Carolina          3,704.2    3,753.3     3759.4
North Dakota              314.4      317.5      316.5

Ohio                    5,409.0    5,475.6     5484.4
Oklahoma                1,397.3    1,436.7     1436.3
Oregon                  1,537.8    1,566.7     1569.7
Pennsylvania            5,425.9    5,491.8     5486.5
Rhode Island              451.9      455.2      454.4

South Carolina          1,730.6    1,804.3     1805.9
South Dakota              356.3      361.0      361.7
Tennessee               2,595.9    2,625.9     2629.1
Texas                   8,703.4    8,938.6     8955.5
Utah                    1,003.7    1,027.8     1030.4

Vermont                   279.5      283.7      282.5
Virginia                3,259.8    3,340.1     3344.1
Washington              2,529.9    2,603.4     2610.9
West Virginia             716.9      721.7      725.5
Wisconsin               2,674.5    2,717.0     2717.5
Wyoming                   223.4      226.2      225.9


P = preliminary

NOTE: Some data in this table may differ from data published elsewhere because of the continual updating of the data base.

[TABULAR DATA 12 NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

14. Average hourly earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry, seasonally adjusted
                               Annual average           1997
            Industry           1996      1997      Nov.       Dec.

PRIVATE SECTOR (in
 current dollars)             $11.82    $12.28    $12.47     $12.50

 Goods-producing               13.47     13.92     14.10      14.15
  Mining                       15.62     16.17     16.48      16.46
  Construction                 15.47     16.03     16.24      16.34
  Manufacturing                12.77     13.17     13.34      1,337
   Excluding overtime          12.12     12.45     12.61      1,263
 Service-producing             11.26     11.73     11.93      11.95
  Transportation and public
   utilities                   14.45     14.93     15.10      15.16
  Wholesale trade              12.87     13.44     13.72      13.71
  Retail trade                  7.99      8.34      8.49       8.51
  Finance, insurance, and
   real estate                 12.80     13.33     13.65      13.66
  Services                     11.79     12.28     12.48      12.50

PRIVATE SECTOR (in
 constant (1982) dollars)       7.43      7.55       762       7.63

                                           1998
            Industry           Jan.      Feb.     Mar.     Apr.
PRIVATE SECTOR (in
  current dollars)             $12.54   $12.59   $12.63   $12.70

 Goods-producing                14.16    14.21    14.25    14.25
  Mining                        16.47    16.76    16.82    16.72
  Construction                  16.27    16.34    16.40    16.45
  Manufacturing                 13.38    13.42    13.46    13.44
   Excluding overtime           12.66    12.69    12.73    12.76
 Service-producing              12.00    12.06    12.10    12.19
  Transportation and public
   utilities                    15.21    15.25    15.27    15.32
  Wholesale trade               13.75    13.81    13.84    13.88
  Retail trade                   8.56     8.59     8.64     8.70
  Finance, insurance, and
   real estate                  13.72    13.83    13.85    14.00
  Services                      12.54    12.60    12.65    12.76

PRIVATE SECTOR (in
 constant (1982) dollars)        7.66     7.69     7.72     7.74

                                             1998
            Industry             May      June      July       Aug.
PRIVATE SECTOR (in
  current dollars)             $12.73    $12.76    $12.79    $12.85

 Goods-producing                14.27     14.28     14.31     14.39
  Mining                        16.77     16.73     16.88     17.10
  Construction                  16.46     16.51     16.64     16.67
  Manufacturing                 13.47     13.47     13.42     13.52
   Excluding overtime           12.78     12.76     12.71     12.81
 Service-producing              12.23     12.26     12.30     12.35
  Transportation and public
   utilities                    15.31     15.29     15.33     15.35
  Wholesale trade               14.00     13.98     14.07     14.16
  Retail trade                   8.72      8.73      8.78      8.83
  Finance, insurance, and
   real estate                  14.03     14.07     14.10     14.16
  Services                      12.81     12.87     12.90     12.95

PRIVATE SECTOR (in
 constant (1982) dollars)        7.73      7.75      7.75      7.78

                                           1998
            Industry                 Sept.     Oct.(p)   Nov.(p)
PRIVATE SECTOR (in
  current dollars)                   $12.87    $12.90    $12.93

 Goods-producing                      14.39     14.43     14.47
  Mining                              17.15     17.21     17.30
  Construction                        16.57     16.68     16.76
  Manufacturing                       13.57     13.57     13.59
   Excluding overtime                 12.90     12.89     12.90
 Service-producing                    12.38     12.40     12.44
  Transportation and public
   utilities                          15.42     15.37     15.40
  Wholesale trade                     14.14     14.19     14.20
  Retail trade                         8.86       884      8.85
  Finance, insurance, and
   real estate                        14.17     14.25     14.37
  Services                            12.99     13.03     13.06

PRIVATE SECTOR (in
 constant (1982) dollars)              7.79      7.79        -


- Data not available.

(P) = preliminary.

15. Average hourly earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers on provide nonfarm payrolls, by industry
                                   Annual Average       1997
Industry                           1996     1997     Nov.     Dec.

PRIVATE SECTOR                     $11.82   $12.28   $12.53   $12.53
MINING                              15.62    16.17    16.41    16.52
CONSTRUCTION                        15.47    16.03    16.28    16.37
MANUFACTURING                       12.77    13.17    13.36    13.47
 Durable goods                      13.33    13.73    13.95    14.07
  Lumber and wood products          10.44    10.77    10.91    10.93
  Furniture and fixtures            10.15    10.55    10.69    10.79
  Stone, clay, and glass
   products                         12.82    13.18    13.36    13.39
  Primary metal industries          14.97    15.22    15.38    15.42
  Blast furnaces and basic steel
   products                         17.80    18.03    18.28    18.15
  Fabricated metal products         12.50    12.79    12.93    13.03

  Industrial machinery and
   equipment                        13.59    14.07    14.30    14.41
  Electronic and other electrical
   equipment                        12.18    12.70    13.00    13.13
  Transportation equipment          17.19    17.56    17.94    18.09
  Motor vehicles and equipment      17.74    18.06    18.53    18.66
  Instruments and related
   products                         13.13    13.51    13.66    13.68
  Miscellaneous manufacturing       10.38    10.59    10.71    10.80

 Nondurable goods                   11.97    12.33    12.48    12.58
  Food and kindred products         11.20    11.49    11.60    11.71
  Tobacco products                  19.35    19.27    17.88    18.69
  Textile mill products              9.69    10.03    10.16    10.25
  Apparel and other textile
   products                          7.96     8.25     8.32     8.42
  Paper and allied products         14.67    15.04    15.22    15.27

  Printing and publishing           12.65    13.05    13.24    13.30
  Chemicals and allied products     16.17    16.58    16.85    16.92
  Petroleum and coal products       19.32    20.18    20.39    20.55
  Rubber and miscellaneous
   plastics products                11.24    11.57    11.64    11.76
  Leather and leather products       8.57     8.98     9.14     9.21

TRANSPORTATION AND
 PUBLIC UTILITIES                   14.45    14.93    15.19    15.17

WHOLESALE TRADE                     12.87    13.44    13.76    13.72
RETAIL TRADE                         7.99     8.34     8.51     8.51
FINANCE, INSURANCE,
 AND REAL ESTATE                    12.80    13.33    13.72    13.64

SERVICES                            11.79    12.28    12.57    12.61

                                                  1998
Industry                            Jan.     Feb.     Mar.     Apr.

PRIVATE SECTOR                     $12.60   $12.65   $12.68   $12.69
MINING                              16.65    16.89    16.89    16.84
CONSTRUCTION                        16.25    1,621    16.29    16.34
MANUFACTURING                       13.40    13.41    13.47    13.46
 Durable goods                      13.96    13.96    14.02    13.96
  Lumber and wood products          10.90    10.91    10.95    10.99
  Furniture and fixtures            10.75    10.77    10.80    10.85
  Stone, clay, and glass
   products                         13.39    13.45    13.46    13.63
  Primary metal industries          15.47    15.46    15.52    15.66
  Blast furnaces and basic steel
   products                         18.33    18.34    18.32    18.66
  Fabricated metal products         12.99    12.98    13.01    12.89

  Industrial machinery and
   equipment                        14.34    14.36    14.36    14.32
  Electronic and other electrical
   equipment                        13.00    12.97    13.06    13.09
  Transportation equipment          17.75    17.77    17.92    17.71
  Motor vehicles and equipment      18.24    18.31    18.52    18.35
  Instruments and related
   products                         13.64    13.67    13.73    13.75
  Miscellaneous manufacturing       10.79    10.79    10.79    10.76

 Nondurable goods                   12.56    12.57    12.63    12.71
  Food and kindred products         11.67    11.64    11.70    11.75
  Tobacco products                  18.49    18.24    18.54    18.94
  Textile mill products             10.26    10.26    10.29    10.39
  Apparel and other textile
   products                         8.41     8.38     8.43     8.47
  Paper and allied products         15.18    15.20    15.27    15.44

  Printing and publishing           13.27    13.32    13.36    13.32
  Chemicals and allied products     16.89    16.94    16.97    17.15
  Petroleum and coal products       20.63    20.91    21.16    20.99
  Rubber and miscellaneous
   plastics products                11.74    1,177    11.78    11.84
  Leather and leather products       9.32     9.29     9.32     9.28

TRANSPORTATION AND
 PUBLIC UTILITIES                   15.27    15.29    15.24    15.27

WHOLESALE TRADE                     13.77    13.85    13.86    13.90
RETAIL TRADE                         8.63     8.62     8.67     8.70
FINANCE, INSURANCE,
 AND REAL ESTATE                    13.70    13.95    13.97    13.98

SERVICES                            12.66    12.75    12.77    12.77

                                                  1998
Industry                            May       June     July     Aug.

PRIVATE SECTOR                     $12.70   $12.66   $12.66   $12.74
MINING                              16.73    16.73    16.81    16.94
CONSTRUCTION                        16.42    16.44    16.63    16.74
MANUFACTURING                       13.47    13.43    13.37    1,344
 Durable goods                      13.98    13.94    1,377    13.93
  Lumber and wood products          11.06    11.10    11.18    11.19
  Furniture and fixtures            10.79    10.81    10.90    10.95
  Stone, clay, and glass
   products                         13.58    13.58    13.60    13.63
  Primary metal industries          15.54    15.53    15.56    15.44
  Blast furnaces and basic steel
   products                         18.55    18.53    18.49    18.46
  Fabricated metal products         13.02    13.00    12.89    13.06

  Industrial machinery and
   equipment                        14.36    14.40    14.42    14.44
  Electronic and other electrical
   equipment                        13.05    13.08    13.15    13.12
  Transportation equipment          17.65    17.45    16.88    17.32
  Motor vehicles and equipment      18.16    17.84    16.87    17.60
  Instruments and related
   products                         13.75    13.71    13.74    13.76
  Miscellaneous manufacturing       10.79    10.82    10.84    10.83

 Nondurable goods                   12.71    12.69    12.79    12.73
  Food and kindred products         11.78    11.76    11.80    11.75
  Tobacco products                  20.35    20.89    20.66    19.06
  Textile mill products             10.37    10.36    10.36    10.38
  Apparel and other textile
   products                         8.46     8.50     8.48     8.54
  Paper and allied products         15.50    15.45    15.63    15.53

  Printing and publishing           13.32    13.33    13.43    13.46
  Chemicals and allied products     17.11    17.05    17.19    17.14
  Petroleum and coal products       20.80    20.71    20.81    20.78
  Rubber and miscellaneous
   plastics products                11.85    11.81    11.91    11.84
  Leather and leather products       9.33     9.35     9.16     9.29

TRANSPORTATION AND
 PUBLIC UTILITIES                   15.21    15.22    15.31    15.33

WHOLESALE TRADE                     13.96    13.89    13.99    14.13
RETAIL TRADE                         8.71     8.70     8.71     8.74
FINANCE, INSURANCE,
 AND REAL ESTATE                    13.99    13.93    13.94    14.11

SERVICES                            12.75    12.70    12.67    12.75

                                                 1998
Industry                               Sept.      Oct.(p)    Nov.(p)

PRIVATE SECTOR                         $12.89     $12.92     $12.99
MINING                                  17.16      1,714      17.27
CONSTRUCTION                            16.76      16.85      16.80
MANUFACTURING                           13.60      13.54      13.61
 Durable goods                          14.08      14.03      14.10
  Lumber and wood products              11.19      11.23      11.27
  Furniture and fixtures                1,098      10.98      10.96
  Stone, clay, and glass
   products                             13.82      13.68      13.68
  Primary metal industries              15.61      15.28      15.35
  Blast furnaces and basic steel
   products                             18.75      18.09      18.20
  Fabricated metal products             13.18      13.19      13.23

  Industrial machinery and
   equipment                            14.53      14.54      14.63
  Electronic and other electrical
   equipment                            13.26      13.15      13.30
  Transportation equipment              17.53      17.49      17.57
  Motor vehicles and equipment          17.85      17.70      17.78
  Instruments and related
   products                             13.84      13.81      13.87
  Miscellaneous manufacturing           10.96      11.01      11.00

 Nondurable goods                       12.91      12.83      12.89
  Food and kindred products             11.95      11.82      11.94
  Tobacco products                      18.03      17.08      17.49
  Textile mill products                 10.48      10.44      10.50
  Apparel and other textile
   products                             8.62       8.65       8.65
  Paper and allied products             15.83      15.58      15.63

  Printing and publishing               13.64      13.62      13.56
  Chemicals and allied products         17.31      17.23      17.30
  Petroleum and coal products           20.80      21.01      20.94
  Rubber and miscellaneous
   plastics products                    11.98      11.90      11.98
  Leather and leather products           9.37       9.44       9.42

TRANSPORTATION AND
 PUBLIC UTILITIES                       15.46      15.38      15.48

WHOLESALE TRADE                         14.10      14.13      14.25
RETAIL TRADE                             8.90       8.85       8.87
FINANCE, INSURANCE,
 AND REAL ESTATE                        14.10      14.21      14.44

SERVICES                                12.97      13.01      13.15


(p) = preliminary.

NOTE: See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmarks revision.

13 Average weekly hours of production or nonsupervisory workers on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry, monthly data seasonally adjusted
                          Annual Average    1997          1998

       Industry            1996    1997   Nov.   Dec.   Jan.   Feb.

   PRIVATE SECTOR          34.4    34.6   34.7   34.7   34.8   34.7
GOODS-PRODUCING            41.0    41.3   41.2   41.4   41.6   41.4
  MINING                   45.3    45.4   45.2   44.9   45.4   44.4
  MANUFACTURING            41.6    42.0   42.1   42.2   42.1   42.0
      Overtime hours        4.5     4.8    4.9    5.0    4.9    4.8
   Durable goods           42.4    42.8   42.9   43.0   42.8   42.8
      Overtime hours        4.8     5.1    5.2    5.2    5.2    5.1
    Lumber and wood
     products              40.8    41.0   41.1   41.0   41.2   41.1
    Furniture and
     fixtures              39.4    40.2   40.6   40.7   41.0   41.0
    Stone clay, and
     glass products        43.3    43.2   42.9   43.6   43.7   43.6
    Primary metal
     industries            44.2    44.9   45.2   45.2   45.2   44.8
      Blast furnaces
       and basic steel
       products            44.5    44.9   45.3   45.4   46.0   45.4
    Fabricated metal
     products              42.4    42.6   42.7   42.9   42.7   42.7
    Industrial machi-
     nery and equipment    43.1    43.6   43.7   43.7   43.6   43.4
    Electronic and
     other electrical
     equipment             41.5    42.0   42.0   42.0   41.8   41.9
    Transportation
     equipment             44.0    44.5   44.1   44.5   43.9   43.8
    Motor vehicles and
     equipment             44.9    45.0   44.5   44.9   43.9   43.8
    Instruments and
     related products      41.7    42.0   42.2   41.9   41.9   42.0
    Miscellaneous
     manufacturing         39.7    40.4   40.5   40.6   40.4   40.4

   Nondurable goods        40.5    40.9   41.0   41.0   41.1   40.9
      Overtime hours        4.1     4.4    4.5    4.4    4.4    4.4
    Food and kindred
     products              41.0    41.3   41.5   41.6   41.8   41.5
    Textile mill
     products              40.6    41.4   41.5   41.7   41.8   41.5
    Apparel and other
     textile products      37.0    37.3   37.2   37.5   37.4   37.4
    Paper and allied
     products              43.3    43.7   44.0   43.7   43.6   43.4
    Printing and
     publishing            38.2    38.5   38.8   38.6   38.5   38.5
    Chemicals and
     allied products       43.2    43.2   43.4   43.2   43.5   43.4
    Rubber and miscel-
     lanous plastics
     products              41.5    41.8   42.0   42.1   42.0   41.8
    Leather and lea-
     ther products         38.1    38.4   38.2   38.4   38.3   38.8
SERVICE-PRODUCING          32.7    32.9   32.9   32.9   33.0   33.0
  TRANSPORTATION AND
   PUBLIC UTILITIES        39.6    39.7   39.9   39.9   40.0   39.9
  WHOLESALE TRADE          38.3    38.4   38.5   38.3   38.5   38.5
  RETAIL TRADE             28.8    28.9   29.0   28.9   29.0   29.0

                                             1998
       Industry           Mar.    Apr.    May    June   July   Aug.

   PRIVATE SECTOR          34.6    34.5   34.7   34.6   34.6   34.6
GOODS-PRODUCING            41.0    40.8   41.1   41.0   41.1   41.1
  MINING                   43.8    44.1   44.6   43.8   44.8   43.8
  MANUFACTURING            41.8    41.4   41.8   41.8   41.7   41.7
      Overtime hours        4.8     4.5    4.6    4.6    4.6    4.6
   Durable goods           42.5    41.9   42.4   42.3   42.2   42.3
      Overtime hours        5.0     4.6    4.8    4.8    4.8    4.8
    Lumber and wood
     products              41.2    41.2   41.2   41.3   41.2   41.2
    Furniture and
     fixtures              40.7    40.7   40.7   41.0   40.7   40.7
    Stone clay, and
     glass products        43.2    43.3   43.5   43.2   43.5   43.6
    Primary metal
     industries            44.6    43.9   44.5   44.4   43.6   44.1
      Blast furnaces
       and basic steel
       products            45.3    44.9   45.6   45.1   43.8   44.5
    Fabricated metal
     products              42.4    41.8   42.6   42.5   42.4   42.3
    Industrial machi-
     nery and equipment    43.3    42.6   43.0   43.2   43.0   43.1
    Electronic and
     other electrical
     equipment             41.4    41.1   41.4   41.4   41.3   41.7
    Transportation
     equipment             43.4    42.1   43.3   42.7   42.6   42.6
    Motor vehicles and
     equipment             43.5    42.0   43.3   42.4   41.7   42.3
    Instruments and
     related products      41.5    41.3   41.4   41.3   41.3   41.4
    Miscellaneous
     manufacturing         40.5    40.1   40.0   40.0   40.0   40.1

   Nondurable goods        40.8    40.7   41.0   40.9   41.0   40.9
      Overtime hours        4.4     4.2    4.4    4.4    4.4    4.3
    Food and kindred
     products              41.5    41.3   41.8   41.7   42.0   41.5
    Textile mill
     products              41.2    41.0   41.3   41.1   41.0   41.0
    Apparel and other
     textile products      37.2    37.7   37.4   37.4   37.4   37.5
    Paper and allied
     products              43.4    43.0   43.5   43.6   43.5   43.3
    Printing and
     publishing            38.4    38.2   38.4   38.2   38.4   38.5
    Chemicals and
     allied products       43.4    43.1   43.1   43.2   43.0   43.3
    Rubber and miscel-
     lanous plastics
     products              41.5    41.7   42.1   42.0   42.1   41.6
    Leather and lea-
     ther products         37.9    37.3   37.3   37.6   37.0   38.1
SERVICE-PRODUCING          32.8    32.9   33.0   32.9   32.9   32.9
  TRANSPORTATION AND
   PUBLIC UTILITIES        39.8    39.6   39.8   39.5   39.6   39.3
  WHOLESALE TRADE          38.3    38.3   38.5   38.2   38.3   38.4
  RETAIL TRADE             28.9    29.0   29.1   29.0   29.1   29.0

                                   1998
       Industry           Sept.   Oct.(p)   Nov.(p)

   PRIVATE SECTOR         34.4     34.6     34.6
GOODS-PRODUCING           40.8     41.1     41.0
  MINING                  43.2     43.7     43.7
  MANUFACTURING           41.6     41.7     41.6
      Overtime hours       4.5      4.5      4.5
   Durable goods          42.2     42.3     42.2
      Overtime hours       4.7      4.6      4.6
    Lumber and wood
     products             40.6     41.1     41.3
    Furniture and
     fixtures             40.1     40.5     40.2
    Stone clay, and
     glass products       43.3     43.5     43.3
    Primary metal
     industries           43.7     43.6     43.7
      Blast furnaces
       and basic steel
       products           44.2     43.7     43.0
    Fabricated metal
     products             42.3     42.2     42.1
    Industrial machi-
     nery and equipment   42.7     42.7     42.1
    Electronic and
     other electrical
     equipment            41.5     41.5     41.5
    Transportation
     equipment            43.7     43.6     43.8
    Motor vehicles and
     equipment            44.3     43.8     44.3
    Instruments and
     related products     41.0     41.1     41.0
    Miscellaneous
     manufacturing        39.6     39.8     39.5

   Nondurable goods       40.8     40.9     40.9
      Overtime hours       4.3      4.3      4.4
    Food and kindred
     products             41.7     41.5     41.8
    Textile mill
     products             40.4     41.1     40.8
    Apparel and other
     textile products     37.3     37.3     37.4
    Paper and allied
     products             43.6     43.6     43.6
    Printing and
     publishing           38.1     38.2     38.1
    Chemicals and
     allied products      43.2     43.3     43.1
    Rubber and miscel-
     lanous plastics
     products             41.7     41.8     41.6
    Leather and lea-
     ther products        37.4     37.4     37.4
SERVICE-PRODUCING         32.8     32.9     32.9
  TRANSPORTATION AND
   PUBLIC UTILITIES       39.3     39.4     39.3
  WHOLESALE TRADE         38.2     38.3     38.5
  RETAIL TRADE            29.0     29.1     29.0


(p) = preliminary

NOTE: See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.

17. Diffusion indexes of employment change, seasonally adjusted

[In percent]
Timespan and year     Jan.   Feb.   Mar.   Apr.   May     June
                      Private nonfarm payrolls, 356 industries

Over 1-month span:
  1996                50.8   64.6   59.6   56.6    62.8   61.0
  1997                58.0   61.4   59.8   63.6   610.1   54.6
  1998                63.8   58.7   59.6   56.9    56.6   59.0
Over 3-month span:
  1996                61.9   62.8   64.0   63.8    63.5   64.9
  1997                64.9   63.3   65.6   66.2    63.9   61.2
  1998                68.4   67.3   64.2   61.7    60.4   58.4
Over 6-month span:
  1996                62.8   65.4   64.7   65.7    66.2   65.0
  1997                67.6   67.0   65.3   64.9    65.6   67.3
  1998                72.1   70.9   69.4   63.5    64.5   61.8
Over 12-month span:
  1996                64.5   66.7   64.5   65.6    68.5   67.3
  1997                69.8   67.6   69.2   70.1    69.8   69.8
  1998                71.2   69.5   69.5   65.9    63.9      -

                      Manufacturing payrolls, 139 industries
Over 1-month span:
  1996                42.8   54.7   48.2   42.1    55.4   50.7
  1997                49.3   54.3   50.0   56.8    51.4   52.2
  1998                55.8   51.8   52.5   48.6    45.0   47.8
Over 3-month span:
  1996                43.9   46.8   46.0   47.5    46.4   49.3
  1997                54.3   49.3   54.3   54.0    55.4   50.4
  1998                60.1   59.0   50.7   46.4    43.2   38.8
Over 6-month span:
  1996                42.1   45.3   46.4   47.1    48.2   48.6
  1997                54.3   54.3   51.4   52.9    51.4   55.0
  1998                61.5   56.8   52.2   39.2    40.6   34.5
Over 12-month span:
  1996                43.5   47.5   45.3   45.3    50.4   49.6
  1997                57.2   52.5   54.7   56.5    57.9   57.6
  1998                50.7   51.1   50.4   41.4    37.8      -
Timespan and year     July   Aug.   Sept.   Oct.   Nov.   Dec.

                      Private nonfarm payrolls, 356 industries

Over 1-month span:
  1996                57.3   61.5   56.0    62.5   62.2   60.7
  1997                61.1   59.1   60.0    64.3   62.4   64.9
  1998                55.1   53.9   53.5    51.0   56.0      -
Over 3-month span:
  1996                64.2   61.5   63.9    64.2   67.0   66.6
  1997                60.1   65.9   67.4    68.1   70.8   71.9
  1998                57.2   56.7   55.9    54.6      -      -
Over 6-month span:
  1996                66.4   66.0   66.2    67.6   66.9   66.3
  1997                68.0   67.3   70.6    72.3   73.3   72.6
  1998                58.1   58.0      -       -      -      -
Over 12-month span:
  1996                67.7   66.4   68.0    69.9   69.1   68.3
  1997                71.2   71.2   71.1    73.0   72.9   72.3
  1998                   -      -      -       -      -      -

                       Manufacturing payrolls, 139 industries

Over 1-month span:
  1996                47.1   55.4   47.8    52.9   54.3   55.4
  1997                50.4   48.9   56.5    57.2   56.1   60.8
  1998                39.6   47.5   43.2    38.5   38.8      -
Over 3-month span:
  1996                51.4   50.0   53.6    51.1   57.6   54.7
  1997                47.5   52.2   57.9    62.6   64.7   65.5
  1998                36.7   34.2   41.7    33.5      -      -
Over 6-month span:
  1996                51.1   50.4   52.9    52.9   53.2   52.2
  1997                56.8   57.6   60.4    64.4   67.6   65.8
  1998                31.3   29.5      -       -      -      -
Over 12-month span:
  1996                50.4   48.6   51.1    55.0   54.0   51.8
  1997                58.6   58.6   60.4    60.4   59.4   58.3
  1998                   -      -      -       -      -      -


- Data not available.

NOTE: Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment. Data for the 2 most recent months shown in each span are preliminary. See the "Definitions" in this section. See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.

18. Annual data: Employment status of the population [Numbers in thousands]
                                           1989      1990      1991
Civilian noninstitutional population    186,393   189,164   190,925
 Civilian labor force                   123,869   125,840   126,346
  Labor force participation rate           66.5      66.5      66.2

   Employed                             117,342   118,793   117,718
   Employment-population ratio             63.0      62.8      61.7
    Agriculture                           3,199     3,223     3,269
    Nonagricultural industries          114,142   115,570   114,499

   Unemployed                             6,528     7,047     8,628
   Unemployment rate                        5.3       5.6       6.8
Not in the labor force                   62,523    63,324    64,578

                                           1992      1993      1994
Civilian noninstitutional population    192,805   194,838   196,814
 Civilian labor force                   128,105   129,200   131,056
  Labor force participation rate           66.4      66.3      66.6

   Employed                             118,492   120,259   123,060
   Employment-population ratio             61.5      61.7      62.5
    Agriculture                           3,247     3,115     3,409
    Nonagricultural industries          115,245   117,144   119,651

   Unemployed                             9,613     8,940     7,996
   Unemployment rate                        7.5       6.9       6.1
Not in the labor force                   64,700    65,638    65,758

                                           1995      1996      1997
Civilian noninstitutional population    198,584   200,591   203,133
 Civilian labor force                   132,304   133,943   136,297
  Labor force participation rate           66.6      66.8      67.1

   Employed                             124,900   126,708   129,558
   Employment-population ratio             62.9      63.2      63.8
    Agriculture                           3,440     3,443     3,399
    Nonagricultural industries          121,460   123,264   126,159

   Unemployed                             7,404     7,236     6,739
   Unemployment rate                        5.6       5.4       4.9
Not in the labor force                   66,280    66,647    66,837


19. Annual data: Employment levels by industry

[In thousands]
       Industry                            1989      1990      1991

Total employment                         107,884   109,403   108,249
 Private sector                           90,105    91,098    89,847
  Goods-producing                         25,254    24,905    23,745
   Mining                                    692       709       689
   Construction                            5,171     5,120     4,650
   Manufacturing                          19,391    19,076    18,406

  Service-producing                       82,630    84,497    84,504
   Transportation and public utilities     5,614     5,777     5,755
   Wholesale trade                         6,187     6,173     6,081
   Retail trade                           19,475    19,601    19,284
   Finance insurance and real estate       6,668     6,709     6,646
   Services                               26,907    27,934    28,336

   Government                             17,779    18,304    18,402
    Federal                                2,988     3,085     2,966
    State                                  4,182     4,305     4,355
    Local                                 10,609    10,914    11,081

               Industry                     1992      1993      1994

Total employment                         108,601   110,713   114,163
 Private sector                           89,956    91,872    95,036
  Goods-producing                         23,231    23,352    23,908
   Mining                                    635       610       601
   Construction                            4,492     4,668     4,986
   Manufacturing                          18,104    18,075    18,321

  Service-producing                       85,370    87,361    90,256
   Transportation and public utilities     5,718     5,811     5,984
   Wholesale trade                         5,997     5,981     6,162
   Retail trade                           19,356    19,773    20,507
   Finance insurance and real estate       6,602     6,757     6,896
   Services                               29,052    30,197    31,579

   Government                             18,645    18,841    19,128
    Federal                                2,969     2,915     2,870
    State                                  4,408     4,488     4,576
    Local                                 11,267    11,438    11,682

               Industry                     1995      1996      1997

Total employment                         117,191   119,608   122,690
 Private sector                           97,885   100,189   103,120
  Goods-producing                         24,265    24,493    24,934
   Mining                                    581       580       592
   Construction                            5,160     5,418     5,686
   Manufacturing                          18,524    18,495    18,657

  Service-producing                       92,925    95,115    97,756
   Transportation and public utilities     6,132     6,253     6,395
   Wholesale trade                         6,378     6,482     6,648
   Retail trade                           21,187    21,597    22,011
   Finance insurance and real estate       6,806     6,911     7,091
   Services                               33,117    34,454    36,040

   Government                             19,305    19,419    19,570
    Federal                                2,822     2,757     2,699
    State                                  4,635     4,606     4,594
    Local                                 11,849    12,056    12,276


NOTE: See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.

20. Annual data: Average hours and earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers on nonfarm payrolls, by industry
               Industry                    1989     1990     1991

Private sector:
 Average weekly hours                      34.6     34.5     34.3
 Average hourly earnings (in dollars)      9.66    10.01    10.32
 Average: weekly earnings (in dollars)   334.24   345.35   353.98

 Mining:
  Average weekly hours                     43.0     44.1     44.4
  Average hourly earnings (in dollars)    13.26    13.68    14.19
  Average weekly earnings (in dollars)   570.18   603.29   630.04

 Construction:
  Average weekly hours                     37.9     38.2     38.1
  Average hourly earnings (in dollars)    13.54    13.77    14.00
  Average weekly earnings (in dollars)   513.17   526.01   533.40

 Manufacturing:
  Average weekly hours                     41.0     40.8     40.7
  Average hourly earnings (in dollars)    10.48    10.83    11.18
  Average weekly earnings (in dollars)   429.68   441.86   455.03

 Transportation and public utilities:
  Average weekly hours                     38.3     38.4     38.1
  Average hourly earnings (in dollars)    12.57    12.92    13.20
  Average weekly earnings (in dollars)   481.43   496.13   502.92

 Wholesale trade:
  Average weekly hours                     38.0     38.1     38.1
  Average hourly earnings (in dollars)    10.39    10.79    11.15
  Average weekly earnings (in dollars)   394.82   411.10   424.82

 Retail trade:
  Average weekly hours                     28.9     28.8     28.6
  Average hourly earnings (in dollars)     6.53     6.75     6.94
  Average weekly earnings (in dollars)   188.72   194.40   198.48

 Finance, insurance, and real estate:
  Average weekly hours                     35.8     35.8     35.7
  Average hourly earnings (in dollars)     9.53     9.97    10.39
  Average weekly earnings (in dollars)   341.17   356.93   370.92

 Services:
  Average weekly hours                     32.6     32.5     32.4
  Average hourly earnings (in dollars)     9.38     9.83    10.23
  Average weekly earnings (in dollars)   305.79   319.48   331.45

               Industry                    1992     1993     1994

Private sector:
 Average weekly hours                      34.4     34.5     34.7
 Average hourly earnings (in dollars)     10.57    10.83    11.12
 Average: weekly earnings (in dollars)   363.61   373.64   385.86

 Mining:
  Average weekly hours                     43.9     44.3     44.8
  Average hourly earnings (in dollars)    14.54    14.60    14.88
  Average weekly earnings (in dollars)   638.31   646.78   666.62

 Construction:
  Average weekly hours                     38.0     38.5     38.9
  Average hourly earnings (in dollars)    14.15    14.38    14.73
  Average weekly earnings (in dollars)   537.70   553.63   573.00

 Manufacturing:
  Average weekly hours                     41.0     41.4     42.0
  Average hourly earnings (in dollars)    11.46    11.74    12.07
  Average weekly earnings (in dollars)   469.86   486.04   506.94

 Transportation and public utilities:
  Average weekly hours                     38.3     39.3     39.7
  Average hourly earnings (in dollars)    13.43    13.55    13.78
  Average weekly earnings (in dollars)   514.37   532.52   547.07

 Wholesale trade:
  Average weekly hours                     38.2     38.2     38.4
  Average hourly earnings (in dollars)    11.39    11.74    12.06
  Average weekly earnings (in dollars)   435.10   448.47   463.10

 Retail trade:
  Average weekly hours                     28.8     28.8     28.9
  Average hourly earnings (in dollars)     7.12     7.29     7.49
  Average weekly earnings (in dollars)   205.06   209.95   216.46

 Finance, insurance, and real estate:
  Average weekly hours                    358.0     35.8     35.8
  Average hourly earnings (in dollars)    10.82    11.35    11.83
  Average weekly earnings (in dollars)   387.36   406.33   423.51

 Services:
  Average weekly hours                     32.5     32.5     32.5
  Average hourly earnings (in dollars)    10.54    10.78    11.04
  Average weekly earnings (in dollars)   342.55   350.35   358.80

               Industry                    1995     1996     1997

Private sector:
 Average weekly hours                      34.5     34.4     34.6
 Average hourly earnings (in dollars)     11.43    11.82    12.28
 Average: weekly earnings (in dollars)   394.34   406.61   424.89

 Mining:
  Average weekly hours                     44.7     45.3     45.4
  Average hourly earnings (in dollars)    15.30    15.62    16.17
  Average weekly earnings (in dollars)   683.91   707.59   734.12

 Construction:
  Average weekly hours                     38.9     39.0     38.9
  Average hourly earnings (in dollars)    15.09    15.47    16.03
  Average weekly earnings (in dollars)   587.00   603.33   623.57

 Manufacturing:
  Average weekly hours                     41.6     41.6     42.0
  Average hourly earnings (in dollars)    12.37    12.77    13.17
  Average weekly earnings (in dollars)   514.59   531.23   553.14

 Transportation and public utilities:
  Average weekly hours                     39.4     39.6     39.7
  Average hourly earnings (in dollars)    14.13    14.45    14.93
  Average weekly earnings (in dollars)   556.72   572.22   592.72

 Wholesale trade:
  Average weekly hours                     38.3     38.3     38.4
  Average hourly earnings (in dollars)    12.43    12.87    13.44
  Average weekly earnings (in dollars)   476.07   492.92   516.10

 Retail trade:
  Average weekly hours                     28.8     28.8     28.9
  Average hourly earnings (in dollars)     7.69     7.99     8.34
  Average weekly earnings (in dollars)   221.47   230.11   241.03

 Finance, insurance, and real estate:
  Average weekly hours                     35.9     35.9     36.1
  Average hourly earnings (in dollars)    12.32    12.80    13.33
  Average weekly earnings (in dollars)   442.29   459.52   481.21

 Services:
  Average weekly hours                     32.4     32.4     32.6
  Average hourly earnings (in dollars)    11.39    11.79    12.28
  Average weekly earnings (in dollars)   369.04   382.00   400.33


[TABULAR DATA 21-22 NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

23. Employment Cost Index, benefits, private industry workers by occupation and industry group

[June 1989 = 100]
                                        1996               1997
             Series
                                   Sept.   Dec.    Mar.    June

Private Industry workers           138.1   138.6   139.4   140.1
  Workers, by occupational
   group:
   White-collar workers            139.5   139.7   140.8   141.5
   Blue-collar workers             136.2   137.0   137.2   138.0
  Workers, by industry
   division:
   Goods-producing                 138.8   139.7   139.9   140.9
   Service-producing               137.2   137.4   138.5   139.2
   Manufacturing                   138.8   139.8   139.9   141.0
   Nonmanufacturing                137.5   137.9   138.9   139.5

             Series                     1997            1998
                                   Sept.   Dec.    Mar.    June

Private Industry workers           140.8   141.8   142.6   143.7
  Workers, by occupational
   group:
   White-collar workers            142.0   143.4   144.7   145.6
   Blue-collar workers             138.8   139.0   139.1   140.4
  Workers, by industry
   division:
   Goods-producing                 141.5   141.5   141.5   142.5
   Service-producing               139.8   141.4   142.7   143.8
   Manufacturing                   141.4   141.7   141.7   142.4
   Nonmanufacturing                140.2   141.5   142.7   143.9

                                           Percent change
                                             3      12
             Series                1998    months   months
                                   Sept.   ended    ended
                                             Sept. 1998

Private Industry workers           144.5    0.6      2.6
  Workers, by occupational
   group:
   White-collar workers            146.6     .7      3.2
   Blue-collar workers             141.0     .4      1.6
  Workers, by industry
   division:
   Goods-producing                 143.0     .4      1.1
   Service-producing               144.9     .8      3.6
   Manufacturing                   142.6     .1      0.8
   Nonmanufacturing                145.0     .8      3.4


24. Employment Cost Index, private nonfarm workers by bargaining status, region, and area size

[June 1989 = 100]

  Series                           1996                1997
                               Sept.   Dec.    Mar.    June    Sept.

  COMPENSATION
  Workers, by bargaining status(1)

Union                          130.1   130.8   131.0   131.8   133.2
  Goods-producing              129.2   129.8   130.0   131.2   132.3
  Service-producing            131.0   131.7   131.9   132.4   134.0
  Manufacturing                129.8   130.6   130.8   131.7   133.0
  Nonmanufacturing             129.9   130.4   130.6   131.5   132.9

Nonunion                       129.7   130.4   131.8   132.8   133.9
  Goods-producing              130.4   131.3   132.0   133.2   134.0
  Service-producing            129.2   129.9   131.5   132.5   133.7
  Manufacturing                131.7   132.5   133.1   134.4   135.1
  Nonmanufacturing             128.9   129.6   131.1   132.2   133.4

  Workers, by area region(1)

Northeast                      130.6   131.1   132.2   133.1   134.0
South                          128.8   129.7   130.8   131.5   132.5
Midwest (formerly North
 Central)                      131.3   132.1   133.3   134.7   136.2
West                           128.3   128.9   130.3   131.4   132.5

  Workers, by area size(1)

  Metropolitan areas           130.0   130.6   131.7   132.8   133.9
  Other areas                  128.7   130.2   131.4   132.4   133.8

  Series

  COMPENSATION
  Workers, by bargaining status(1)

Union                          124.8   125.4   126.0   126.9   128.3
  Goods-producing              123.2   123.6   124.1   125.4   126.6
  Service-producing            126.8   127.6   128.2   128.8   130.4
  Manufacturing                124.5   125.2   125.6   126.5   127.8
  Nonmanufacturing             124.9   125.5   126.1   127.1   128.6

Nonunion                       126.9   127.7   129.1   130.3   131.6
  Goods-producing              127.3   128.0   128.9   130.2   131.2
  Service-producing            126.6   127.5   129.1   130.2   131.6
  Manufacturing                128.8   129.6   130.3   131.7   132.6
  Nonmanufacturing             126.1   127.0   128.5   129.7   131.1

  Workers, by area region(1)

Northeast                      127.0   127.7   128.8   129.8   130.7
South                          126.0   127.0   128.5   129.4   130.6
Midwest (formerly North
 Central)                      126.9   127.7   129.0   130.4   132.2
West                           125.8   126.5   127.7   128.9   130.2

  Workers, by area size(1)

  Metropolitan areas           126.7   127.4   128.7   129.9   131.1
  Other areas                  125.0   126.5   127.7   128.8   130.4

  Series                       1997          1998
                               Dec.    Mar.    June    Sept.

  COMPENSATION
  Workers, by bargaining status(1)

Union                          133.5   134.0   135.3     136.8
  Goods-producing              132.5   132.7   134.3     135.6
  Service-producing            134.5   135.3   136.2     138.0
  Manufacturing                133.3   133.6   134.6     136.0
  Nonmanufacturing             133.2   133.9   135.3     136.9

Nonunion                       135.3   136.7   137.8     139.3
  Goods-producing              134.7   135.9   136.9     137.7
  Service-producing            135.3   136.7   138.0     139.7
  Manufacturing                135.9   137.2   138.0     138.9
  Nonmanufacturing             134.9   136.3   137.5     139.1

  Workers, by area region(1)

Northeast                      135.0   136.0   137.0     138.7
South                          134.6   135.5   136.4     137.6
Midwest (formerly North
 Central)                      139.6   138.3   139.6     140.9
West                           133.4   135.2   136.6     138.5

  Workers, by area size(1)

  Metropolitan areas           135.1   136.4   137.5     139.1
  Other areas                  135.3   135.9   137.1     138.2

  Series

  COMPENSATION
  Workers, by bargaining status(1)

Union                          128.9   129.6   130.7     132.4
  Goods-producing              127.1   127.9   129.4     131.0
  Service-producing            131.2   131.8   132.2     134.1
  Manufacturing                128.6   129.6   130.4     132.2
  Nonmanufacturing             129.1   129.6   130.8     132.4

Nonunion                       133.0   134.5   135.7     137.4
  Goods-producing              132.0   133.6   134.7     135.7
  Service-producing            133.2   134.6   135.9     137.9
  Manufacturing                133.5   135.1   136.2     137.3
  Nonmanufacturing             132.6   134.0   135.3     137.1

  Workers, by area region(1)

Northeast                      131.6   132.6   133.8     135.4
South                          133.0   134.0   134.9     136.5
Midwest (formerly North
 Central)                      133.0   134.7   136.0     137.5
West                           131.2   132.9   134.5     136.7

  Workers, by area size(1)

  Metropolitan areas           132.3   133.8   135.1     136.9
  Other areas                  132.0   132.5   133.4     134.7

                               Percent    Percent
                                  3          3
  Series                       months      months
                                ended       ended
                                    Sept. 1998
  COMPENSATION
  Workers, by bargaining status(1)

Union                            1.1         2.7
  Goods-producing                1.0         2.5
  Service-producing              1.3         3.0
  Manufacturing                  1.0         2.3
  Nonmanufacturing               1.2         3.0

Nonunion                         1.1         4.0
  Goods-producing                0.6         2.8
  Service-producing              1.2         4.5
  Manufacturing                  0.7         2.8
  Nonmanufacturing               1.2         4.3

  Workers, by area region(1)

Northeast                        1.2         3.5
South                            0.9         3.8
Midwest (formerly North
 Central)                        0.9         3.5
West                             1.4         4.5

  Workers, by area size(1)

  Metropolitan areas             1.2         3.9
  Other areas                    0.8         3.3

  Series

  COMPENSATION
  Workers, by bargaining status(1)

Union                            1.3         3.2
  Goods-producing                1.2         3.5
  Service-producing              1.4         2.8
  Manufacturing                  1.4         3.4
  Nonmanufacturing               1.2         3.0

Nonunion                         1.3         4.4
  Goods-producing                0.7         3.4
  Service-producing              1.5         4.8
  Manufacturing                  0.8         3.5
  Nonmanufacturing               1.3         4.6

  Workers, by area region(1)

Northeast                        1.2         3.6
South                            1.2         4.5
Midwest (formerly North
 Central)                        1.1         4.0
West                             1.6         5.0

  Workers, by area size(1)

  Metropolitan areas             1.3         4.4
  Other areas                    1.0         3.3


(1) The indexes are calculated differently from those for the occupation and industry groups. For a detailed description of the index calculation, see the Monthly Labor Preview Technical Note, "Estimation procedures for the Employment Cost Index," May 1982.

25. Percent of full-time employees participating in employer-provided benefit plans, and in selected features within plans, medium and large private establishments, selected years, 1980-93
                 Item                      1980     1982      1984

Scope of survey (in 000's)               21,352   21,043    21,013
Number of employees (in 000's):
 With medical care                       20,711   20,412    20,383
 With life insurance                     20,498   20,201    20,172
 With defined benefit plan               17,936   17,676    17,231

Time-off plans

Participants with:
 Paid lunch time                             10        9         9
  Average minutes per day                    -        25        26
 Paid rest time                              75       76        73
  Average minutes per day                    -        25        26
 Paid funeral leave                          -        -         -
  Average days per occurrence                -        -         -
 Paid holidays                               99       99        99
  Average days per year                    10.1     10.0       9.8
 Paid personal leave                         20       24        23
  Average days per year                      -       3.8       3.6
Paid vacations                              100       99        99
Paid sick leave                              62       67        67
Unpaid maternity leave                       -        -         -
Unpaid paternity leave                       -        -         -

           Insurance plans

Participants in medical care plans           97       97        97
 Percent of participants
  with coverage for:
  Home health care                           -        -         46
  Extended care facilities                   58       62        62
  Physical exam                              -        -          8

 Percent of participants with employee
  contribution required for:
 Self coverage                               26       27        36
  Average monthly contribution               -        -     $11.93
 Family coverage                             46       51        58
  Average monthly contribution                              $35.93

Participants in life insurance plans         96       96        96
 Percent of participants with:
  Accidental death and dismemberment
   insurance                                 69       72        74
  Survivor income benefits                   -        -         -
  Retiree protection available               -        64        64
Participants in long-term disability
  insurance plans                            40       43        47
Participants in sickness and accident
  insurance plans                            54       51        51

Retirement plans

Participants in defined                      84       84        82
 benefit pension plans
 Percent of participants with:
  Normal retirement prior to age 65          55       58        63
  Early retirement available                 98       97        97
  Ad hoc pension increase                    -        -         47
   in last 5 years
  Terminal earnings formula                  53       52        54
  Benefit coordinated                        45       45        56
   with Social Security
Participants in defined                      -        -         -
 contribution plans

Participants in plans with
  tax-deferred savings arrangements          -        -         -

Other benefits

Employees eligible for:
 Flexible benefits plans                     -        -         -
 Reimbursement accounts                      -        -         -

                 Item                        1986     1988      1989

Scope of survey (in 000's)                 21,303   31,059    32,428
Number of employees (in 000's):
 With medical care                         20,238   27,953    29,834
 With life insurance                       20,451   28,574    30,482
 With defined benefit plan                 16,190   19,567    20,430

Time-off plans

Participants with:
 Paid lunch time                               10       11        10
  Average minutes per day                      27       29        26
 Paid rest time                                72       72        71
  Average minutes per day                      26       26        26
 Paid funeral leave                            88       85        84
  Average days per occurrence                 3.2      3.2       3.3
 Paid holidays                                 99       96        97
  Average days per year                      10.0      9.4       9.2
 Paid personal leave                           25       24        22
  Average days per year                       3.7      3.3       3.1
Paid vacations                                100       98        97
Paid sick leave                                70       69        68
Unpaid maternity leave                         -        33        37
Unpaid paternity leave                         -        16        18

           Insurance plans

Participants in medical care plans             95       90        92
 Percent of participants
  with coverage for:
  Home health care                             66       76        75
  Extended care facilities                     70       79        80
  Physical exam                                18       28        28

 Percent of participants with employee
  contribution required for:
 Self coverage                                 43       44        47
  Average monthly contribution             $12.80   $19.29    $25.31
 Family coverage                               63       64        66
  Average monthly contribution             $41.40   $60.07    $72.10

Participants in life insurance plans           96       92        94
 Percent of participants with:
  Accidental death and dismemberment
   insurance                                   72       78        71
  Survivor income benefits                     10        8         7
  Retiree protection available                 59       49        42
Participants in long-term disability
  insurance plans                              48       42        45
Participants in sickness and accident
  insurance plans                              49       46        43

Retirement plans

Participants in defined                        76       63        63
 benefit pension plans
 Percent of participants with:
  Normal retirement prior to age 65            64       59        62
  Early retirement available                   98       98        97
  Ad hoc pension increase                      35       26        22
   in last 5 years
  Terminal earnings formula                    57       55        64
  Benefit coordinated                          62       62        63
   with Social Security
Participants in defined                        60       45        48
 contribution plans

Participants in plans with
  tax-deferred savings arrangements            33       36        41

Other benefits

Employees eligible for:
 Flexible benefits plans                        2        5         9
 Reimbursement accounts                         5       12        23

                 Item                       1991       1993

Scope of survey (in 000's)                31,163     28,728
Number of employees (in 000's):
 With medical care                        25,865     23,519
 With life insurance                      29,293     26,175
 With defined benefit plan                18,686     16,015

Time-off plans

Participants with:
 Paid lunch time                               8          9
  Average minutes per day                     30         29
 Paid rest time                               67         68
  Average minutes per day                     28         26
 Paid funeral leave                           80         83
  Average days per occurrence                3.3        3.0
 Paid holidays                                92         91
  Average days per year                     10.2        9.4
 Paid personal leave
  Average days per year                      3.3        3.1
Paid vacations                                96         97
Paid sick leave                               67         65
Unpaid maternity leave                        37         60
Unpaid paternity leave                        26         53

           Insurance plans

Participants in medical care plans            83         82
 Percent of participants
  with coverage for:
  Home health care                            81         86
  Extended care facilities                    80         82
  Physical exam                               30         42

 Percent of participants with employee
  contribution required for:
 Self coverage                                51         61
  Average monthly contribution            $26.60     $31.55
 Family coverage                              69         76
  Average monthly contnDutlon             $96.97    $107.42

Participants in life insurance plans          94         91
 Percent of participants with:
  Accidental death and dismemberment
   insurance                                  71         76
  Survivor income benefits                     6          5
  Retiree protection available                44         41
Participants in long-term disability
  insurance plans                             40         41
Participants in sickness and accident
  insurance plans                             45         44

Retirement plans

Participants in defined                       59         56
 benefit pension plans
 Percent of participants with:
  Normal retirement prior to age 65           55         52
  Early retirement available                  98         95
  Ad hoc pension increase                      7          6
   in last 5 years
  Terminal earnings formula                   56         61
  Benefit coordinated                         54         48
   with Social Security
Participants in defined                       48         49
 contribution plans

Participants in plans with
  tax-deferred savings arrangements           44         43

Other benefits

Employees eligible for:
 Flexible benefits plans                      10         12
 Reimbursement accounts                       36         52


NOTE: Dash indicates data not available.

[TABULAR DATA 26-29 NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

30. Annual data: Consumer Price Index, U.S. city average, all items and major groups

[1982-84 = 100]
         Series              1989    1990    1991    1992    1993

Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers:
 All items:
  Index                     124.0   130.7   136.2   140.3   144.5
  Percent change              4.8     5.4     4.2     3.0     3.0
 Food and beverages:
  Index                     124.9   132.1   136.8   138.7   141.6
  Percent change              5.7     5.8     3.6     1.4     2.1
 Housing:
  Index                     123.0   128.5   133.6   137.5   141.2
  Percent change              3.8     4.5     4.0     2.9     2.7
 Apparel:
  Index                     118.6   124.1   128.7   131.9   133.7
  Percent change              2.8     4.6     3.7     2.5     1.4
 Transportation:
  Index                     114.1   120.5   123.8   126.5   130.4
  Percent change              5.0     5.6     2.7     2.2     3.1
 Medical care:
  Index                     149.3   162.8   177.0   190.1   201.4
  Percent change              7.7     9.0     8.7     7.4     5.9
Other goods and services:
  Index                     147.7   159.0   171.6   183.3   192.9
  Percent change              7.8     7.7     7.9     6.8     5.2

Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners
and Clerical Workers:

All items
  Index                     122.6   134.3   134.3   138.2   142.1
  Percent change              4.8     5.2     4.1     2.9     2.8

        Series               1994    1995    1996    1997

Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers:
 All items:
  Index                     148.2   152.4   156.9   160.5
  Percent change              2.6     2.8     3.0     2.3
 Food and beverages:
  Index                     144.9   148.9   153.7   157.7
  Percent change              2.3     2.8     3.2     2.6
 Housing:
  Index                     144.8   148.5   152.8   156.8
  Percent change              2.5     2.6     2.9     2.6
 Apparel:
  Index                     133.4   132.0   131.7   132.9
  Percent change              0.2    -1.0    -0.2      .9
 Transportation:
  Index                     134.3   139.1   143.0   144.3
  Percent change              3.0     3.6     2.8     0.9
 Medical care:
  Index                     211.0   220.5   228.2   234.6
  Percent change              4.8     4.5     3.5     2.8
Other goods and services:
  Index                     198.5   206.9   215.4   224.8
  Percent change              2.9     4.2     4.1     4.4

Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners
and Clerical Workers:
All items
  Index                     145.6   149.8   154.1   157.6
  Percent change              2.5     2.9     2.9     2.3


[TABULAR DATA 31-33 NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

33. Annual data: Producer Price Indexes, by stage of processing [1982 = 100]
  Index                       1989    1990    1991    1992

  Finished goods
Total                        113.6   119.2   121.7   123.2
  Foods                      118.7   124.4   124.1   123.3
  Energy                      65.7    75.0    78.1    77.8
  Other                      122.1   126.6   131.1   134.2

  Intermediate materials,
  supplies, and components
Total                        112.0   114.5   114.4   114.7
  Foods                      112.7   117.9   115.3   113.9
  Energy                      76.1    85.5    85.1    84.3
  Other                      120.2   120.9   121.4   122.0

  Crude materials for
  further processing
Total                        103.1   108.9   101.2   100.4
  Foods                      111.2   113.1   105.5   105.1
  Energy                      75.9    85.9    80.4    78.8
  Other                       95.8   107.3    97.5    94.2

  Index                       1993    1994    1995    1996    1997

  Finished goods
Total                        124.7   125.5   127.9   131.3   131.8
  Foods                      125.7   126.8   129.0   133.6   134.5
  Energy                      78.0    77.0    78.1    83.2    83.4
  Other                      135.8   137.1   140.0   142.0   142.4

  Intermediate
  materials, supplies,
  and components
Total                        116.2   118.5   124.9   125.7   125.6
  Foods                      115.6   118.5   119.5   125.3   123.2
  Energy                      84.6   83.01    84.1    89.8    89.0
  Other                      123.8   127.1   135.2   134.0   134.2

  Crude materials for
  further processing
Total                        102.4   101.8   102.7   113.8   111.1
  Foods                      108.4   106.5   105.8   121.5   112.2
  Energy                      76.7    72.1    69.4    85.0    87.3
  Other                       94.1    97.0   105.8   105.7   103.5


[TABULAR DATA 34-35 NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

36. U.S. export price indexes by end-use category

[1995 = 100]
          Category                 1997                1997
                                Nov.    Dec.    Jan.    Feb.    Mar.

ALL COMMODITIES                 98.6    98.2    97.5    97.2    96.6
 Foods, feeds, and beverages   100.2    99.3    96.9    95.0    93.8
  Agricultural foods, feeds,   100.7   100.0    97.6    96.2    94.7
   and beverages
  Nonagricultural (fish,        95.7    94.1    90.9    83.8    85.6
   beverages) food products
 Industrial supplies and        94.5    93.7    92.3    92.0    90.9
  materials
  Agricultural industrial       94.0    92.7    88.3    87.1    87.5
   supplies and materials
  Fuels and lubricants         110.7   110.2   107.1   106.1   103.3
  Nonagricultural supplies
   and materials, excluding
   fuel and building            92.3    91.4    90.4    90.3    89.7
   materials
  Selected building             89.3    89.3    89.1    88.5    88.0
   materials
 Capital goods                  99.3    98.9    98.8    98.8    98.5
  Electric and electrical      102.2   102.2   101.7   101.1   101.3
   generating equipment
  Nonelectrical machinery       96.4    95.9    95.8    95.8    95.5
 Automotive vehicles, parts,   102.3   102.3   102.3   102.2   102.2
  and engines
 Consumer goods, excluding     102.6   102.7   102.5   102.5   102.5
  automotive
  Nondurables, manufactured    102.0   102.1   102.2   102.2   102.3
  Durables, manufactured       102.1   102.0   101.7   101.6   101.3
Agricultural commodities        99.1    98.3    95.6    94.2    93.7
Nonagricultural commodities     98.5    98.1    97.7    97.5    97.2

          Category                         1998
                                Apr.     May    June    July

ALL COMMODITIES                 96.5    96.6    96.1    95.8
 Foods, feeds, and beverages    92.9    93.8    93.2    94.4
  Agricultural foods, feeds,    93.7    94.7    94.1    94.8
   and beverages
  Nonagricultural (fish,        85.7    85.6    84.7    91.5
   beverages) food products
 Industrial supplies and        91.0    90.9    90.4    89.3
  materials
  Agricultural industrial       87.0    87.5    90.3    88.9
   supplies and materials
  Fuels and lubricants         102.2   102.2   100.8    95.7
  Nonagricultural supplies
   and materials, excluding
   fuel and building            89.5    89.4    88.7    87.9
   materials
  Selected building             87.5    86.6    86.0    86.2
   materials
 Capital goods                  98.3    98.2    97.7    97.4
  Electric and electrical      100.8   100.8   100.5   100.5
   generating equipment
  Nonelectrical machinery       95.2    95.2    94.5    94.1
 Automotive vehicles, parts,   102.3   102.3   102.3   102.4
  and engines
 Consumer goods, excluding     102.2   102.3   101.9   101.9
  automotive
  Nondurables, manufactured    102.1   102.2   102.0   102.0
  Durables, manufactured       101.1   101.3   100.7   100.5
Agricultural commodities        92.2    93.1    93.1    93.4
Nonagricultural commodities     97.0    96.9    96.4    96.0

          Category                         1998
                                Aug.   Sept.    Oct.    Nov.

ALL COMMODITIES                 95.3    94.8    94.7    94.9
 Foods, feeds, and beverages    90.9    88.1    88.6    90.6
  Agricultural foods, feeds,    90.5    87.6    88.0    90.3
   and beverages
  Nonagricultural (fish,        97.0    94.9    96.1    95.8
   beverages) food products
 Industrial supplies and        88.9    88.0    87.5    87.4
  materials
  Agricultural industrial       87.6    86.0    84.6    82.9
   supplies and materials
  Fuels and lubricants          94.0    92.9    93.9    93.5
  Nonagricultural supplies
   and materials, excluding
   fuel and building            87.7    86.8    86.2    86.3
   materials
  Selected building             87.0    86.8    86.8    86.5
   materials
 Capital goods                  97.2    97.2    97.1    97.0
  Electric and electrical      100.2   100.1   100.0    99.7
   generating equipment
  Nonelectrical machinery       93.9    93.9    93.8    93.7
 Automotive vehicles, parts,   102.4   102.4   102.8   102.9
  and engines
 Consumer goods, excluding     101.9   102.0   102.1   102.1
  automotive
  Nondurables, manufactured    101.8   102.0   102.2   102.3
  Durables, manufactured       100.9   100.9   100.9   100.8
Agricultural commodities        89.6    87.0    87.1    88.6
Nonagricultural commodities     95.9    95.7    95.6    95.6


37. U.S. import price indexes by end-use category

[1995 = 100]
          Category                  1997                1998
                                Nov.    Dec.    Jan.    Feb.    Mar.

ALL COMMODITIES                 97.6    96.6    95.3    94.4    93.6
 Foods, feeds, and beverages    97.9    98.1    97.7    96.7    96.6
  Agricultural foods, feeds,    95.2    95.7    95.3    93.6    93.4
   and beverages
  Nonagricultural (fish,       105.2   104.1   103.9   104.7   104.9
   beverages) food products
 Industrial supplies and       101.8    98.6    94.6    92.2    89.9
  materials
  Fuels and lubricants         111.5   103.3    93.9    87.9    81.0
   Petroleum and petroleum     107.7   100.4    90.4    84.5    76.9
    products
  Paper and paper               84.4    83.3    82.4    81.3    81.6
   base stocks
  Materials associated with
   nondurable supplies and      94.3    93.8    92.7    92.2    91.8
   materials
  Selected building            108.3   107.6   105.0   104.7   104.6
   materials
  Unfinished metals             96.4    95.5    94.0    93.8    94.0
   associated with durable
   goods
  Nonmetals associated with     94.2    94.2    93.7    92.6   923.0
   durable goods
 Capital goods                  89.4    89.0    88.2    87.4    87.0
  Electric and electrical       96.6    96.0    95.5    95.8    95.5
   generating equipment
  Nonelectrical machinery       87.0    86.5    85.7    84.7    84.2
 Automotive vehicles, parts,   101.4   101.3   101.3   101.3   101.4
  and engines
 Consumer goods, excluding      99.1    99.2    99.0    99.2    98.6
  automotive
  Nondurables, manufactured    100.8   101.0   101.0   101.0   100.9
  Durables, manufactured        97.1    97.2    96.9    96.6    96.3
  Nonmanufactured consumer     100.1    99.4    98.9   105.8    98.1
   goods

          Category                          1998
                                Apr.     May    June    July

ALL COMMODITIES                 93.3    93.2    92.6    91.8
 Foods, feeds, and beverages    97.4    96.4    97.1    96.3
  Agricultural foods, feeds,    94.3    92.7    92.8    92.6
   and beverages
  Nonagricultural (fish,       105.5   105.8   108.3   105.9
   beverages) food products
 Industrial supplies and        89.7    89.9    88.2    86.4
  materials
  Fuels and lubricants          81.2    81.7    78.5    75.1
   Petroleum and petroleum      77.2    77.6    74.2    70.2
    products
  Paper and paper               81.4    80.9    81.7    81.2
   base stocks
  Materials associated with
   nondurable supplies and      91.3    91.3    91.1    89.8
   materials
  Selected building            104.3   102.5    99.7   102.8
   materials
  Unfinished metals             94.1    95.4    92.9    90.6
   associated with durable
   goods
  Nonmetals associated with     91.6    91.3    91.5    90.2
   durable goods
 Capital goods                  86.5    86.2    85.6   850.0
  Electric and electrical       95.0    94.7    94.8    94.1
   generating equipment
  Nonelectrical machinery       83.7    83.4    82.7    82.0
 Automotive vehicles, parts,   101.3   101.1   101.0   100.9
  and engines
 Consumer goods, excluding      98.3    98.3    98.2    98.1
  automotive

  Nondurables, manufactured    100.7   100.7   100.9   100.8
  Durables, manufactured        95.9    95.8    95.3    95.1
  Nonmanufactured consumer      97.5    99.3    98.7    98.7
   goods

          Category                          1998
                                Aug.   Sept.    Oct.    Nov.

ALL COMMODITIES                 91.4    91.6    91.8    91.3
 Foods, feeds, and beverages    94.0    95.4    96.4    95.1
  Agricultural foods, feeds,    89.9    91.7    93.0    91.7
   and beverages
  Nonagricultural (fish,       104.9   104.8   105.2   103.8
   beverages) food products
 Industrial supplies and        85.8    86.8    87.0    84.8
  materials
  Fuels and lubricants          74.2    78.2    79.6    73.3
   Petroleum and petroleum      69.8    74.3    75.8    68.3
    products
  Paper and paper               80.2    80.0    80.2    79.3
   base stocks
  Materials associated with
   nondurable supplies and      88.8    88.5    88.6    89.2
   materials
  Selected building            104.2   104.4   101.0   101.9
   materials
  Unfinished metals             90.1    88.9    88.6    87.4
   associated with durable
   goods
  Nonmetals associated with     89.7    88.9    88.5    88.6
   durable goods
 Capital goods                  84.9    84.5    84.4    84.7
  Electric and electrical       94.1    92.6    92.9    93.6
   generating equipment
  Nonelectrical machinery       81.9    81.6    81.5    81.7
 Automotive vehicles, parts,   100.7   100.6   100.8   101.2
  and engines
 Consumer goods, excluding      97.9    97.8    98.1    98.2
  automotive
  Nondurables, manufactured    100.8   100.8   101.1   101.2
  Durables, manufactured        94.9    94.7    95.0    95.3
  Nonmanufactured consumer      97.1    97.6    97.7    96.7
   goods


38. U.S. international price Indexes for selected categories of services

[1990 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]
               Category                   1996
                                      Sept.    Dec.

Air freight (inbound) (9/90 = 100)     95.6    95.0
Air freight (outbound) (9/92 = 100)    98.9    99.2
Air passenger fares (U.S. carriers)   107.3   101.6
Air passenger fares
 (foreign carriers)                   105.5   100.7
Ocean liner freight (inbound)          98.0    98.4

               Category                           1997
                                       Mar.    June   Sept.   Dec.

Air freight (inbound) (9/90 = 100)     89.5    89.9    88.5   86.5
Air freight (outbound) (9/92 = 100)    99.8    99.2    99.6   97.7
Air passenger fares (U.S. carriers)    97.1   112.1   109.2   99.5
Air passenger fares
 (foreign carriers)                    98.5   106.1   104.6   99.7
Ocean liner freight (inbound)          97.6    96.8    94.9   92.9

               Category                       1998
                                       Mar.    June   Sept.

Air freight (inbound) (9/90 = 100)     82.9    83.4    81.8
Air freight (outbound) (9/92 = 100)    97.2    96.0    95.8
Air passenger fares (U.S. carriers)    99.3   107.8   107.3
Air passenger fares
 (foreign carriers)                    97.6   102.4   104.0
Ocean liner freight (inbound)          93.0   103.2   105.0


39. Indexes of productivity, hourly compensation, and unit costs, quarterly data seasonally adjusted

[1992 = 100]
                                        Quarterly indexes
                              1995                 1996
           Item                 IV       I      II      III       IV

         Business
Output per hour of all       101.8   103.0   103.8    103.8    104.2
 persons
Compensation per hour        108.2   108.9   110.4    111.4    112.3
Real compensation per
 hour                         98.6    98.5    98.9     99.3     99.2
Unit labor costs             106.2   105.7   106.3    107.3    107.8
Unit nonlabor payments       109.6   111.9   112.1    111.5    111.8
Implicit price deflator      107.4   107.9   108.4    108.8    109.2

     Nonfarm business
Output per hour of all       102.0   103.1   103.8    103.8    104.0
 persons
Compensation per hour        108.0   108.7   110.1    111.0    111.9
Real compensation per
 hour                         98.4    98.3    98.7     98.9     98.9
Unit labor costs             105.8   105.4   106.0    107.0    107.5
Unit nonlabor payments       110.3   112.3   112.3    111.6    112.2
Implicit price deflator      107.4   107.9   108.2    108.6    109.2

Nonfinancial corporations
Output per hour of all       106.1   106.4   107.3    108.0    108.6
 employees
Compensation per hour        107.3   107.7   109.0    110.1    110.8
Real compensation per
 hour                         97.8    97.4    97.7     98.1     97.9
Total unit costs             100.5   100.6   100.7    100.8    100.9
Unit labor costs             101.1   101.2   101.7    101.9    102.1
Unit nonlabor costs           98.8    98.7    97.9     97.5     97.4
Unit profits                 149.0   153.7   154.1    155.3    155.4
Unit nonlabor payments       112.7   113.9   113.5    113.5    113.5
Implicit price deflator      104.9   105.4   105.5    105.7    105.8

       Manufacturing
Output per hour of all       110.8   111.9   113.2    114.7    115.5
 persons
Compensation per hour        109.3   109.2   110.3    111.2    111.9
Real compensation per
 hour                         99.6    98.8    98.9     99.1     98.9
Unit labor costs              98.6    97.6    97.5     97.0     96.9

                                      Quarterly indexes
                                            1997
           Item                  I      II     III       IV

         Business
Output per hour of all       104.4   104.8   105.8    106.0
 persons
Compensation per hour        113.2   113.9   115.0    116.5
Real compensation per
 hour                         99.5    99.8   100.3    101.0
Unit labor costs             108.5   108.7   108.8    109.9
Unit nonlabor payments       112.4   113.2   113.8    112.4
Implicit price deflator      109.9   110.3   110.6    110.8

     Nonfarm business
Output per hour of all       104.1   104.5   105.4    105.6
 persons
Compensation per hour        112.9   113.6   114.6    116.0
Real compensation per
 hour                         99.2    99.5    99.9    100.6
Unit labor costs             108.5   108.7   108.8    109.8
Unit nonlabor payments       112.9   113.7   114.6    113.3
Implicit price deflator      110.0   110.4   110.8    111.1

Nonfinancial corporations
Output per hour of all       108.9   109.6   111.1    111.3
 employees
Compensation per hour        111.8   112.5   113.6    115.0
Real compensation per
 hour                         98.2    98.5    99.0     99.7
Total unit costs             101.2   101.2   100.7    101.3
Unit labor costs             102.6   102.6   102.3    103.3
Unit nonlabor costs           97.3    97.1    96.4     95.7
Unit profits                 156.6   157.3   161.7    155.7
Unit nonlabor payments       113.7   113.8   114.5    112.3
Implicit price deflator      106.2   106.3   106.3    106.3

       Manufacturing
Output per hour of all       116.7   118.1   120.7    121.9
 persons
Compensation per hour        113.1   114.2   115.7    118.0
Real compensation per
 hour                         99.4   100.0   100.9    102.3
Unit labor costs              97.0    96.7    95.9     96.8

                                   Quarterly indexes
                                          1998
           Item                  I      II     III       IV

         Business
Output per hour of all       107.1   107.1   107.8    108.8
 persons
Compensation per hour        117.9   119.1   120.2    121.4
Real compensation per
 hour                        102.2   102.7   103.2    103.7
Unit labor costs             110.2   111.2   111.5    111.5
Unit nonlabor payments       112.2   110.5   110.4    110.6
Implicit price deflator      110.9   111.0   111.1    111.2

     Nonfarm business
Output per hour of all       106.6   106.6   107.3    108.3
 persons
Compensation per hour        117.4   118.5   119.7    120.7
Real compensation per
 hour                        101.7   102.2   102.7    103.1
Unit labor costs             110.1   111.1   111.5    111.5
Unit nonlabor payments       113.2   111.6   111.4    111.7
Implicit price deflator      111.2   111.3   111.5    111.6

Nonfinancial corporations
Output per hour of all       112.1   112.9   114.1        -
 employees
Compensation per hour        116.0   117.3   118.5        -
Real compensation per
 hour                        100.5   101.1   101.7        -
Total unit costs             101.4   101.7   101.6        -
Unit labor costs             103.5   103.9   103.8        -
Unit nonlabor costs           95.4    95.5    95.2        -
Unit profits                 153.5   150.4   151.8        -
Unit nonlabor payments       111.5   110.7   110.9        -
Implicit price deflator      106.2   106.1   106.1        -

       Manufacturing
Output per hour of all       122.4   123.6   125.0    126.8
 persons
Compensation per hour        119.2   119.9   120.9    121.8
Real compensation per
 hour                        103.2   103.4   103.7    104.0
Unit labor costs              97.3    97.0    96.7     96.1


- Data not available.

40. Annual indexes of multifactor productivity and related measures, selected years

[1992 = 100]
                Item                    1960    1970    1980    1989

          Private business
Productivity:
Output per hour of all persons          50.8    70.1    83.8    95.5
Output per unit of capital services    117.3   117.1   107.3   103.8
Multifactor productivity                70.7    86.5    95.3   100.0
Output                                  34.0    51.6    72.6    97.8
Inputs:
Labor input                             60.6    68.3    80.5    99.6
Capital services                        29.0    44.1    67.7    94.2
Combined units of labor and capital     48.0    59.7   762.0    97.8
 input
Capital per hour of all persons         43.3    59.9    78.1    92.0

      Private nonfarm business
Productivity:
Output per hour of all persons          54.3    72.2    85.6    95.9
Output per unit of capital services    126.1   124.1   111.4   104.6
Multifactor productivity                74.9    89.4    97.6   100.5
Output                                  33.7    51.8    73.1    98.1
Inputs:
Labor input                             56.4    66.6    79.3    99.5
Capital services                        26.7    41.8    65.6    93.9
Combined units of labor and capital     45.0    58.0    74.9    97.7
 input
Capital per hour of all persons         43.0    58.2    76.8    91.7

           Manufacturing
Productivity:
Output per hour of all persons          42.1    54.5    70.4    90.7
Output per unit of capital services    125.6   116.3   101.5   103.5
Multifactor productivity                72.9    84.2    87.3   100.4
Output                                  38.7    56.8    75.7    97.1
Inputs:
Hours of all persons                    92.0   104.2   107.5   107.1
Capital services                                48.8    74.6    93.8

                Item                    1990    1991    1993    1994

          Private business
Productivity:
Output per hour of all persons          96.1    96.7   100.1   100.6
Output per unit of capital services    102.1    98.6   100.7   102.3
Multifactor productivity                99.6    98.1   100.1   100.6
Output                                  98.6    96.9   102.7   107.0
Inputs:
Labor input                            100.2    99.0   102.9   107.1
Capital services                        96.5    98.3   102.0   104.6
Combined units of labor and capital     99.0    98.7   102.6   106.3
 input
Capital per hour of all persons         94.1    98.1    99.4    98.3

      Private nonfarm business
Productivity:
Output per hour of all persons          96.3    96.9   100.1   100.6
Output per unit of capital services    102.6    98.8   100.8   102.1
Multifactor productivity                99.8    98.4   100.1   100.5
Output                                  98.8    97.0   103.0   107.1
Inputs:
Labor input                            100.2    98.8   103.1   107.2
Capital services                        96.3    98.2   102.2   104.8
Combined units of labor and capital     99.0    98.6   102.9   106.5
 input
Capital per hour of all persons         93.8    98.1    99.3    98.5

           Manufacturing
Productivity:
Output per hour of all persons          93.0    95.1   102.2   105.3
Output per unit of capital services    101.3    97.3   101.8   105.2
Multifactor productivity                99.8    98.6   101.2   104.4
Output                                  97.5    95.5   103.6   109.1
Inputs:
Hours of all persons                   104.8   100.4   101.4   103.6
Capital services                        96.3    98.2   101.7   103.6

                Item                          1995    1996     1997

          Private business
Productivity:
Output per hour of all persons               101.0   103.7    105.2
Output per unit of capital services          101.9   102.3    102.6
Multifactor productivity                     100.7   102.4    103.1
Output                                       110.0   114.7    120.1
Inputs:
Labor input                                  109.8   112.3    116.2
Capital services                             108.0   112.2    117.1
Combined units of labor and capital          109.3   112.1   1165.0
 input
Capital per hour of all persons               99.2   101.4    102.6

      Private nonfarm business
Productivity:
Output per hour of all persons               101.2   103.7    104.9
Output per unit of capital services          101.8   102.1    102.1
Multifactor productivity                     100.8   102.3    102.7
Output                                       110.4   115.0    120.2
Inputs:
Labor input                                  109.9   112.3    116.6
Capital services                             108.4   112.6    117.7
Combined units of labor and capital          109.5   112.4    117.0
 input
Capital per hour of all persons               99.4   101.6    102.8

           Manufacturing
Productivity:
Output per hour of all persons               109.4   113.8        -
Output per unit of capital services          106.8   107.0        -
Multifactor productivity                     108.4   110.7        -
Output                                       113.8   118.0        -
Inputs:
Hours of all persons                         104.0   103.7        -
Capital services                             106.6   110.3        -


- Data not available.

NOTE: Productivity and output in this table have not been revised for consistency with the December 1991 comprehensive revisions to the National Income and Product Accounts.

41. Annual indexes of productivity, hourly compensation, unit costs, and prices, selected years

[1992 = 100]
           Item              1960   1970    1980    1988   1989

         Business

Output per hour              51.4   70.6    84.2    94.7   95.5
 of all persons
Compensation per hour        13.7   23.6    54.5    83.6   85.9
Real compensation per hour   64.7   85.4    92.8    99.1   97.2
Unit labor costs             26.6   33.5    64.7    88.3   90.0
Unit nonlabor payments       24.6   30.6    59.6    64.1   91.3
Implicit price deflator      25.8   32.4    62.8    86.8   90.4

     Nonfarm business

Output per hour              54.8   72.7    86.0    95.3   95.8
 of all persons
Compensation per hour        14.3   23.8    54.8    83.7   86.0
Real compensation per hour   67.8   86.1    93.4    99.3   97.3
Unit labor costs             26.1   32.8    63.8    87.8   89.7
Unit nonlabor payments       24.0   30.3    58.6    83.8   90.7
Implicit price deflator      25.3   31.9    61.9    86.4   90.0

Nonfinancial corporations

Output per hour              54.5   69.1    80.4    96.9   95.5
 of all employees
Compensation per hour        15.6   25.4    56.7    64.9   87.1
Real compensation per hour   73.9   91.7    96.5   100.7   98.5
Total unit costs             27.8   36.1    70.2    88.2   92.5
Unit labor costs             28.6   36.7    91.0    87.7   91.1
Unit nonlabor costs          25.3   34.3    69.2    89.7   96.3
Unit profits                 47.7   42.0    64.4   103.8   96.0
Unit nonlabor payments       31.5   36.4    67.9    93.6   96.2
Implicit price deflator      29.6   36.6    69.7    89.6   92.8

      Manufacturing

Output per hour              42.1   54.4    70.4    90.5    90.7
 of all persons
Compensation per hour        14.9   23.8    55.8    64.2    86.9
Real compensation per hour   70.7   86.2    95.0    99.9    98.3
Unit labor costs             35.5   43.8    79.3    93.0    95.8
Unit nonlabor payments       26.7   29.3    79.7    90.3    95.1
Implicit price deflator      30.1   34.9    79.5    91.4    95.3

           Item              1990   1991    1994    1995    1996

         Business

Output per hour              96.1   96.7   100.7   101.0   103.7
 of all persons
Compensation per hour        90.8   95.1   104.4   106.8   110.7
Real compensation per hour   97.4   98.0    98.8    98.4    99.0
Unit labor costs             94.4   98.3   103.7   105.8   106.8
Unit nonlabor payments       93.5   96.6   106.8   108.8   111.8
Implicit price deflator      94.1   97.7   104.8   106.9   108.6

     Nonfarm business

Output per hour              96.3   97.0   100.6   101.2   103.7
 of all persons
Compensation per hour        90.7   95.1   104.2   106.7   110.4
Real compensation per hour   97.3   98.0    98.7    98.2    98.7
Unit labor costs             94.2   98.1   103.6   105.4   106.5
Unit nonlabor payments       93.1   96.8   107.3   109.9   112.1
Implicit price deflator      93.8   97.6   104.9   107.0   108.5

Nonfinancial corporations

Output per hour              96.1    97.6    103.5   104.7   107.6
 of all employees
Compensation per hour        91.5    95.7    104.1   106.2   109.5
Real compensation per hour   98.2    98.5     98.5    97.8    97.9
Total unit costs             96.2    99.3    100.3   100.8   100.7
Unit labor costs             95.2    98.0    100.6   101.4   101.7
Unit nonlabor costs          99.1   103.0     99.7    99.0    97.9
Unit profits                 94.6    93.9    134.5   143.6   154.6
Unit nonlabor payments       97.9   100.5    109.4   111.4   113.6
Implicit price deflator      96.1    98.8    103.4   104.7   105.6

      Manufacturing

Output per hour              93.0    95.1    105.3   109.4   113.8
 of all persons
Compensation per hour        91.0    95.8    105.8   108.3   110.7
Real compensation per hour   97.7    98.7    100.1    99.7    99.0
Unit labor costs             97.9   100.7    100.5    99.0    97.2
Unit nonlabor payments       99.4    98.8    102.8   106.9   109.5
Implicit price deflator      98.8    99.5    100.9   101.9   103.9

           Item                1997    1998

         Business

Output per hour               105.2   107.7
 of all persons
Compensation per hour         114.7   119.7
Real compensation per hour    100.3   103.0
Unit labor costs              109.0   111.1
Unit nonlabor payments        112.9   110.9
Implicit price deflator       110.4   111.0

     Nonfarm business

Output per hour               104.9   107.2
 of all persons
Compensation per hour         114.3   119.1
Real compensation per hour     99.9   102.5
Unit labor costs              108.9   111.1
Unit nonlabor payments        113.6   112.0
Implicit price deflator       110.6   111.4

Nonfinancial corporations

Output per hour               110.3      -
 of all employees
Compensation per hour         113.3      -
Real compensation per hour     99.0      -
Total unit costs              101.1      -
Unit labor costs              102.7      -
Unit nonlabor costs            96.6      -
Unit profits                  157.8      -
Unit nonlabor payments        113.6      -
Implicit price deflator       106.3      -

      Manufacturing

Output per hour               119.4   124.4
 of all persons
Compensation per hour         115.3   120.4
Real compensation per hour    100.8   103.7
Unit labor costs               96.6    96.8
Unit nonlabor payments           -       -
Implicit price deflator          -       -


[TABULAR DATA 42 NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

43. Unemployment rates, approximating U.S. concepts, in nine countries, quarterly data seasonally adjusted
Country            Annual
                   average     1996             1997
                 1996   1997    IV      I      II    III    IV

United States     5.4    4.9    5.3    5.3    4.9    4.9    4.7
Canada            9.7    9.2    9.9    9.6    9.4    9.0    8.9
Australia         8.6    8.6    8.6    8.7    8.7    8.6    8.3
Japan             3.4    3.4    3.3    3.3    3.4    3.4    3.5

France           12.5   12.4   12.6   12.4   12.5   12.5   12.3
Germany           7.2      -    7.5    7.7    7.7    7.8    7.8
Italy            12.1   12.3   12.0   12.3   12.3   12.2   12.3
Sweden            9.9      -   10.4   10.6   10.4    9.5    8.8
United Kingdom    8.2      -    7.9    7.4    7.2    6.9    6.6

Country                 1998
                   I     II     III

United States     4.7    4.4     4.6
Canada            8.6    8.4     8.3
Australia         8.1    8.1     8.2
Japan             3.7    4.2     4.3

France           12.0   11.8    11.7
Germany           7.7    7.5     7.4
Italy            12.1   12.4    12.4
Sweden            8.4    8.2     8.2
United Kingdom    6.4    6.2     6.3


(1) Quarterly rates are for the first month of the quarter,

- Data not available.

NOTE: Quarterly figures for France, Germany, and the United Kingdom are calculated by applying annual adjustment factors to current published data, and therefore should be viewed as less precise indicators of unemployment under U.S. concepts than the annual figures. See "Notes on the data" for information on breaks in series. For further qualifications and historical data, see Comparative Labor Force Statistics, 10 Countries (Bureau of Labor Statistics, August 1996).

44. Annual data: Employment status of the working-age population, approximating U.S. concepts, 10 countries
[Numbers in thousands]

Employment status and country       1988      1989      1990

Civilian labor force

United States'                    21,669   123,869   125,840
Canada                            13,900    14,151    14,329
Australia                          7,974     8,228     8,444
Japan                             60,860    61,920    63,050
France                            23,980    24,170    24,300
Germany                           28,610    28,840    29,410
Italy                             22,680    22,530    22,670
Netherlands                        6,310     6,430     6,640
Sweden                             4,494     4,552     4,597
United Kingdom                    28,270    28,580    28,730

Participation rate(2)

United States'                      65.9      68.5      66.5
Canada                              67.2      67.5      67.3
Australia                           63.3      64.0      64.6
Japan                               61.9      62.2      62.6
France                              56.2      56.1      56.0
Germany                             55.1      55.2      55.3
Italy                               47.4      47.3      47.2
Netherlands                         54.2      54.7      56.1
Sweden                              68.9      67.3      67.4
United Kingdom                      63.5      64.0      64.1

Employed

United States'                   114,968   117,342   118,793
Canada                            12,819    13,086    13,165
Australia                          7,398     7,720     7,859
Japan                             59,310    60,500    61,710
France                            21,520    21,850    22,100
Germany                           26,800    27,200    27,950
Italy                             20,870    20,770    21,080
Netherlands                        5,830     5,980     6,230
Sweden                             4,410     4,480     4,513
United Kingdom                    25,850    26,510    26,740

Employment-population ratio(3)

United States'                      62.3      63.0      62.8
Canada                              62.0      62.4      61.9
Australia                           58.7      60.1      60.1
Japan                               60.4      60.8      61.3
France                              50.4      50.7      50.9
Germany                             51.6      52.0      52.6
Italy                               43.7      43.6      43.9
Netherlands                         50.0      50.9      52.6
Sweden                              65.7      66.2      66.1
United Kingdom                      58.1      59.3      59.6

Unemployed

United States'                     6,701     6,528     7,047
Canada                             1,082     1,065     1,164
Australia                            576       508       585
Japan                              1,550     1,420     1,340
France                             2,460     2,320     2,200
Germany                            1,810     1,640     1,460
Italy                              1,790     1,760     1,590
Netherlands                          480       450       410
Sweden                                84        72        84
United Kingdom                     2,420     2,070     1,990

Unemployment rate

United States'                       5.5       5.3       5.8
Canada                               7.8       7.5       8.1
Australia                            7.2       6.2       6.9
Japan                                2.5       2.3       2.1
France                              10.3       9.6       9.1
Germany                              6.3       5.7       5.0
Italy                                7.9       7.8       7.0
Netherlands                          7.6       7.2       6.2
Sweden                               1.9       7.0       1.8
United Kingdom                       8.6       1.6       6.9

Employment status and country       1991      1992      1993

Civilian labor force

United States'                   126,346   128,105   129,200
Canada                            14,408    14,482    14,663
Australia                          8,490     8,562     8,619
Japan                             64,280    65,040    65,470
France                            24,490    24,570    24,660
Germany                           29,760    30,030    29,950
Italy                             22,940    22,910    22,760
Netherlands                        6,750     6,950     7,090
Sweden                             4,591     4,520     4,443
United Kingdom                    28,610    28,410    28,310

Participation rate(2)

United States'                      66.2      66.4      66.3
Canada                              66.7      65.9      65.5
Australia                           64.1      63.9      63.6
Japan                               63.2      63.4      63.3
France                              56.0      55.8      55.6
Germany                             55.4      55.1      54.2
Italy                               47.7      47.5      48.1
Netherlands                         56.5      57.8      58.5
Sweden                              67.0      65.7      64.5
United Kingdom                      63.7      63.1      82.8

Employed

United States'                   117,718   118,492   120,259
Canada                            12,916    12,842    13,015
Australia                          7,676     7,637     7,680
Japan                             62,920    63,620    63,810
France                            22,140    22,010    21,750
Germany                           28,480    28,660    28,230
Italy                             21,360    21,230    20,430
Netherlands                        6,350     6,560     6,620
Sweden                             4,447     4,265     4,028
United Kingdom                    26,090    25,530    25,340

Employment-population ratio(3)

United States'                     61.70     61.50     61.70
Canada                             59.80     58.40     58.20
Australia                          57.90     57.00     56.60
Japan                              61.80     62.00     61.70
France                             50.60     50.00     49.10
Germany                            53.00     52.60     51.10
Italy                              44.50     44.00     43.10
Netherlands                        53.20     54.50     54.70
Sweden                             64.90     62.00     58.50
United Kingdom                     58.00     56.70     56.20

Unemployed

United States'                     8,628     9,613     8,940
Canada                             1,492     1,640     1,649
Australia                            814       925       939
Japan                              1,360     1,420     1,660
France                             2,350     2,560     2,910
Germany                            1,280     1,370     1,720
Italy                              1,580     1,680     2,330
Netherlands                          400       390       470
Sweden                               144       255       415
United Kingdom                     2,520     2,880     2,970

Unemployment rate

United States'                       6.8       7.5       6.9
Canada                              10.4      11.3      11.2
Australia                            9.6      10.8      10.9
Japan                                2.1       2.2       2.5
France                               9.6      10.4      11.8
Germany                              4.3       4.6       5.7
Italy                                6.9       7.3      10.2
Netherlands                          5.9       5.6       6.6
Sweden                               3.1       5.6       9.3
United Kingdom                       8.8      10.1      10.5

Employment status and country      1994      1995      1996

Civilian labor force

United States'                   131,056   132,304   133,943
Canada                            14,832    14,928    15,145
Australia                          8,776     9,001     9,127
Japan                             65,780    65,990    66,450
France                            24,760    24,810    25,080
Germany                           29,860    29,710    29,590
Italy                             22,640    22,700    22,820
Netherlands                        7,190     7,270     7,320
Sweden                             4,418     4,460     4,459
United Kingdom                    28,280    28,480    28,620

Participation rate(2)

United States'                      66.6      66.6      66.8
Canada                              65.3      64.8      64.9
Australia                           63.9      64.6      64.6
Japan                               63.1      62.9      63.0
France                              55.5      55.2      55.4
Germany                             53.7      53.2      52.8
Italy                               47.5      47.6      47.7
Netherlands                         59.0      59.3      59.4
Sweden                              63.9      64.3      64.3
United Kingdom                      62.5      62.7      62.7

Employed

United States'                   123,060   124,900   126,708
Canada                            13,292    13,506    13,676
Australia                          7,921     8,235     8,344
Japan                             63,860    63,890    64,200
France                            21,710    21,890    21,950
Germany                           27,920    27,770    27,470
Italy                             20,080    19,970    20,050
Netherlands                        6,670     6,760     6,850
Sweden                             3,992     4,056     4,019
United Kingdom                    25,550    26,000    26,280

Employment-population ratio(3)

United States'                     62.50     62.90     63.20
Canada                             58.50     58.60     58.60
Australia                          57.70     59.10     59.10
Japan                              61.30     60.90     60.90
France                             48.70     48.70     48.50
Germany                            50.20     49.70     49.00
Italy                              42.10     41.80     41.90
Netherlands                        54.70     55.20     55.60
Sweden                             57.60     58.40     57.90
United Kingdom                     56.50     57.20     57.60

Unemployed

United States'                     7,996     7,404     7,236
Canada                           1,541       1,422     1,469
Australia                            856       766       783
Japan                              1,920     2,100     2,250
France                             3,050     2,920     3,130
Germany                            1,940     1,940     2,120
Italy                              2,560     2,720     2,760
Netherlands                          520       510       470
Sweden                               426       404       440
United Kingdom                     2,730     2,480     2,340

Unemployment rate

United States'                       6.1       5.6       5.4
Canada                              10.4       9.5       9.7
Australia                            9.7       8.5       8.6
Japan                                2.9       3.2       3.4
France                              12.3      11.8      12.5
Germany                              6.5       6.5       7.2
Italy                               11.3      12.0      12.1
Netherlands                          7.2       7.0       6.4
Sweden                               9.6       9.1       9.9
United Kingdom                       9.7       8.7       8.2

Employment status and country        1997

Civilian labor force

United States'                     136,297
Canada                              15,354
Australia                            9,220
Japan                               67,200
France                              25,170
Germany
Italy                               22,860
Netherlands                             -
Sweden                                  -
United Kingdom

Participation rate(2)

United States'                        67.1
Canada                                64.8
Australia                             64.3
Japan                                 63.2
France                                55.2
Germany                                 -
Italy                                 47.7
Netherlands                             -
Sweden                                  -
United Kingdom                          -

Employed

United States'                     129,558
Canada                              13,941
Australia                            8,429
Japan                               64,900
France                              22,040
Germany                                 -
Italy                               20,050
Netherlands                             -
Sweden                                  -
United Kingdom

Employment-population ratio(3)

United States'                       63.80
Canada                               58.90
Australia                            58.80
Japan                                61.00
France                               48.40
Germany                                 -
Italy                                41.90
Netherlands                             -
Sweden                                  -
United Kingdom                          -

Unemployed

United States'                       6,739
Canada                               1,414
Australia                              791
Japan                                2,300
France                               3,130
Germany                                 -
Italy                                2,810
Netherlands                             -
Sweden                                  -
United Kingdom                          -

Unemployment rate

United States'                         4.9
Canada                                 9.2
Australia                              8.6
Japan                                  3.4
France                                12.4
Germany                                 -
Italy                                 12.3
Netherlands                             -
Sweden                                  -
United Kingdom                          -


(1) Data for 1994 are not directly comparable with data for 1993 and earlier years. For additional information, see the box note under "Employment and Unemployment Data" in the notes to this section.

(2) Labor force as a percent of the working-age population.

(3) Employment as a percent of the working-age population.

NOTE: See "Notes on the data" for information on breaks in series for the Unitex States, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and Sweden. Dash indicates data no available. available.

45. Annual indexes of manufacturing productivity and related measures, 12 countries

[1992= 100]
   Item and country        1960    1970    1973    1980

    Output per hour

United States                -       -       -     71.9
Canada                     40.7    59.2    69.6    75.2
Japan                      14.0    38.0    48.1    63.9
Belgium                    17.8    32.7    42.6    64.5
Denmark                    29.9    52.7    66.9    90.3
France                     23.0    45.5    53.9    70.5
Germany                    29.1    52.0    61.0    77.2
Italy                      19.6    36.8    43.9    64.0
Netherlands                19.5    38.6    48.8    69.8
Norway                     36.7    57.8    67.6    76.7
Sweden                     27.6    52.8    62.1    74.0
United Kingdom             30.2    43.3    51.4    54.4

        Output

United States                -       -       -     77.3
Canada                     34.2    60.5    76.8    85.4
Japan                      10.7    38.8    50.0    59.9
Belgium                    30.7    57.6    70.6    78.2
Denmark                    40.8    68.0    79.5    91.3
France                     32.4    66.9    80.1    92.7
Germany                    41.5    70.9    78.5    85.3
Italy                      21.5    44.8    54.1    78.7
Netherlands                31.9    59.8    68.0    77.8
Norway                     56.5    89.1     2.2   103.6
Sweden                     46.5    81.7    88.5    91.8
United Kingdom             67.8    90.4    99.7    87.2

      Total hours

United States              92.2   104.5    10.5   107.6
Canada                     84.2   102.2    10.4   113.6
Japan                      76.3   102.3     4.0    93.8
Belgium                   172.1   176.3    65.6   121.4
Denmark                   136.5   129.0    18.8   101.1
France                    140.6   147.0   148.7   131.5
Germany                   142.6   136.3   128.6   110.5
Italy                     109.6   121.8   123.4   123.0
Netherlands               163.3   155.1   139.3   111.4
Norway                    154.0   154.3   151.2   135.0
Sweden                    168.3   154.7   142.6   124.0
United Kingdom            224.6   208.8   194.1   160.5

 Compensation per hour

United States              14.9    23.8    28.6    55.8
Canada                     10.6    18.1    22.3    48.3
Japan                       4.3    16.5    26.8    58.6
Belgium                     5.6    14.1    21.7    52.7
Denmark                     4.6    13.3    20.5    49.6
France                      4.3    10.5    14.9    41.3
Germany                     8.1    20.8    29.1    53.8
Italy                       1.6     4.6     7.0    27.9
Netherlands                 6.4    20.3    31.8    64.7
Norway                      4.7     1.8    17.0    39.0
Sweden                      4.1    10.8    15.2    37.4
United Kingdom              3.1     6.4     9.6    33.7

  Unit labor costs:
National currency basis

United States                -       -       -     77.6
Canada                     26.0    30.5    32.0    64.2
Japan                      30.9    43.3    55.7    91.7
Belgium                    31.2    43.3    50.8    81.8
Denmark                    15.4    25.2    30.6    55.0
France                     18.7    23.0    27.6    58.6
Germany                    28.0    40.0    47.7    69.7
Italy                       8.0    12.6    16.0    43.7
Netherlands                33.0    52.7    65.1    92.7
Norway                     12.9    20.4    25.1    50.8
Sweden                     14.9    20.5    24.4    50.6
United Kingdom             10.3    14.8    18.8    62.1

  Unit labor costs:
   U.S. dollar basis

United States                -       -       -     77.6
Canada                     32.4    35.3    38.7    66.4
Japan                      10.9    15.3    26.1    51.5
Belgium                    20.1    28.0    42.1    90.0
Denmark                    13.5    20.3    30.7    58.9
France                     20.2    22.0    32.9    73.5
Germany                    10.5    17.1    28.1    59.9
Italy                      15.9    24.7    34.0    62.9
Netherlands                15.4    25.6    41.2    82.1
Norway                     11.3    17.8    27.2    63.9
Sweden                     16.8    23.0    32.7    69.6
United Kingdom             16.4    20.1    26.0    81.7

   Item and country        1987    1988    1989    1990     1991

    Output per hour

United States              94.3    97.8    97.0    97.7     98.2
Canada                     91.1    91.0    92.4    95.2     95.0
Japan                      81.2    84.8    89.5    95.4     99.4
Belgium                    88.7    91.8    96.7    96.9     99.1
Denmark                    90.6    94.1    99.6    99.1     99.6
France                     86.7    92.7    97.4    99.1     98.7
Germany                    88.3    91.5    94.3    98.9    101.8
Italy                      85.0    86.6    89.4    92.8     95.3
Netherlands                91.7    93.8    97.1    98.5     99.6
Norway                     93.3    92.1    94.6    96.6     97.5
Sweden                     90.1    90.8    93.8    95.0     95.0
United Kingdom             78.1    82.6    86.2    89.2     93.9

        Output

United States              97.9   104.5   104.0   102.5     98.7
Canada                    103.2   109.3   110.8   106.6     98.8
Japan                      78.4    84.6    90.2    96.3    101.4
Belgium                    88.7    93.1    98.9   101.0    100.7
Denmark                    99.3   100.8   104.3   102.7    101.7
France                     91.1    96.3   101.6   103.5    101.7
Germany                    88.0    90.9    94.0    99.1    102.8
Italy                      88.5    94.8    98.6   100.4     99.7
Netherlands                89.5    92.8    96.9   100.1    100.6
Norway                    110.7   105.3   101.3   100.2     98.3
Sweden                    107.7   110.2   111.6   110.6    103.6
United Kingdom             94.5   101.5   105.5   105.4    100.1

      Total hours

United States             103.9   106.8   107.2   104.9    100.6
Canada                    113.2   120.2   120.0   112.0    103.9
Japan                      96.6    99.8   100.8   100.9    102.0
Belgium                   100.0   101.5   102.3   104.3    101.6
Denmark                   109.6   107.2   104.7   103.7    102.1
France                    105.1   104.0   104.4   104.5    103.0
Germany                    99.7    99.3    99.6   100.2    101.0
Italy                     104.1   109.5   110.2   108.2    104.6
Netherlands                97.6    98.9    99.7   101.6    101.0
Norway                    118.6   114.3   107.1   103.7    100.8
Sweden                    119.5   121.4   119.0   116.4    109.0
United Kingdom            121.0   122.8   122.4   118.1    106.6

 Compensation per hour

United States              80.8    84.0    86.8    91.0     95.7
Canada                     75.9    78.5    83.2    89.5     94.7
Japan                      77.9    79.2    84.2    90.7     95.9
Belgium                    79.3    81.0    85.2    89.9     95.4
Denmark                    80.1    82.9    87.7    92.7     95.9
France                     79.7    82.7    87.2    91.8    963.0
Germany                    76.5    79.5    83.3    89.4     95.0
Italy                      66.1    68.7    75.5    84.0     93.1
Netherlands                87.8    87.7    88.5    90.8     95.2
Norway                     78.5    83.3    87.2    92.3     97.5
Sweden                     67.3    71.7    79.4    87.6     95.4
United Kingdom             65.9    70.3    75.1    83.4     92.9

  Unit labor costs:
National currency basis

United States              85.7    85.9    89.5    93.1     97.5
Canada                     83.3    86.3    90.0    94.0     99.6
Japan                      96.0    93.4    94.0    95.0     96.5
Belgium                    89.5    88.3    88.1    92.7     96.3
Denmark                    88.4    88.2    88.1    93.6     96.3
France                     92.0    89.3    89.5    92.6     97.6
Germany                    86.7    86.9    88.3    90.4     93.3
Italy                      77.8    79.4    84.4    90.5     97.7
Netherlands                95.8    93.5    91.1    92.1     95.6
Norway                     84.1    90.4    92.2    95.6    100.0
Sweden                     74.7    79.0    84.7    92.3    100.4
United Kingdom             84.5    85.0    87.2    93.5     99.0

  Unit labor costs:
   U.S. dollar basis

United States              85.7    85.9    89.5    93.1     97.5
Canada                     75.9    84.8    91.9    97.3    105.0
Japan                      84.2    92.4    86.3    83.1     90.9
Belgium                    77.0    77.1    71.9    89.2     90.6
Denmark                    77.9    79.0    72.6    91.3     90.8
France                     81.0    79.3    74.3    90.0     91.5
Germany                    75.3    77.3    73.4    87.3     87.7
Italy                      73.9    75.1    75.8    93.0     97.0
Netherlands                83.1    83.1    75.5    88.9     89.8
Norway                     77.5    86.1    82.9    95.0     95.7
Sweden                     68.5    75.0    76.4    90.8     96.6
United Kingdom             78.4    85.8    80.8    94.5     99.1

   Item and country        1993    1994    1995    1996     1997

    Output per hour

United States             102.1   108.1   115.1   120.2    125.6
Canada                      3.3   105.7   108.4   106.6    109.6
Japan                     100.5   101.8   109.3   111.9    118.8
Belgium                   104.1   110.0   109.4   110.6    116.8
Denmark                   105.5      -       -       -        -
France                    101.8   110.4   114.3   117.9    125.9
Germany                   100.7   108.0   112.0   116.7    123.6
Italy                     104.5   107.4   113.9   114.4    117.4
Netherlands               101.9   114.2   119.6   122.6       -
Norway                    100.6   101.4   102.0   102.6    103.2
Sweden                    106.7   116.1   122.4   125.4    133.6
United Kingdom            105.6   109.2   107.6   106.2    107.2

        Output

United States             103.5   112.2   119.8   124.5    124.5
Canada                    105.9   112.7   118.3   119.5    126.8
Japan                      96.0    95.4   100.6   103.2    108.6
Belgium                    96.9   101.4   104.5   104.7    109.4
Denmark                   100.0   101.2   106.2   109.3    114.0
France                     96.2   101.3   105.3   107.5    112.8
Germany                    91.8    93.5    94.3    93.8     97.0
Italy                      96.6   101.9   107.5   106.1    108.6
Netherlands                98.2   104.2   107.5   109.1       -
Norway                    102.7   106.7   109.0   111.4    114.8
Sweden                    101.3   115.7   130.1   132.9     40.3
United Kingdom            101.5   106.2   108.0   108.3    109.9

      Total hours

United States             101.4   103.8   104.1   103.6    104.7
Canada                    102.5   106.6   109.1   112.1    115.8
Japan                      95.6    93.7    92.0    92.2     91.4
Belgium                    93.2    92.2    95.6    94.6     93.7
Denmark                    94.8      -       -       -        -
France                     94.5    91.8    92.0    91.2     89.7
Germany                    91.2    86.6    84.2    80.4     78.5
Italy                      92.4    94.8    94.4    92.8     92.5
Netherlands                96.4    91.3    89.8    89.0       -
Norway                    102.1   105.2   106.9   108.6    111.3
Sweden                     94.9    99.6   106.3   106.0    105.0
United Kingdom             96.1    97.3   100.4   102.0    102.5

 Compensation per hour

United States             102.9   105.6   107.8   112.1    116.1
Canada                     99.8   100.4   103.7   106.0    108.8
Japan                     104.6   106.7   109.5   110.5    114.0
Belgium                   105.0   108.4   111.6   114.1    116.5
Denmark                   102.4      -       -       -        -
France                    103.6   106.2   107.7   109.4    112.6
Germany                   106.0   111.8   117.8   123.7    126.5
Italy                     107.1   106.6   112.3   119.4    125.2
Netherlands               103.7   108.2   111.1   114.5       -
Norway                    101.5   104.4   109.2   114.4    119.6
Sweden                     98.0   101.1   106.2   113.4    118.3
United Kingdom            106.2   108.2   108.6   110.9    115.2

  Unit labor costs:
National currency basis

United States             100.8    97.7    94.5    93.3     92.4
Canada                     96.6    95.0    95.6    99.4     99.3
Japan                     104.1   104.9   100.1    98.8     96.0
Belgium                   100.9    98.6   102.0   103.1     99.7
Denmark                    97.0    99.7   101.9   101.2    102.2
France                    101.8    96.2    94.2    92.8     89.4
Germany                   105.3   103.6   105.2   106.0    102.4
Italy                     102.5    99.2    98.6   104.4    106.6
Netherlands               101.8    94.8    92.9    93.4       -
Norway                    100.9   102.9   107.1   111.5    115.9
Sweden                     91.8    87.0    86.8    90.4     88.5
United Kingdom            100.5    99.1   101.0   104.4    107.5

  Unit labor costs:
   U.S. dollar basis

United States             100.8    97.7    94.5    93.3     92.4
Canada                     90.5    84.0    84.2    88.1     86.6
Japan                     118.8   130.1   135.1   115.1    100.5
Belgium                    93.8    94.8   111.3   107.0     89.5
Denmark                    90.3    94.7   109.8   105.3     93.4
France                     95.1    91.8   100.0    96.1     81.1
Germany                    99.4    99.8   114.7   110.0     92.2
Italy                      80.3    75.8    74.6    83.4     77.1
Netherlands                96.3    91.6   101.8    97.4       -
Norway                     88.3    90.7   105.0   107.3    101.6
Sweden                     68.6    65.7    70.8    78.5     67.5
United Kingdom             85.5    86.0    90.2    92.3     99.6


- Data not available.

[TABULAR DATA 46 NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

47. Fatal occupational injuries by event or exposure, 1992-97
                                                        Fatalities
              Event or exposure(1)                 1992-96   1996(2)
                                                   Average   Number

     Total                                           6,331    6,202
Transportation incidents                             2,587    2,601
 Highway incident                                    1,287    1,346
  Collision between vehicles, mobile equipment         640      667
   Moving in same direction                            104       96
   Moving in opposite directions, oncoming             228      220
   Moving in intersection                              125      153
  Vehicle struck stationary object or equipment        231      243
  Noncollision incident                                343      352
   Jackknifed or overturned--no collision              250      266
 Nonhighway (farm, industrial premises) incident       400      374
   Overturned                                          213      206
 Aircraft                                              334      324
 Worker struck by a vehicle                            369      353
 Water vehicle incident                                106      119
 Railway                                                78       74
Assaults and violent acts                            1,275    1,165
 Homicides                                           1,032      927
  Shooting                                             839      761
  Stabbing                                              78       80
  Other, including bombing                             115       86
 Self-inflicted injuries                               213      204
Contact with objects and equipment                     998    1,010
 Struck by object                                      568      582
  Struck by falling object                             365      403
  Struck by flying object                               69       58
 Caught in or compressed by equipment or objects       289      285
  Caught in running equipment or machinery             147      146
 Caught in or crushed in collapsing materials          122      131
Falls                                                  645      691
 Fall to lower level                                   562      610
  Fall from ladder                                      87       97
  Fall from roof                                       130      149
  Fall from scaffold, staging                           79       88
 Fall on same level                                     56       52
Exposure to harmful substances or environments         596      533
 Contact with electric current                         327      281
  Contact with overhead power lines                    128      116
 Contact with temperature extremes                      42       33
 Exposure to caustic, noxious,                         121      123
   or allergenic substances                             75       76
  Inhalation of substances                             105       95
 Oxygen deficiency                                      81       70
  Drowning, submersion

Fires and explosions                                    193      185

Other events or exposures(a)                             37       17

              Event or exposure(1)                        1997
                                                    Number   Percent

     Total                                          6,218    100
Transportation incidents                            2,599     42
 Highway incident                                   1,387     22
  Collision between vehicles, mobile equipment        639     10
   Moving in same direction                           103      2
   Moving in opposite directions, oncoming            229      4
   Moving in intersection                             142      2
  Vehicle struck stationary object or equipment       280      5
  Noncollision incident                               384      6
   Jackknifed or overturned--no collision             295      5
 Nonhighway (farm, industrial premises) incident      377      6
   Overturned                                         216      3
 Aircraft                                             261      4
 Worker struck by a vehicle                           367      6
 Water vehicle incident                               109      2
 Railway                                               93      1
Assaults and violent acts                           1,103     18
 Homicides                                            856     14
  Shooting                                            705     11
  Stabbing                                             73      1
  Other, including bombing                             78      1
 Self-inflicted injuries                              212      3
Contact with objects and equipment                  1,034     17
 Struck by object                                     578      9
  Struck by falling object                            384      6
  Struck by flying object                              53      1
 Caught in or compressed by equipment or objects      320      5
  Caught in running equipment or machinery            189      3
 Caught in or crushed in collapsing materials         118      2
Falls                                                 715     11
 Fall to lower level                                  652     10
  Fall from ladder                                    116      2
  Fall from roof                                      154      2
  Fall from scaffold, staging                          87      1
 Fall on same level                                    44      1
Exposure to harmful substances or environments        550      9
 Contact with electric current                        297     55
  Contact with overhead power lines                   138      2
 Contact with temperature extremes                     40      1
 Exposure to caustic, noxious,                        123      2
   or allergenic substances                            59      1
  Inhalation of substances                             87      1
 Oxygen deficiency                                     70      1
  Drowning, submersion

Fires and explosions                                  196      3

Other events or exposures(a)                           21     -


(1) Based on the 1992 BLS Occupational Injury and Illness Classification Structures.

(2) The BLS news release issued August 7, 1997, reported a total of 6,112 fatal work injuries for calendar year 1996. Since then, an additional 90 job-related fatalities were identified, bringing the total job-related fatality count for 1996 to 6,202.

(3) Includes the category"Bodily reaction and exertion."

NOTE: Totals for major categories may include sub-categories not shown separately. Percentages may not add to totals because of rounding. Dashes indicate less that 0.5 percent or data that are not available or that do not meet publication criteria.
COPYRIGHT 1999 U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 1999 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

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