North Korea and the World: a bibliography of books and URLs in English, 1997-2007.
KEYWORDS: North Korea, scholarship, bibliography, history, Korean War, DPRK regime, Kim Jong Il, human rights, economy, military, United States, arms control, negotiation, security, DPRK-ROK unification, peace, future
The decade from 1997 to 2007 witnessed the rise and fall of many hopes and fears regarding North Korea. Scholars and policy analysts in many countries devoted much attention to strategic, political, and economic issues related to the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK). What follows is a select list of books published in English on the DPRK in that decade, plus a few notable selections from earlier years. Most of these books are by authors based in the United States, but the list also includes works by authors in Australia, Europe, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Russia. Looked at together, the list points to the great interest in North Korea and underscores the serious and ongoing efforts of many scholars and policy analysts to understand developments there. A full picture of this scholarship would include the thousands of relevant articles published in periodicals such as Asia Policy, Asian Survey, Far Eastern Economic Review, Journal of East Asian Affairs, Journal of East Asian Studies, and the journals that focus exclusively on Korea--for example, Korea and World Affairs--or that deal more generally with international politics and security, such as Foreign Affairs, Foreign Policy, and Worm Politics.
The present listing omits books that focus on South Korea, even though many of those also include valuable references to North Korea--for example, Choong Nam Kim, The Korean Presidents: Leadership for Nation Building (Norwalk, CT: EastBridge, 2007). To save space, this bibliography does not mention forewords or introductions.
Many of the books listed here cover several facets of North Korea, but they fall into eleven main headings, many of which overlap: history and culture; the Korean War revisited; the DPRK regime and its leaders; human rights and humanitarian issues; the economy: Juche, Songun, collapse, or reform; DPRK military assets and programs; relations with the United States; arms control negotiations and outcomes; regional and world security; prospects for North-South unification; and North Korea's future. A final section lists useful websites.
History and Culture
Plus ca change, plus c'est la meme chose? Given the many changes on the Korean peninsula in the past century, this proposition seems implausible. Still, what the French Annales School terms the longue duree counts for something. In some respects, every society is path dependent. Korea's path, of course, has been long and varied. The road forked in 1945. However, many passages in the writings of earlier visitors to the land once known for its morning calm still resonate. See, for example, the narrative of Isabella Bird Bishop, Korea and Her Neighbors (New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1897, photocopied in Austin, TX, by BookLab in 1995). See also the Undiplomatic Memories of William Franklin Sands (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1930), p. 56, in which a young US adviser to the Korean emperor describes the struggles for influence by China, Japan, and other countries in "the weakest of Far Eastern countries, not only weak internally but also by having no undisputed official protector or friend among the Western powers." Before 1904, of course, Russia was also a major player. Its Ministry of Finance published a virtual encyclopedia about Korea--everything from shamanism to language to trade statistics--in Opisanie Korei (Description of Korea), three parts (St. Petersburg: Ministry of Finance, 1890). In the years before the Japanese takeover, the Korean Review, published in Seoul, informed readers not only about the price of sorghum but also about the success of the Bible Society in distributing the Old and New Testaments in Korean--16,814 full texts or extracts according to the May 1902 edition, pp. 223-224.
The historical works listed here range from prehistoric times through the mid-1990s. A number of authors examine US-Korean relations of the past in entry 14 below, but an earlier work, also edited by Yur-Bok Lee and Wayne Patterson, charted One Hundred Years of Korean-American Relations, 1882-1982 (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1986). For a focus on the nineteenth century, see Yur-Bok Lee, Diplomatic Relations Between the United States and Korea, 1866-1887 (New York: Humanities Press, 1970).
From the first contacts of Westerners with Korea, chauvinist and even racist sentiments on all sides have often produced bitter conflict. Gi-Wook Shin looks forward as well as back in his Ethnic Nationalism in Korea: Geneology, Politics, and Legacy (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2006).
The opening of archives in many formerly communist countries has provided much broader, if not yet exhaustive, documentation on the origins of the Korean War and Pyongyang's relations with other communist states. See "New Evidence on North Korea," Cold War International History Project Bulletin (Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars), no. 14-15 (Winter 2003-Spring 2004), which includes the work of Beijing-based scholar Shen Zhihua, "Sino-Soviet Korean Conflict and Its Resolution During the Korean War," pp. 9-24, and other findings based on archives in Budapest, Berlin, and Moscow. For a digest of the new evidence and citations to her own work, see Kathryn Weathersby, in Cold War International History Project Bulletin no. 14-15 (Winter 2003-Spring 2004), pp. 5-7. Much of the new evidence is cited and incorporated into Robert L. Beisner, Dean Acheson: A Life in the Cold War (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), pp. 719-722. Though published a decade before the Wilson Center studies, valuable analysis of Russian and Chinese documents can be found in Sergei N. Goncharov, John W. Lewis, and Xue Litai, Uncertain Partners: Stalin, Mao, and the Korean War (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1993).
1. Armstrong, Charles K. The North Korean Revolution, 1945-1950. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2003.
2. Barlow, Tani E., ed. Formations of Colonial Modernity in East Asia. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997.
3. Buzo, Adrian. The Making of Modern Korea. New York: Routledge, 2002.
4. Cuff, John Haslett, and Sung-Kyung Yi. Inside the Hermit Kingdom (videorecording). New York: Filmmakers Library, 2004.
5. Cumings, Bruce. Korea's Place in the Sun: A Modern History. New York: W. W. Norton, 2005.
6. Cumings, Bruce. North Korea: Another Country. New York: New Press, 2004.
7. Eliot, Simon, and Jonathan Rose, eds. A Companion to the History of the Book. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2007.
8. French, Paul. North Korea: The Paranoid Peninsula--A Modern History. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.
9. Jager, Sheila M., and Ranna Mitter, eds. Ruptured Histories: War, Memory, and the Post-Cold War in Asia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2007.
10. Kil, Soong Hoom, and Chung-in Moon, eds. Understanding Korean Politics: An Introduction. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2001.
11. Kim, Ilpyong J. Historical Dictionary of North Korea. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2003.
12. Lankov, Andrei Nikolaevich. Crisis in North Korea: The Failure of De-Stalinization, 1956. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2005.
13. Lankov, Andrei Nikolaevich. From Stalin to Kim Il Sung: The Formation of North Korea, 1945-1960. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2002.
14. Lee, Yur-Bok and Wayne Patterson, eds. Korean-American Relations, 1866-1977. Albany: State University of New York, 1999.
15. North Korea (map). Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 1996. http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.gmd/g7905.ct001514.
16. Robinson, Michael Edson. Korea's Twentieth-Century Odyssey: A Short History. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2007.
17. Scalapino, Robert A. North Korea at a Crossroads. Stanford: Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace, 1997.
18. Shin, Gi-Wook. Ethnic Nationalism in Korea: Genealogy, Politics, and Legacy. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2006.
The Korean War
A catalog of traditional, revisionist, and neorevisionist views, plus an alternative interpretation of the Korean conflict, may be found in Hyung-Kook Kim, The Division of Korea and the Alliance Making Process: Internationalization of Internal Conflict and Internalization of International Struggle, 1945-1948 (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1995). Challenging the more orthodox school, Bruce Cumings quoted with approval the sentiment of a provincial governor in the US occupation. Dealing with North Korea, said Colonel Lutwak, the Russians had a lion by the tail and could not let go. How did the 1950 war begin? "The North Koreans are so individualistic," Lutwak opined, "that I believe they began it themselves." Cumings surmised that the Americans also had tigers by the tail (entry 21 below, vol. 2, p. 620). As noted under "History and Culture," however, the opening of hitherto closed archives in communist and ex-communist countries since the early 1990s has facilitated new interpretations of the Korean War. These primary sources, though probably incomplete, provide a much stronger foundation for analysis than was previously available. As we can see in entries 30, 31, 32, and 35, military aspects of the war have been elucidated in materials released by the US Defense Department and the Turkish Commission of Military History. The story of a US chaplain is told in entry 29. With the passing of time, we now have a constructivist interpretation of the war (entry 30) and a broadly humanistic one by David Halberstam (entry 24). American veterans continue to review their sufferings and brave deeds at the Chosin Reservoir in newsletters and websites such as http://home.hawaii.rr.com/chosin/ and http://www.homeofheroes.com/brotherhood/chosin.html. But a novel by an Americanized Chinese also gives us a Chinese perspective on these tragic events. (1)
19. Alexander, Bevin. Korea: The First War We Lost. New York: Hippocrene Books, 2004.
20. Conflict in Korea: An Encyclopedia, edited by James Hoare and Susan Pares. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 1999.
21. Cumings, Bruce. The Origins of the Korean War. 2 vols. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981; Seoul: Yuksabipyungsa, 2002 (reprint).
22. Deane, Hugh. The Korean War 1945-1953. San Francisco: China Books, 1999.
23. Dowdey, Patrick, ed. Living Through the Forgotten War: Portrait of Korea. Middleton, CT: Mansfield Freeman Center for East Asian Studies at Wesleyan University, 2003.
24. Edwards, Paul M. Korean War Almanac. New York: Facts On File, 2006.
25. Halberstam, David. The Coldest Winter: America and the Korean War. New York: Hyperion, 2007.
26. Hannings, Bud. The Korean War: An Exhaustive Chronology. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2007.
27. Kaufman, Burton I. The Korean Conflict. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1999.
28. Levine, Alan J. Stalin's Last War: Korea and the Approach to World War III. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2005.
29. Lowe, Peter. The Origins of the Korean War. London: Longman, 1997.
30. Maher, William L. A Shepherd in Combat Boots: Chaplain Emil Kapaun of the 1st Cavalry Division. Shippensburg, PA: Burd Street Press, 1997.
31. Milliken, Jennifer. The Social Construction of the Korean War: Conflict and Its Possibilities. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2001.
32. Peace at Home, Peace in the World. Ankara: Turkish General Staff Military History and Strategic Studies Directorate, Turkish Commission of Military History, 2007.
33. Rottman, Gordon L. Korean War Order of Battle: United States, United Nations, and Communist Ground, Naval and Air Forces, 1950-1953. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002.
34. Stueck, William W., ed. The Korean War in World History (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 2004).
35. The United States Army and the Korean War. Washington, DC: US Army Center of Military History, 2000. (Four computer optical discs; 4-3/4 in. Korean War collection from the Center of Military History's publications catalog, including narrative history, historical map posters, and two photograph collections.)
36. US Congress, House Committee on National Security, Military Personnel Subcommittee. Status of POW/MIA Negotiations with North Korea ... hearing held June 20, 1996. (2) Washington, DC: GPO, 1997. Microform.
37. Zhu, Pingchao. Americans and Chinese at the Korean War Cease-fire Negotiations, 1950-1953. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen, 2001.
The DPRK Regime and Its Leaders
While Koreans may be individualistic, they have also inherited a tradition in which their top political leader served also as the top priest. (3) The founder of the DPRK and his successor son, however, have been portrayed in North Korea not just as kings or priests but as demigods or even as divinities. Their personality cults may well surpass those of Stalin and Mao Zedong.
Kim Il Sung and his son Kim Jong Il have claimed authority based on what Max Weber called charisma--extraordinary qualities real or asserted. What Weber said about charismatic rule in imperial China probably applies to the DPRK: the ruler's "prerogatives are made dependent upon the recognition of the people. But this does not mean recognition of the sovereignty of the people." The governed submit to charismatic rule, according to Weber, because they believe in the extraordinary quality of the specific person. In North Korea, this belief or ostensible belief has resulted from skillful indoctrination and horrific punishments for disbelief.
While personalist rule can be unstable, Kim Jong Il and his son made their rule more permanent by rooting it in other kinds of authority, also identified by Weber: patriarchy, tradition, and bureaucracy. Their authority has not rested, however, on another potential source listed by Weber: the rule of law.
Weber held that the ruler's authority is based on his personal qualifications and his proved worth. Such charisma is "qualitatively particularized." The "king is everywhere primarily a war lord, and kingship evolves from charismatic heroism"--a feature that could be ascribed to the elder Kim but hardly to his son. (4) Still, the younger Kim is referred to as "general," though he never served in the military. According to Kim Hyun Sik, a former professor in Pyongyang, Kim Il Sung said that his son deserved this title because, unlike DPRK officers, Kim Jong Il saw that nuclear weapons could protect the DPRK from an American attack. (5)
Therefore, to understand what Buzo (entry 42) calls a "guerilla dynasty," one should examine the writings and speeches attributed to Kim Il Sung, available in many volumes, and to his son, Kim Jong Il. The current "Dear Leader," however, has to date published much less than his father. The Harvard University Library contains nineteen works, most of them in Korean, ascribed to Kim Jong Il (Kim Chong-il) and published between 1983 and 2000. The most recent in English is a twenty-two-page document titled Respecting the Forerunners of the Revolution Is a Noble Moral Obligation of Revolutionaries (Pyongyang: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1996). See also the hagiographic The Great Leader Kim Jong Il Pays Official Visit to the Russian Federation and The Great Leader Kim Jong Il Pays Visit to the Far East Region of Russia--both published in Beijing by Sunyong in 2006, using the adjective "great" rather than the usual "dear."
While the correspondence is not precise, one can get a feel for the DPRK regime and its leaders by reading Aldous Huxley's Brave New World or George Orwell's 1984. Still, stereotyping is dangerous. After the journal National Interest published an essay highly critical of the DPRK, it refused to acknowledge, much less publish, a commentary titled "Are the North Korean Leaders Robots or Human Beings?" A "party line" can stifle debate in Washington as well as in one-party capitals.
Deeply aware how difficult it is to assess the DPRK regime, scholars such as Robert Scalapino have tried to portray the DPRK regime objectively. The hearings before the House Committee on Foreign Relations, cited below, include well-balanced testimony by William Perry, James Lilley, and Christopher Hill.
Some pictures are worth a thousand words. For images of god-king worship in North Korea, see the National Geographic channel's Inside North Korea, available on DVD (2007). For portraits of North Koreans in different walks of life--most of them ramrod straight--see Crane's Welcome to Pyongyang. See also the art work reproduced in Jane Portal's book (entry 55), which recalls the top-down controls imposed on every form of expression in Stalin's Soviet Union.
38. Bechtol, Bruce E. Red Rogue: The Persistent Challenge of North Korea. Washington, DC: Potomac Books, 2007.
39. Becker, Jasper. Rogue Regime: Kim Jong Il and the Looming Threat of North Korea. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.
40. Bong-uk, Chong, ed. North Korea: Uneasy, Shaky Kim Il Regime. Seoul: Naewoe Press, 1997.
41. Breen, Michael. Kim Jong-Il: North Korea's Dear Leader. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2004.
42. Buzo, Adrian. Guerilla Dynasty: Politics and Leadership in North Korea. St. Leonards, NSW, Australia: Allen & Unwin, 1999.
43. Chancel, Philippe (photos), with text by Michel Poivert and Jonathan Fenby. North Korea. London: Thames & Hudson, 2006.
44. Cornell, Erik. North Korea Under Communism: Report of an Envoy to Paradise. New York: Routledge, 2002.
45. Crane, Charlie. Welcome to Pyongyang. London: Chris Boot, 2007.
46. Harris, Mark Edward. Inside North Korea. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2007.
47. Hassig, Ralph C., and Kongdan Oh. North Korea Through the Looking Glass. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2000.
48. Hayashi, Kazunobu, and Teruo Komaki, eds. Kim Jong Il's North Korea: An Arduous March. Tokyo: Institute of Developing Economies, 1997.
49. Hunter, Helen-Louise. Kim Il-Song's North Korea. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1999.
50. Kihl, Young Whan, and Hong Nack Kim, eds. North Korea: The Politics of Regime Survival. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2006.
51. Kim, Hyejin. Jia: A Novel of North Korea. San Francisco: Cleis Press, 2007.
52. Kim, Sung Chull. North Korea Under Kim Jong Il: From Consolidation to Systemic Dissonance. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2006.
53. Kim, Sung Chull, et al., eds. North Korea in Crisis: An Assessment of Regime Sustainability. Seoul: Korea Institute for National Unification, 1997.
54. Park, Hyeong-Jung, and Kyo-Duk Lee. Continuities and Changes in the Power Structure and the Role of Party Organizations Under the Kim Jong-Il's Reign. Seoul: Korea Institute for National Unification, 2005.
55. Portal, Jane. Art Under Control in North Korea. London: Reaktion, 2005.
56. Scalapino, Robert A. North Korea at a Crossroads. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1997.
57. Scobell, Andrew. Kim Jong Il and North Korea: The Leader and the System. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College, 2006.
58. Shin, Gi-Wook, Soon-Won Park, and Daquing Yang, eds. Rethinking Historical Injustice and Reconciliation in Northeast Asia: The Korean Experience. New York: Routledge, 2007.
59. Sohn, Won Tai. Kim Il Sung and Korea's Struggle: An Unconventional Firsthand History. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2003.
60. Suh, Dae-Sook. Kim Il Sung: The North Korean Leader. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.
61. Szalontai, Balazs. Kim Il Sung in the Khrushchev Era: Soviet-DPRK Relations and the Roots of North Korean Despotism, 1953-1964. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press; Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2005.
62. US Congress, House Committee on Foreign Affairs. North Korea: Briefing and Hearing ... January 18 and February 28, 2007. Washington, DC: GPO, 2007. www.internationalrelations .house.gov/110/32548.pdf (pp. 1-47); www.international relations.house.gov/110/32548a.pdf (pp. 49-89).
63. Yi, Sun-Kyung. Inside the Hermit Kingdom: A Memoir. Toronto: Key Porter, 1997.
Human Rights and Humanitarian Issues
Can "low politics" be separated from "high politics"? Humanitarian issues can quickly become deeply political. During the Korean War, the question arose: Should POWs be returned to the North? Now the tables are turned and Beijing wrestles with how to deal with refugees from the DPRK who seek refuge or passage via China. For its part, Japan still demands a more satisfactory accounting of Japanese abducted by the North.
Should humanitarian assistance be viewed as an instrument of power politics or as an expression of human solidarity? What if aid meant to assist people in need serves to prop up a regime inimical to human rights (a problem underlined by Andrew Natsios in entry 75 below)? To view the connections between an ostensibly apolitical medical mission and hardball politics (as played by all parties), see the National Geographic DVD Inside North Korea mentioned in the previous section.
Do some forms of aid elicit positive reforms while other variants stifle constructive change? For serious attempts at balancing the issues at stake, see Haggard and Noland (entries 69 and 70) and Hazel Smith (entries 77 and 78). Many facets of these questions are also addressed in the other works listed here.
64. Cammarota, Paolo, Joe Crace, Kim Worly, and Haim Zaltzman. Legal Strategies for Protecting Human Rights in North Korea. Washington, DC: US Committee for Human Rights in North Korea, November 2007. www.hrnk.org/legalStrategies-1107.pdf.
65. Choi, Sung-Chul, ed. Understanding Human Rights in North Korea. Seoul: Institute of Unification Policy, Hanyang University, 1997.
66. Chol-hwan, Kang, and Pierre Rigoulot. The Aquariums of Pyongyang: Ten Years in a North Korean Gulag. New York: Basic Books, 2001.
67. Companjen, Anneke. Singing Through the Night: Courageous Stories of Faith from Women in the Persecuted Church. Grand Rapids, MI: Fleming H. Revell, 2007.
68. Flake, L. Gordon, and Scott A. Snyder, eds. Paved with Good Intentions: The NGO Experience in North Korea. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003.
69. Haggard, Stephan, and Marcus Noland. Famine in North Korea: Markets, Aid, and Reform. New York: Columbia University Press, 2007.
70. Haggard, Stephan, and Marcus Noland, eds. The North Korean Refugee Crisis: Human Rights and International Response. Washington, DC: US Committee for Human Rights in Korea, 2006. www.hrnk.org/refugeesReport06.pdf.
71. Hawk, David, comp. Thank You Father Kim Il Sung: Eyewitness Accounts of Severe Violations of Freedom of Thought, Conscience, and Religious Freedom in North Korea. Washington, DC: US Commission on International Religious Freedom, November 2005. www.uscirf.gov/countries/region/east_asia/northkorea/NKwitnesses.pdf.
72. Hwang, Yusun. The Contextualized Mission to North Korea. Boston: Boston University, 2000.
73. Martin, Bradley K. Under the Loving Care of the Fatherly Leader: North Korea and the Kim Dynasty. New York: Thomas Dunne Books, 2004.
74. Morris-Suzuki, Tessa. Exodus to North Korea: Shadows from Japan's Cold War. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007.
75. Natsios, Andrew S. The Great North Korean Famine. Washington, DC: Institute of Peace Press, 2001.
76. Shin, Gi-Wook, Soon-Won Park, and Daqing Yang, eds. Rethinking Historical Injustice and Reconciliation in Northeast Asia: The Korean Experience. New York: Routledge, 2007.
77. Smith, Hazel. Hungry for Peace: International Security, Humanitarian Assistance, and Social Change in North Korea. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, 2005.
78. Smith, Hazel. Reconstituting Korean Security: A Policy Primer. Tokyo: United Nations University Press, 2007.
79. US Congress, House Committee on Foreign Affairs, Subcommittee on Asia, the Pacific, and the Global Environment. North Korean Human Rights: An Update ... March 1, 2007. Washington, DC: GPO, 2007. www.internationalrelations .house.gov/110/33621.pdf.
80. US Congress, House Committee on International Relations. The Peace Corps Safety and Security Act of 2004, the North Korea Human Rights Act of 2004 ... (plus markups on other topics), March 31, 2004. Washington, DC: GPO, 2004. wwwc.house.gov/international%5Frelations/108/92867.pdf.
81. US Congress, House Committee on International Relations, Subcommittee on East Asia and the Pacific. North Korea: Humanitarian and Human Rights Concerns ... May 2, 2002. Washington, DC: GPO, 2002. Microform.
The Economy: Juche, Songun, Collapse. or Reform?
Kim Il Sung and his son made Juche (self-reliance) a central feature of DPRK ideology. They claimed that this was a unique principle in communist doctrine, even though Stalin, Mao Zedong, and some other communist leaders had also extolled self-reliance. In reality, of course, North Korea has long been one of the least self-reliant countries in the world.
"General" Kim Jong Il went on to endorse the principle of "military-first in politics" (songun chongch'i, in which son = priority, gun = military, and chongch'i = politics). Some evidence suggests that he placed Songun above Juche and pictured Songun as more important even than the Korean Workers' Party. (6) Some observers believed that giving priority to the military could deliver a coup de grace to the DPRK regime--as happened in the USSR. Still, the National Bureau of Asian Research based in Seattle sponsored a roundtable, published in Asia Policy 2 (July 2006), on the economic consequences if Pyongyang should try to switch from Songun to making economic development its central objective. Several of the books listed in this and subsequent sections argue that a North Korea liberalized along Chinese lines could both gain from and contribute something to the global economy.
The contrasts between development in the two Koreas permit us to assess the debates between those who contend that material factors are paramount in shaping development and those who stress the role of intangibles. "Geography," says Jared Diamond, author of Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies (New York: W. W. Norton, 2005) explains why some countries are rich and others poor. Challenging any form of material determinism, Lawrence E. Harrison and Samuel E Huntington endorse Daniel Moynihan's thesis that culture determines the success of a society but that politics can change a culture and save it from itself. (7) Somewhere between these poles, many developmental economists argue the importance of institutions.
The DPRK experience surely contradicts any form of geographical determinism. Both North and South Korea have their distinct geographical assets and shortcomings, but none begins to explain the widening chasm in economic performance between the DPRK and the Republic of Korea (ROK). Both economies received foreign assistance, but external aid to South Korea stopped long ago, while the DPRK has continued to receive significant support and subsidies from abroad. While harsh weather has harmed North Korea's harvests, the more fundamental cause of repeated famines lies in the country's institutions--its top-down management and devotion to fetishes such as Songun. A similar lesson emerges from China's economic development. Mao Zedong's whims drove millions to starvation; policy changes since his death have spurred decades of high-speed development.
Two books explicitly compare the North and South Korean economies in the early 1990s: Eui-Gak Hwang, The Korean Economies: A Comparison of North and South (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993), and Byoung-lo Philo Kim, Two Koreas in Development: A Comparative Study of Principles and Strategies of Capitalist and Communist Third World Development (New Brunswick, NJ:
Transaction, 1992). No systematic comparisons have been found since 1993--perhaps because the game had ended by then.
Reliable numbers on the DPRK economy are not easy to find, but the Economist Intelligence Unit (London) publishes Country Profiles and Country Reports on Korea (South and North) that are available in hard copy and as computer files at Harvard and other libraries. See, for example, http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.ejoumals:sfx991042728091026.
82. Barton, Lee V., ed. Illegal Drugs and Governmental Policies. New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2007.
83. Cho, Jeong-Ah. North Korea's Human Resource Development System. Seoul: Institute for National Unification, 2006.
84. Choi, E. Kwan, E. Han Kim, and Yesook Merrill, eds. North Korea in the World Economy. London: Routledge, 2003.
85. Choong-Yong, Ahn, Nicholas Eberstadt, and Lee Young-Sun, eds. A New International Engagement Framework for North Korea? Contending Perspectives. Washington, DC: Korea Economic Institute of America, 2004.
86. Eberstadt, Nicholas. The North Korean Economy Between Crisis and Catastrophe. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 2007.
87. Gray, Kevin. Korean Workers and Neoliberal Globalization. London: Routledge, 2008.
88. Jeffries, Ian. North Korea: A Guide to Economic and Political Developments. New York: Routledge, 2006.
89. Lane, David, ed. The Transformation of State Socialism: System Change, Capitalism or Something Else? New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.
90. Noland, Marcus, ed. Economic Integration of the Korean Peninsula. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics, 1998.
91. Palka, Eugene, and Francis A. Galgano. Geographic Perspectives: North Korea. Guilford, CT: McGraw-Hill/Dushkin, 2004.
92. Park, Philip Hookon. Self-reliance or Self-destruction? Success and Failure of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea's Development Strategy of Self-Reliance "Juche." New York: Routledge, 2002.
93. US Congress, Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, Subcommittee on Federal Financial Management, Government Information, and International Security. North Korea: Illicit Activity Funding the Regime ... April 25, 2006. Washington, DC: GPO, 2007. http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgibin/getdoc.cgi? dbname=109_senate_hearings&docid=f:28241.pdf.
94. Wallace, Robert Daniel. Sustaining the Regime: North Korea's Quest for Financial Support. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2007.
95. Yoon, Chang-Ho, and Lawrence J. Lau, eds. North Korea in Transition: Prospects for Economic and Social Reform. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, 2001.
DPRK Military Assets and Programs
Like the USSR and Communist China, the DPRK shrouds its military assets in secrecy. Outside observers can estimate the numbers of military personnel and equipment, but their quality is very difficult to ascertain. On the difficulty of interpreting official Chinese budget data on defense spending, see Strategic Comments, publication of the International Institute for Strategic Studies, vol. 13, no. 10 (December 2007). The works that follow reflect on many other questions that stimulate ongoing debate:
* Has Songun provided North Korea's armed forces with a high state of readiness or have its distortions undermined combat readiness along with the rest of the economy?
* Granted that the nuclear device tested by the DPRK in 2006 was unusually small, did it provide a workable model for real nuclear weapons or was it merely a jerry-rigged experiment to impress foreign and domestic audiences?
* It seems clear that the Yongbyon reactor has produced plutonium for nuclear weapons, but what about North Korea's uranium enrichment program? Did it exist? Does it still? If so, how soon could it produce weapons-grade uranium? (On this topic, see Institute for Science and International Security technical reports in entry 252 below.)
* Outsiders get glimpses of DPRK soldiers who appear remarkably fit. But how fit are the personnel kept from public view? Are they tigers ready for combat or exhausted laborers bent over their fields?
* The International Institute for Strategic Studies claims to know how many DPRK aircraft and troops are poised for sniper missions in the South (see The Military Balance [London: Routledge, 2006], p. 277), but do these planes have sufficient fuel to train for such tasks?
Outsiders may inflate uncertainties for their own ends. Thus, the Pentagon did not contradict newspaper reports about the many long-range bombers flown over Red Square on May Day 1954, even though US intelligence knew that the same planes were flying in circles. In the early twenty-first century, the Bush administration needed a North Korean threat to justify the missile defenses being built in Alaska and California. Did Washington doctor the evidence?
Intentions are even less scrutable than capabilities. Is General Kim Jong I1 a fanatic zealot or a rational actor who can be deterred? Could he be persuaded to enter a deal that requires some compromise and transparency? Grist for all these arguments can be found in the works listed here.
96. Bermudez, Joseph S., Jr. The Armed Forces of North Korea. London: I. B. Tauris, 2001.
97. Bermudez, Joseph S., Jr. North Korean Special Forces, 2nd ed. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1998.
98. Busch, Nathan E. No End in Sight: The Continuing Menace of Nuclear Proliferation. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2004.
99. Chang, Gordon G. Nuclear Showdown: North Korea Takes On the World. New York: Random House, 2006.
100. Gause, Ken E. North Korean Civil-Military Trends: Military-First Politics to a Point. Carlisle Barracks, PA: US Army War College, 2006.
101. Mansourov, Alexandre, and James Moltz, eds. The North Korean Nuclear Program: Security, Strategy, and New Perspectives from Russia. New York: Routledge, 2000.
102. Minnich, James M. The North Korean People's Army: Origins and Current Tactics. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2005.
103. National Bureau of Asian Research. North Korea and Iran: Nuclear Futures and Regional Responses. NBR Special Report No. 13 (May 2007), Seattle. www.nbr.org/publications/ specialreport/pdf/SR13.pdf.
104. Richelson, Jeffrey T. Spying on the Bomb: American Nuclear Intelligence from Nazi Germany to Iran and North Korea. New York: Norton, 2006.
105. Samore, Gary, ed. North Korea's Weapons Programmes: A Net Assessment. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.
106. Scobell, Andrew. China and North Korea: From Comrades-in-Arms to Allies at Arm's Length. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College, 2004.
107. Scobell, Andrew. North Korea's Strategic Intentions. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College, 2005. Electronic resource, http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS 63250.
108. Swaine, Michael D. Japan and Ballistic Missile Defense. Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2001.
109. Triplett, William C., II. Rogue State: How a Nuclear North Korea Threatens America. Washington, DC: Regnery, 2004.
110. US Congress, House Committee on International Relations, Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific. North Korea's Nuclear Program: The Challenge to Stability in Northeast Asia ... February 13, 2003. Washington, DC: GPO, 2003.
111. US Congress, Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. Regional Implications of the Changing Nuclear Equation on the Korean Peninsula ... March 12, 2003. Washington, DC: GPO, 2003.
112. US Congress, Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs, Subcommittee on International Security, Proliferation, and Federal Services. North Korean Missile Proliferation ... October 21, 1997. Washington, DC: GPO, 1997. Microform.
Relations with the United States
Until World War II, US policies on Korea focused on commercial relations. Following the Japanese takeover, no US president spoke publicly of "Korea" from 1911 until 1942. This long neglect is revealed in the public documents available online from the American Presidency Project, University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB), http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu. The UCSB trove shows that US presidents have spoken frequently of Korea, North and South, since 1950. They have often criticized North Korea when tensions with Pyongyang are high and, when tensions slacken, praised South Korea's development. For this reason, this section of the bibliography is sandwiched between books on North Korea's military assets and negotiations to control them. (8)
113. Abrahamian, Ervand, Bruce Cumings, and Moshe Ma'oz. Inventing the Axis of Evil: The Truth About North Korea, Iran, and Syria. New York: New Press, 2004.
114. Armitage, Richard L. A Comprehensive Approach to North Korea. Washington, DC: National Defense University, Institute for National Strategic Studies, 1999.
115. Beal, Tim. North Korea: The Struggle Against American Power. Ann Arbor, MI: Pluto Press, 2005.
116. Brady, James. The Scariest Place in the World: A Marine Returns to North Korea. New York: Thomas Dunne, 2005.
117. Carpenter, Ted G. The Korean Conundrum: America's Troubled Relations with North and South Korea. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.
118. Carter, Ralph G., ed. Contemporary Cases in U.S. Foreign Policy: From Terrorism to Trade, 2nd ed. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2005.
119. Cha, Victor D., and David C. Kang. Nuclear North Korea: A Debate on Engagement Strategies. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.
120. Cumings, Bruce, Ervand Abrahamian, and Moshe Ma'oz. Inventing the Axis of Evil: The Truth About North Korea, Iran, and Syria. New York: New Press, 2004.
121. Dong, Wonmo, ed. The Two Koreas and the United States: Issues of Peace, Security, and Economic Cooperation. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2000.
122. Eiss, Camille, and Alexander T. J. Lennon, eds. Reshaping Rogue States: Preemption, Regime Change, and U.S. Policy Toward Iran, Iraq, and North Korea. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2004.
123. Feffer, John. North Korea, South Korea: U.S. Policy at a Time of Crisis. New York: Seven Stories, 2003.
124. Feffer, John, ed. The Future of US-Korean Relations: The Imbalance of Power. New York: Routledge, 2006.
125. Green, Michael J. U.S. Policy Toward North Korea: Next Steps. New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 1999.
126. Harrison, Selig S. Korean Endgame: A Strategy for Reunification and U.S. Disengagement. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002.
127. Johnson, Thomas A., ed. National Security Issues in Science, Law, and Technology. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2007.
128. Joo, Seung-Ho, and Tae-Hwan Kwak. The United States and the Korean Peninsula in the 21st Century. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2006.
129. Kim, Ilpyong J., ed. Two Koreas in Transition: Implications for U.S. Policy. Rockville, MD: InDepth Books, 1998.
130. Kim, Suk Hi, and Semoon Chang, eds. Economic Sanctions Against a Nuclear North Korea: An Analysis of United States and United Nations Actions Since 1950. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2007.
131. Lee, Chae-Jin. A Troubled Peace: U.S. Policy and the Two Koreas. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.
132. Lister, James M., ed. The United States and South Korea: Reinvigorating the Partnership. Washington, DC: Korea Economic Institute, 2004.
133. Litwak, Robert. Regime Change: U.S. Strategy Through the Prism of 9/11. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007.
134. Mobley, Richard A. Flash Point North Korea: The Pueblo and EC-121 Crises. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2003.
135. North Korea's Engagement--Perspectives, Outlook, and Implications: Conference Report, 23 February 2001. Washington, DC: National Intelligence Council, 2001. Electronic resource, http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS21417.
136. Park, Tong Whan, ed. The U.S. and the Two Koreas: A New Triangle. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1998.
137. Pritchard, Charles L. Failed Diplomacy: The Tragic Story of How North Korea Got the Bomb. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2007.
138. Richardson, Sharon, ed. Perspectives on U.S. Policy Toward North Korea: Stalemate or Checkmate? Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2006.
139. Rotberg, Robert I., ed. Worst of the Worst: Dealing with Repressive and Rogue Nations. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2007.
140. Smith, Derek D. Deterring America: Rogue States and the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
141. Steinberg, David I., ed. Korean Attitudes Toward the United States: Changing Dynamics. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2005.
142. US Congress, House Committee on International Relations. North Korea: Leveraging Uncertainty? ... March 16, 2000. Washington, DC: GPO, 2000. Microform.
143. US Congress, House Committee on International Relations. U.S. Policy Toward North Korea ... October 13, 1999. Washington, DC: GPO, 2000. Microform.
144. US Congress, House Committee on International Relations. U.S. Policy Toward North Korea ... September 24, 1998. Washington, DC: GPO, 2000. Microform.
145. US Congress, House Committee on International Relations, Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific. A concurrent resolution expressing the sense of the Congress regarding a private visit by President Lee Teng-Hui ... and a joint resolution relating to the United States-North Korea agreed framework and the obligations of North Korea under that and previous agreements with respect to the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula and dialogue with the Republic of Korea: markup ... on H.J. Res. 83 and H. Con. Res. 53, April 5, 1995. Washington, DC: GPO, 1997. Microform.
146. US Congress, House Committee on International Relations, Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific. Engaging the Hermit Kingdom: U.S. Policy Toward North Korea ... February 26, 1997. Washington, DC: GPO, 1997. Microform.
147. US Congress, House Committee on International Relations, Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific. U.S.-North Korean Relations: From the Agreed Framework to Food Aid ... March 19, 1996. Washington, DC: GPO, 1997. Microform.
148. US Congress, House Committee on International Relations, Subcommittee on East Asia and the Pacific. U.S.-North Korea Relations After the Policy Review ... July 26, 2001. Washington, DC: GPO, 2001. Microform.
149. US Congress, Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. North Korea: U.S. Policy Options ... July 20, 2006. Washington, DC: GPO, 2007. http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgibin/get doc.cgi?dbname=109_senate_hearings&docid=f:36100.wais. Text version.
150. US Congress, Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. U.S. Policy Toward North Korea: Where Do We Go from Here? ... May 23, 2001. Washington, DC: GPO, 2001. Microform.
151. US Congress, Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, Subcommittee on East Asian and Pacific Affairs. North Korea: Progress After Perry ... March 21, 2000. Washington, DC: GPO, 2000. Microform.
Arms Control Negotiations and Outcomes
Arms control negotiations may seek to reduce the costs of defense, the danger of war, and the damage should war occur. But they can also serve ulterior political objectives: to rally support for the regime; embarrass the other side; buy time while an arms buildup continues. Some scholars argue that negotiations are superfluous, because no meaningful deal can be achieved without trust; but if trust exists, arms controls will not be needed. But the record of US-Soviet negotiations shows that the skeptics' case is too simplistic. True, a cynic could argue that the 1987 Intermediate Range Nuclear Force Treaty was superfluous, because each side continued to possess strategic overkill. But achieving and implementing the treaty required on-site inspection and rapport between the US and Soviet presidents.
The impediments to a deal between Washington and Pyongyang are much greater than existed between the United States and the Soviet Union. They include a profound asymmetry of power assets as well as distrust and animosity rooted not only in the Cold War but also in years of hot war, threats, and border skirmishes. Given all the difficulties, books by John Bolton, Chuck Downs, and Victor Cha underscored the dangers and likely pitfalls of arms control negotiations with the DPRK. Selig Harrison (above, entry 126) and Leon Sigal, however, blamed the United States for adding to tensions instead of doing more to ameliorate them. Negotiators such as Robert Gallucci and Jimmy Carter (in Marion Creekmore's telling) encountered many difficulties in negotiating with the DPRK but still managed to reach accords they saw as beneficial to both sides. Mochizuki and Hanlon outlined a plan to update the 1994 Agreed Framework. Madeleine Albright believed that a deal on missiles as well as nuclear weapons came within reach in late 2000. In his first term, President George W. Bush and his hard-line coterie opposed serious negotiations with the DPRK. He and some of his top lieutenants insulted North Korea's top leader. A year or two into his second term, however, the president approved a sea change in US diplomacy. As Glenn Kessler suggests, Condoleezza Rice and Assistant Secretary of State Christopher Hill began in middecade to work toward a broad accommodation with the North--a prospect they saw as desirable and attainable. (9)
152. Albert, David, and Corey Hinderstein. Dismantling the DPRK's Nuclear Weapons Program: A Practicable, Verifiable Plan of Action. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, 2006.
153. Albright, Madeleine. Madam Secretary. New York: Miramax, 2003.
154. Bishop, David J. Dismantling North Korea's Nuclear Weapons Programs. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College, 2005. Electronic resource, http://purl .access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS60649.
155. Bolton, John. Surrender Is Not an Option: Defending America at the United Nations and Abroad. New York: Threshold, 2007.
156. Che, Song-Ho. Legal Issues Regarding KEDO Personnel in North Korea. Seoul: Institute for National Unification, 1997.
157. Creekmore, Marion V., Jr. A Moment of Crisis: Jimmy Carter, the Power of a Peacemaker, and North Korea's Nuclear Ambitions. New York: Public Affairs, 2006.
158. Davis, Jacquelyn K., Charles M. Perry, and James L. Schoff. Building Six-Party Capacity for a WMD-free Korea. Dulles, VA: Potomac Books, 2005.
159. Downs, Chuck. Over the Line: North Korea's Negotiating Strategy. Washington, DC: AEL Press, 1999.
160. Funabashi, Yoichi. The Peninsula Question: A Chronicle of the Second Korean Nuclear Crisis. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2007.
161. Fuqua, Jacques L., Jr. Nuclear Endgame: The Need for Engagement with North Korea. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International, 2007.
162. Gilinsky, Victor. Nuclear Blackmail: The 1994 U.S.-Democratic People's Republic of Korea Agreed Framework on North Korea's Nuclear Program. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution, 1997.
163. Heginbotham, Eric. Meeting the North Korean Nuclear Challenge: Report of an Independent Task Force. New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 2003.
164. Kessler, Glenn. The Confidante: Condoleezza Rice and the Creation of the Bush Legacy. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2007.
165. Krawitz, Howard M. Resolving Korea's Nuclear Crisis: Tough Choices for China. Washington, DC: Institute for National Strategic Studies, National Defense University, 2003. Electronic resource, http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS35894.
166. Mazarr, Michael J. North Korea and the Bomb: A Case Study in Nonproliferation. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1996.
167. McCormack, Gavan. Target North Korea: Pushing North Korea to the Brink of Nuclear Catastrophe. New York: Nation Books, 2004.
168. Mochizuki, Mike, and Michael O'Hanlon. Crisis on the Korean Peninsula: How to Deal with a Nuclear North Korea. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.
169. Niksch, Larry A., et al. Implementing the Six-Party Joint Statement and the Korean Peninsula. Seoul: Korea Institute for National Unification, 2005.
170. Rozman, Gilbert. Strategic Thinking About the Korean Nuclear Crisis: Four Parties Caught Between North Korea and the United States. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.
171. Sigal, Leon V. Disarming Strangers: Nuclear Diplomacy with North Korea. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998.
172. Snyder, Scott. Negotiating on the Edge: North Korean Negotiating Behavior. Washington DC: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1999.
173. US Congress, Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. The North Korean Nuclear Calculus: Beyond the Six-Power Talks ... March 2, 2004. Washington, DC: GPO, 2004.
174. US Congress, Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, Subcommittee on East Asian and Pacific Affairs. KEDO and the Korean Agreed Nuclear Framework: Problems and Prospects ... July 14, 1998. Washington, DC: GPO, 1998. Microform.
175. Wit, Joel S., Daniel B. Poneman, and Robert L. Gallucci. Going Critical: The First North Korean Nuclear Crisis. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2004.
Regional and World Security
Both North and South Korea nurse resentments against Japan dating to the late nineteenth century. The struggle between Tokyo and St. Petersburg for hegemony over Korea catalyzed their war in 1904. More than a century later, Korean issues continue to endanger world as well as regional security. Russia seeks closer economic ties with South Korea but worries lest Pyongyang destabilize the region. Japan too wants a stable environment but holds out for redress of abductee issues. By 2003, China had emerged as the great power willing and able to facilitate negotiations among all the parties concerned with North Korea's nuclear programs. Worn down by its problems in Iraq, Washington became a more constructive partner in the Six-Party Talks held in Beijing. Canada too, as noted in several entries, sought to play a conciliatory role in Northeast Asia. China and North Korea, however, were no longer "comrades-in-arms" but, as Andrew Scobell puts it (entry 106), "allies at arm's length." The International Crisis Group provides analysis of each of the concerned regional actors. On Russia and DPRK, for example, see www.crisisgroup.org/home/index.cfm?id =5198&1=1.
If tensions over North Korea's weapons programs could be resolved, the region could become a fulcrum for economic development and trade. But which approach is closer to reality--neorealist structuralism, free trade liberalism, or constructivism? Pessimistic structuralists have focused on the security dilemma and optimistic liberals on trade theory, but constructivist Sheila Jager has underscored the role of intangibles--the politics of identity, the burdens of history, and nationalism. Like Horowitz and Tan, she too has found it fruitful to compare Korean issues with those that link Taipei and Beijing. Anticipating Jager's constructivist theme, Gilbert Rozman blamed bilateral distrust in North Asia for lost opportunities amid stunted regionalism. For analyses of energy and other economic issues, see the work of the Nautilus Institute (www.nautilus.org).
176. Araki, Jiro. Crisis Management in Japan: Observations on Sarin, Kobe, and North Korea. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1997.
177. Bryant, Susan E, Russell D. Howard, Jay M. Parker, and Albert S. Wilner. Northeast Asia Regional Security and the United States Military: Context, Presence, and Roles. Colorado Springs: USAF Institute for National Security Studies, 2002. Electronic resource, http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/ LPS24940.
178. Challenges Posed by the DPRK for the Alliance and the Region. Washington, DC: Korea Economic Institute, 2005.
179. Choong-Yong, Ahn, Nicholas Eberstadt, and Young-sun Lee, eds. A New International Engagement Framework for North Korea? Contending Perspectives. Washington, DC: Korea Economic Institute of America, 2004.
180. Cleminson, F. Ron, and Rene Unger, eds. Promoting Peace on the Korean Peninsula Through Arms Control: Preventing Regional Conflicts: The 1997 Korea/Canada North Pacific Arms Control Workshop Proceedings, 27 to 29 May 1997. Victoria, BC, Canada: University of Victoria, 1997.
181. Cooney, Kevin J. Japan's Foreign Policy Since 1945. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2007.
182. Drennan, William M. A Comprehensive Resolution of the Korean War. Washington, DC: US Institute of Peace, 2003. Electronic resource, http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS32123.
183. Dujarric, Robert. Korea: Security Pivot in Northeast Asia. Indianapolis: Hudson Institute, 1998.
184. Endo, Tetsuya. Japan and North Korea: An Assessment and Some Policy Approaches. Wellington, NZ: Centre for Strategic Studies, 1997.
185. Friedman, Edward, and Sung Chull Kim, eds. Regional Cooperation and Its Enemies in Northeast Asia: The Impact of Domestic Forces. New York: Routledge, 2006.
186. Harada, Chikahito. Russia and North-east Asia. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
187. Hayes, Peter, and Young Whan Kihl, eds. Peace and Security in Northeast Asia: The Nuclear Issue and the Korean Peninsula. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1997.
188. Horowitz, Shale, Ok Heo, and Alexander C. Tan, eds. Identity and Change in East Asian Conflicts: The Cases of China, Taiwan, and the Koreas. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.
189. Jager, Sheila Miyoshi. The Politics of Identity: History, Nationalism, and the Prospect for Peace in Post-Cold War East Asia. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College, 2007. www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/ PUB770.pdf.
190. Kihl, Young Whan, and Peter Hayes, eds. Peace and Security in Northeast Asia: The Nuclear Issue and the Korean Peninsula. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1997.
191. Kim, Byung-Kook, and Anthony Jones, eds. Power and Security in Northeast Asia: Shifting Strategies. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2007.
192. Kim, Dae Jung. Peace on the Korean Peninsula and East Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2001.
193. Kim, Jungsup. International Politics and Security in Korea. Cheltenham, UK: Elgar, 2007.
194. Kim, Samuel S., ed. North Korea and Northeast Asia. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2002.
195. Kim, Samuel S. The Two Koreas and the Great Powers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
196. Koh, Byung Chul. Between Discord and Cooperation: Japan and the Two Koreas. Seoul: Yonsei University Press, 2007.
197. Morishima, Michio. Collaborative Development in Northeast Asia. London: Macmillan, 2000.
198. The Newly Emerging Asian Order and the Korean Peninsula. Proceedings of a symposium sponsored by the College of William and Mary, the Korea Economic Institute, and the Korea Institute for International Economic Policy, Washington, DC, August 25-27, 2004. Washington, DC: Korea Economic Institute of America, 2005.
199. New Paradigms for Transpacific Collaboration. Proceedings of a symposium sponsored by the University of Washington, the Korea Economic Institute, and the Korea Institute for International Economic Policy, Washington, DC, October 16-18, 2005. Washington, DC: Korea Economic Institute of America, 2006.
200. Ong, Russell. China's Security Interests in the 21st Century. New York: Routledge, 2007.
201. Pak, Chi Young. Korea and the United Nations. Boston: Kluwer Law International, 2000.
202. Park, Kyung-Ae, and Dalchoong Kim. Korean Security Dynamics in Transition. New York: Palgrave, 2001.
203. Rozman, Gilbert. North Asia's Stunted Regionalism: Bilateral Distrust in the Shadow of Globalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
204. Seung-Ho Joo, and Tae-Hwan Kwak, eds. Korea in the 21st Century. Huntington, NY: Nova Science, 2001.
205. Snyder, Scott. The Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization: Implications for Northeast Asian Regional Security Cooperation? Vancouver: Program on Canada-Asia Policy Studies, Institute of Asian Research, University of British Columbia, 2000.
Prospects for North-South Unification
By 2007, most analysts of North-South relations were more optimistic about the prospects of cooperation than they had been before ROK leaders launched their Sunshine Policy in the late 1990s. Visions of unification, however, receded. South Koreans' ardor for unification with long-lost cousins was diminishing. Evidence mounted that South Koreans did not want the burdens that could ensue if North and South Korea were merged like East and West Germany. South Koreans were niggardly toward the few escapees from the North who made it to the ROK.
Given the hard realities, a formal federation or even a loose confederation might prove infeasible and unworkable. Instead, analysts such as Roland Bleiker proposed a "culture of reconciliation." In December 2007, however, ROK voters elected a new president who pledged to take a firmer posture in dealing with the North--one that abjured one-sided concessions and instead demanded reciprocity. In January 2008, just before the new president was inaugurated, Pyongyang cancelled a North-South meeting. Were the winds shifting or was this just a get-acquainted squall? Summaries of ongoing ROK-DPRK negotiations can be found at South-North Dialogue in Korea published periodically by the ROK Ministry of Unification.
Greater openness would bring profound risks to the stability of the DPRK regime, but Kim Jong I1 and his comrades might escape the fate of East Germany's communists if they adapted potentially useful lessons from China's experiences since 1979. (10) Scholars compared prospects for cooperation across the DMZ with efforts at conflict resolution across the Taiwan Strait. In each case, economic ties might trump political differences. See, for example, Ho-Won Jeong, Understanding Conflict and Conflict Analysis (London: Sage, 2008).
206. Akramov, Kamiljon T., and Charles Wolf Jr. North Korean Paradoxes: Circumstances, Costs and Consequences of Korean Unification. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2005.
207. Armstrong, Charles K. The Koreas. New York: Routledge, 2007.
208. Baek, Yong-Jin. Analysis on South Korea's Engagement Policy Towards North Korea with Respect to Its Relations with the US and Unification Prospect. Cambridge, MA: John E Kennedy School of Government, 2007.
209. Bleiker, Roland. Divided Korea: Toward a Culture of Reconciliation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2005.
210. The Challenges of Reconciliation and Reform in Korea. Proceedings of a symposium sponsored by the Center for Korean Studies, the University of California at Los Angeles, the Korea Economic Institute of America, and the Korea Institute for International Economic Policy. Washington, DC: Korea Economic Institute of America, 2002.
211. Choi, Young Back, et al., eds. Perspectives on Korean Unification and Economic Integration. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2001.
212. Confrontation and Innovation on the Korean Peninsula. Washington, DC: Korea Economic Institute, 2003.
213. Kim, Samuel S., ed. Inter-Korean Relations: Problems and Prospects. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.
214. Koh, Byung Chul. Korea: Dynamics of Diplomacy and Unification. Claremont, CA: Keck Center for International and Strategic Studies, 2001.
215. The Korean Peninsula in the 21st Century: Prospects for Stability and Cooperation. Proceedings of a symposium sponsored by the School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University; the Korea Economic Institute of America; and the Korea Institute for International Economic Policy. Washington, DC: Korea Economic Institute of America, 2000.
216. Kremenak, Ben. Korea's Road to Unification: Potholes, Detours, and Dead Ends. College Park: Center for International and Security Studies at Maryland, 1997.
217. Levin, Norman D. Sunshine in Korea: The South Korean Debate over Policies Toward North Korea. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2002.
218. Lister, James M., ed. The Political Economy of Korean Reconciliation and Reform. Washington, DC: Korea Economic Institute of America, 2001.
219. Noland, Marcus. Avoiding the Apocalypse: The Future of the Two Koreas. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics, 2000.
220. Oberdorfer, Don. The Two Koreas: A Contemporary History, rev. ed. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1997 and New York: Basic Books, 2001.
221. Olsen, Edward A. Korea, the Divided Nation. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International, 2005.
222. Peloso, Jennifer, ed. The Two Koreas. New York: H. W. Wilson, 2004.
223. US Congress, House Committee on International Relations, Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific. Markup of H. Res. 543, expressing the sense of the House of Representatives regarding the recent summit held by the presidents of South Korea and North Korea ... July 25, 2000. Washington, DC: GPO, 2000. Microform.
224. Wolf, Charles, and Kamil Akramov. North Korean Paradoxes: Circumstances, Costs and Consequences of Korean Unification. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2005. www.rand.org/publications/MG/MG333.
North Korea's Future
In the 1990s, many scholars such as Nicholas Eberstadt (entry 229 and earlier works) doubted that the DPRK regime could long endure. Others were far more sanguine--for example, John Sullivan and Roberta Foss, eds., Two Koreas--One Future (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1987). Hopeful but more cautious was Bruce Cumings, The Two Koreas: On the Road to Reunification? (New York: Foreign Policy Association, 1991). By 2005-2006, however, Eberstadt joined others in debating alternative futures if North Korea shifted economic priorities from "military-first" to civilian needs; if greater foreign investment were allowed and took place; if sanctions erected by the United States and its partners dissolved in a new era of peace and cooperation. (11) By 2007, as noted above, the outlook for North-South unification became darker, but guarded optimism became the leitmotif of many works in English dealing with North Korea and the world. (12)
225. Akaha, Tsuneo, ed. The Future of North Korea. London: Routledge, 2002.
226. Carlin, Robert L., and Joel S. Wit. North Korean Reform: Politics, Economics and Security. New York: Routledge, for the International Institute for Strategic Studies, 2006.
227. Dujarric, Robert. Korean Unification and After: The Challenge for U.S. Strategy. Indianapolis: Hudson Institute, 2000.
228. Dynamic Forces on the Korean Peninsula: Strategic and Economic Implications. Proceedings of a symposium held September 25-27, 2006. Washington, DC: Korea Economic Institute, 2007. This is volume 17 in the Institute's monograph series Joint U.S.-Korea Academic Studies, available at www.keia.org/2-Publications/2-3- Monograph/Monograph2007/Entire.pdf.
229. Eberstadt, Nicholas. The End of North Korea. Washington, DC: AEI Press, 1999.
230. Eberstadt, Nicolas, and Richard J. Ellings, eds. Korea's Future and the Great Powers. Seattle: National Bureau of Asian Research, in association with University of Washington Press, 2001.
231. Grinker, Roy Richard. Korea and Its Futures: Unification and the Unfinished War. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1998.
232. Henriksen, Thomas H., and Jongryn Mo, eds. North Korea After Kim Il Sung: Continuity or Change? Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1997.
233. Hoare, James E., and Susan Pares. North Korea in the 21st Century: An Interpretative Guide. Folkestone, UK: Global Oriental, 2005.
234. Lee, Chae-Jin, and Dae-Sook Sub, eds. North Korea After Kim Il Sung. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1998.
235. Lim, Soon-Hee. Value Changes of the North Korean New Generation and Prospects. Seoul: Korea Institute for National Unification, 2007.
236. Noland, Marcus. Korea After Kim Jong-II. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics, 2004.
237. Reese, David. The Prospects for North Korea's Survival. New York: Oxford University Press, for the International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1998.
238. Sokolski, Henry D., ed. Planning for a Peaceful Korea. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College, 2001.
239. Sub, Dae-Sook, ed. North Korea After Kim I1 Sung. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1998.
240. Yun, Philip, ed. North Korea: 2005 and Beyond. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2006.
Useful Websites on the DPRK
While books remain vital to understanding North Korea, online resources for historical as well as current information are rich and varied.
241. Some volumes of the document series Foreign Relations of the United States can be found at www.state.gov/www/about_state/history/frus.html.
242. Declassified documents can be found at the National Security Archive, George Washington University, www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv.
243. For a comprehensive set of Web links relating to the Korean peninsula compiled by the United States Institute of Peace, see www.usip.org/library/regions/korea.html.
244. For reports by the official DPRK Korean Central News Agency, see www.kcna.co.jp.
245. For publications of the US Committee for Human Rights in Korea, see www.hrnk.org.
246. For documents and articles, past and current, in Arms Control Today, see www.armscontrol.org/country/northkorea.
247. On North Korea and nuclear proliferation, see Center for Nonproliferation Studies, Monterey Institute of International Studies, at http://cns.miis.edu/research/korea.
248. For an annotated directory of articles on the North Korean nuclear issues compiled at Redlands University, see http://newton.uor.edu/Departments&Programs/AsianStudiesDept/ nkorea-nuke.html.
249. On energy and economic issues, see the work of the Nautilus Institute at www.nautilus.org.
250. For publications, speeches, and conferences at the Korea Economic Institute, see www.keia.org.
251. For studies of North Korea and related issues at the Peterson Institute for International Economics, see www.petersoninstitute.org.
252. For technical analysis by the Institute for Science and International Security of DPRK nuclear programs, verification, and disablement issues, see www.isis-online.org/publications/dprk.
253. For reports and analyses by the Pacific Forum, Center for Strategic and International Studies, see www.csis.org/pacfor.
254. For reports on North Korea by the International Crisis Group, see www.crisisgroup.org/home/index.cfm.
255. For reports by the Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization, see www.kedo.org.
256. A valuable source on many topics is Encyclopedia of Asian History at www.asiasource.org/society.
257. Articles on culture as well as history and current affairs can be found in Korean Studies, published at the University of Hawaii, and available at http://muse.jhu.edu.
258. For news about human rights and other issues in the DPRK, see http://www.dailynk.com/english/
The author wishes to thank Boston University students Sandra Lee and Yurim Yi for assistance with this project.
(1.) Ha Jin, War Trash (New York: Pantheon, 2004).
(2.) In listings of Senate and House of Representatives materials, long titles are omitted and noted by an ellipsis. The US Government Printing Office is shown as GPO.
(3.) Jon Carter Covell, Korea's Cultural Roots (Salt Lake City: Moth House; Seoul: Hollym, 1981), p. 27.
(4.) H. H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills, eds., From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology (New York: Oxford University Press, 1958), pp. 245-251; 295-297. For more on personalist regimes, see Barbara Geddes, Paradigms and Sand Castles: Theory Building and Research Design in Comparative Politics (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2003).
(5.) Lecture at Harvard University, October 31, 2007.
(6.) For the views of former DPRK official Hwang Jang-Yop (sometimes written Yep or Yeop), see www.donga.com/e-county/sssboard/board.php?no= 221182&s_work--view&tcode=01001county/sssboard/board.php?no=221182 &s_work=view&tcode=01001. See also Ok-sik Seo, Bukhaneui songunchungchi-ron [Songun Politics in North Korea] Seoul, 2006.
(7.) See Lawrence E. Harrison and Samuel P. Huntington, eds., Culture Matters: How Values Shape Human Progress (New York: Basic Books, 2000).
(8.) For a comparison of Washington's approaches to Moscow and Beijing with US policies to the DPRK, see Walter C. Clemens Jr., "Peace in Korea? Lessons from Cold War Detentes," in Confrontation and Innovation on the Korean Peninsula (Washington, DC: Korea Economic Institute, 2003), pp. 1-17.
(9.) Many analysts have compared and contrasted US approaches to North Korea under the forty-second and forty-third US presidents. See, for example, Walter C. Clemens Jr., "Negotiating to Control Weapons of Mass Destruction in North Korea," International Negotiation: A Journal of Theory and Practice 10, no. 3 (2005): 453-486; and Clemens, "Almost Back to Square One (on North Korea)," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 60, no. 5 (September-October 2004): 22-25.
(10.) See Walter C. Clemens Jr., "North Korea's Future: What Pyongyang, Seoul, and Washington Could Learn from East Europe, the Former USSR, and China," Journal of East Asian Affairs 21, no. 1 (Spring-Summer 2007): 1-48.
(11.) See, for example, the Special Roundtable "Economic Implications of a Fundamental Shift in North Korean Security Policy," Asia Policy 2 (July 2006).
(12.) See, for example, Donald G. Gross and Hannah Oh, "U.S.-Korea Relations: Agreement with the North, Progress in the South," Comparative Connections: A Quarterly E-Journal on East Asian Bilateral Relations (October 2007).
Walter C. Clemens Jr. is professor of political science, Boston University, and an associate at Harvard University Davis Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies. His articles on North Korea have appeared in Asian Survey, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Financial Times, Journal of East Asian Affairs, and International Negotiation Journal. He is currently completing a book manuscript, Getting to Yes in Korea.
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|Author:||Clemens, Walter C., Jr.|
|Publication:||Journal of East Asian Studies|
|Date:||May 1, 2008|
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