Non-discrimination and affirmative action in Israeli law.
prohibition prohibition, legal prevention of the manufacture, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages, the extreme of the regulatory liquor laws. The modern movement for prohibition had its main growth in the United States and developed largely as a result of the of discrimination is well anchored in Israeli law. Yet, nondiscriminatory hiring practices and affirmative action affirmative action, in the United States, programs to overcome the effects of past societal discrimination by allocating jobs and resources to members of specific groups, such as minorities and women. are not an integral part of the Israeli political and legal tradition; programs, laws and regulations concerning active anti-discrimination policy are a very new constituent CONSTITUENT. He who gives authority to another to act for him. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 893.
2. The constituent is bound with whatever his attorney does by virtue of his authority. of legal and political activity in the area of employment.
Requirements with regard to affirmative action and adequate representation are to be found only in instructions connected with specific laws. The reference is to amendments first passed in the middle of the 1990s, designed to introduce affirmative action and adequate representation into public service and government corporations--with regard to women, Arab citizens and Ethiopian Israelis. It should be mentioned that such requirements are limited, for two reasons: firstly, they are worded in the most general way, without referring to rank or function, and secondly, they refer only to the public sector and not to the private one. Following are the main requirements:
* Article 18A (1993) of the Government Companies Law of 1975, which requires adequate representation of women and men on boards of directors of government corporations;
* Amendment 7 (1995) to the Public Service Law (Appointments) of 1959, which requires adequate representation of women and men in the public service;
* Amendment 1 1 (2000) to the Public Service Law (Appointments), which mandates fair representation for Arab citizens in the public service sector, in all ministries and agencies, and requires taking the necessary steps to do this. The amendment gives the government authority to allot al·lot
tr.v. al·lot·ted, al·lot·ting, al·lots
1. To parcel out; distribute or apportion: allotting land to homesteaders; allot blame.
2. specific positions to Arab employees and to obligate government ministries and agencies to submit an annual report on implementation of the amendment and the proportion of Arab employees in the department;
* Amendment 1 1 (2000) to the Government Companies Law, which mandates that boards of directors of government corporations give adequate representation to the Arab population and instructs ministers to appoint Arab directors whenever possible, until the goal of fair representation is achieved.
* A 2005 amendment to Article 15A of the Public Service Law (Appointments) that requires affirmative action for Ethiopian Israelis applying for public service jobs.
* A complementary bill requiring adequate representation for Arab employees in manufacturing firms was tabled during the sixteenth and seventeenth Knessets, but failed to pass.
In contrast to the situation with regard to affirmative action, Israeli law clearly recognizes the principle of prohibition of discrimination in employment as an international norm as well as a norm anchored in domestic legislation. Israel is a signatory sig·na·to·ry
Bound by signed agreement: the signatory parties to a contract.
n. pl. sig·na·to·ries
One that has signed a treaty or other document. to most of the existing international conventions dealing with the prohibition of discrimination in employment, and over the years the Law of
Equal Employment Opportunities of 1988 has been amended to include the prohibition of discrimination on the basis of gender, parenthood, family status, ethnic group, belief, country of origin and age. In addition to legislation that prohibits discrimination, there is also legislation pertaining per·tain
intr.v. per·tained, per·tain·ing, per·tains
1. To have reference; relate: evidence that pertains to the accident.
2. to specific social groups--women, persons with disabilities, and demobilized soldiers--that prohibits discrimination and also provides for a certain degree of affirmative action in employment. In 2007, an Equal Employment Opportunities Commission was created for the very purpose of eliminating discrimination in employment.