New USAF doctrine publication: AFDD 2-2.1, Counterspace Operations.BECAUSE OF THE importance of space superiority The degree of dominance in space of one force over another that permits the conduct of operations by the former and its related land, sea, air, space, and special operations forces at a given time and place without prohibitive interference by the opposing force. See also space. , the Air Force published new doctrine on 2 August 2004: Air Force Doctrine Document (AFDD AFDD Air Force Doctrine Document
AFDD Agrupación de Familiares de Detenidos Desaparecidos (Association of Relatives of the Disappeared)
AFDD Association Française des Docteurs en Droit
AFDD Aero-Flight Dynamics Directorate ) 2-2.1, Counterspace Operations. Gen John P. Jumper General John P. Jumper is a United States Air Force officer who served as Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force from September 6, 2001 to September 2, 2005. He retired from the Air Force on November 1, 2005. Jumper was succeeded as Chief of Staff by General T. , US Air Force chief of staff, asserts that "space superiority is as much about protecting our space assets as it is about preparing to counter an enemy's space or anti-space assets" (1). The new publication (pub) defines key terms characteristic of counterspace operations and highlights factors that Airmen must take into consideration when they plan/execute those operations.
AFDD 2-2.1 defines the key term space superiority as "the degree of control necessary to employ, maneuver, and engage space forces while denying the same capability to an adversary" (55). The pub reinforces existing definitions found in AFDD 1, Air Force Basic Doctrine, 17 November 2003, which states that "counterspace involves those kinetic and non-kinetic operations conducted to attain and maintain a desired degree of space superiority by the destruction, degradation, or disruption of enemy space capability" (42).
AFDD 2-2.1 highlights the linkage between the concepts of space situational awareness Situation awareness or situational awareness  (SA) is the mental representation and understanding of objects, events, people, system states, interactions, environmental conditions, and other situation-specific factors affecting human performance in (SSA (Serial Storage Architecture) A fault tolerant peripheral interface from IBM that transfers data at 80 and 160 Mbytes/sec. SSA uses SCSI commands, allowing existing software to drive SSA peripherals, which are typically disk drives. ) and counterspace operations, explaining that SSA "is the result of sufficient knowledge about space-related conditions, constraints, capabilities, and activities ... in, from, toward, or through space" (2). SSA accomplished by space surveillance, reconnaissance, the monitoring of the space environment, and collection/processing of space-systems intelligence provides the planner, commander, and executor the ability to develop counterspace courses of action.
Like counterair operations, counterspace operations have offensive and defensive components. On the one hand, according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. AFDD 2-2.1, offensive counterspace (OCS OCS - Object Compatibility Standard ) operations "deceive, disrupt, deny, degrade, or destroy adversary space capabilities" at a time and place of our choosing through attacks on the space systems, terrestrial systems, links, or third-party space capabilities (2). The early initiation of counterspace operations, ranging from dropping ordnance on space-systems nodes to jamming enemy-satellite uplink or downlink frequencies, can result in an immediate advantage in space capabilities and control of the space medium. On the other hand, defensive counterspace (DCS (1) See also DSC.
(2) Digital Cross-connect System) A network switching and grooming device used by telecom carriers. See digital cross-connect. ) operations are "key to enabling continued exploitation of space by the US and its allies by protecting, preserving, recovering, and reconstituting friendly space-related capabilities" (3).
AFDD 2-2.1 addresses the need to consider both offensive and defensive actions, noting that "counterspace operations are conducted across the tactical, operational, and strategic levels of war by the entire joint force.... Within the counterspace construct, any action taken to achieve space superiority is a counterspace operation" (2).
As this pub points out, denying an adversary access to space can carry many intended and unintended consequences by transcending military operations This is a list of missions, operations, and projects. Missions in support of other missions are not listed independently. World War I
''See also List of military engagements of World War I
1. Airmen require a long lead time for SSA in order to develop a good course of action.
2. Space centers of gravity center of gravity
n. pl. centers of gravity
1. Abbr. CG The point in or near a body at which the gravitational potential energy of the body is equal to that of a single particle of the same mass located at that point are not clear cut.
3. The enemy may have his own counterspace capabilities.
Airmen must also note certain targeting considerations:
1. All satellite-systems ground stations and low-orbit satellites are subject to attack.
2. Satellite links are vulnerable to jamming.
Looking to the future, AFDD 2-2.1 notes that
the US's space advantage is threatened by the growth in adversary counterspace capability and the adversary's increased use of space. In the past, the US has enjoyed space superiority through our superior technology development and exploitation, advanced information systems, and robust space infrastructure. The ability to sustain this advantage is challenging and may be eroding as our adversaries close the gap through technology sharing, materiel acquisition, and purchase of space services. (4)
Well aware of these future challenges, General Jumper, again using AFDD 2-2.1 as a forum for emphasizing the importance of space, states that "counterspace operations, both defensive and offensive, supported by situational awareness, will ensure we maintain our superiority in space" (1).
To Learn More ...
Air Force Doctrine Document 2-2.1. Counterspace Operations, 2 August 2004. http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/service_ pubs/afdd2_2_l.pdf.
Air Force Doctrine Document 2-2. Space Operations, 27 November 2001. http://www.e-publishing.af.mil/pubfiles/afdc/ dd/afdd2-2/afdd2-2.pdf.
Department of Defense Directive 3100.15. Space Control Classified (see SIPRNET).
Joint Publication 3-14. Joint Doctrine for Space Operations, 9 August 2002. http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/new_pubs/ jp3_14.pdf.
Presidential Decision Directive-National Security Council-49/National Space Technology Council-8. National Space Policy, 14 September 1996. http://www.ostp.gov/NSTC/html/fs/fs-5.html.
Air Force Doctrine Document 1. Air Force Basic Doctrine, 17 November 2003. https://www.doctrine.af.mil/Main.asp.
Department of Defense Directive 5101.2. DoD Executive Agent for Space, 3 June 2003. http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/ corres/pdf/d51012_060303/d51012p.pdf.
LT COL PAULA B. FLAVELL, USAF