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New Performance-Based Standards for Correctional Industries. (Accreditation Byline).

The American Correctional Association The American Correctional Association is an association of providers of services to prisons in the United States. It holds an annual trade show where products used in prisons are shown to prospective purchasers.

It was formerly known as the American Prison Association.
 (ACA ACA - Application Control Architecture ) Standards Committee vote to adopt Performance-Based Standards for Correctional Industries, Second Edition, in January January: see month. , capped seven years of work by the Correctional Industries Association (CIA CIA: see Central Intelligence Agency.

(1) (Confidentiality Integrity Authentication) The three important concerns with regards to information security. Encryption is used to provide confidentiality (privacy, secrecy).

A Long Process

The first edition of the Standards for Correctional Industries was published in 1981 and was long overdue OVERDUE. A bill, note, bond or other contract, for the payment of money at a particular day, when not paid upon the day, is overdue.
     2. The indorsement of a note or bill overdue, is equivalent to drawing a new bill payable at sight. 2 Conn. 419; 18 Pick.
 for an update when CIA created a standards committee to undertake the task in 1995. By 1997, CIA was ready to deliver the proposed second edition to ACA, only to learn that ACA's Standards Committee was developing a template (1) A pre-designed document or data file formatted for common purposes such as a fax, invoice or business letter. If the document contains an automated process, such as a word processing macro or spreadsheet formula, then the programming is already written and embedded in the  for performance-based standards. As a result, CIA was asked to wait until the new Performance-Based Standards for Adult Community Residential Services, Fourth Edition, would be completed as the prototype.

With that prototype in hand in 1997, the CIA Standards Committee began to meet a minimum of twice per year to evaluate existing standards and to convert them to performance-based standards. Although the committee was familiar with bench-marking and measuring performance, many questions and issues arose that forced it to evaluate just how correctional industries would measure itself. The committee recognized that due to local statutes, some jurisdictions would be unable to meet certain standards without legislative change. However, the emphasis was on how to use the standards to make the correctional industries profession better. The committee also realized that some jurisdictions may not be able to meet some of the outcome measures established under Section 4, Program and Activity, in Performance-Based Standards for Correctional Industries, Second Edition; however, the committee believes these standards are intended to make correctional industries programs reach a higher level of credibility as the field matu res.

Although Performance-Based Standards for Adult Community Residential Services, Fourth Edition, was not adopted until August 2000, CIA continued work on the industries standards by closely monitoring the progress of the other manual. As a result, the ACA Standards Committee approved the new correctional industries standards for field-testing in that same month, during the meeting at which the final community residential standards were adopted.

Hawaii Hawaii, island, United States
Hawaii, island (1990 pop. 120,217), 4,037 sq mi (10,456 sq km), largest and southernmost island of the state of Hawaii and coextensive with Hawaii co.; known as the Big Island.
 Correctional Industries, which was due for reaccreditation re·ac·cred·i·ta·tion  
1. The process of reviewing the accreditation of an institution.

2. Renewal of accreditation status.
, volunteered to field-test field-test
tr.v. field-test·ed, field-test·ing, field-tests
To test (a technique or product) under conditions of actual operation or use.

Verb 1.
 the new standards. Warden WARDEN. A guardian; a keeper. This is the name given to various officers: as, the warden of the prison; the wardens of the port of Philadelphia; church wardens.  David McKune of the Lansing Correctional Facility Lansing Correctional Facility (LCF) is a state prison operated by the Kansas Department of Corrections located in Lansing, Kansas in Leavenworth County. LCF, along with the United States Penitentiary, Leavenworth and the United States Disciplinary Barracks in Fort Leavenworth, are  in Lansing Lansing.

1 Village (1990 pop. 28,086), Cook co., NE Ill., a suburb of Chicago, near the Ind. line; inc. 1893. Among the city's industries are meatpacking, food processing, and the manufacture of metal products.

2 City (1990 pop.
, Kan Kan, river, China: see Gan. ., conducted the audit. The authors were on hand to assist with any questions and to clarify issues as they developed with the new performance-based format. As a result, the committee was able to immediately recommend changes to ACA, which helped to further improve and clarify the standards.

Although the initial field-testing was completed in fall 2000 and CIA was ready to submit the standards in January 2001, ACA staff questions caused the committee to revisit re·vis·it  
tr.v. re·vis·it·ed, re·vis·it·ing, re·vis·its
To visit again.

A second or repeated visit.

 its work. A second round of questions and suggestions resulted in the proposed standards having to forego the August 2001 meeting. Although, at times, the process was frustrating frus·trate  
tr.v. frus·trat·ed, frus·trat·ing, frus·trates
a. To prevent from accomplishing a purpose or fulfilling a desire; thwart:
, it resulted in a better final document.

Performance-Based Standards

The first task CIA faced in 1997 was to reconfigure To change the status of something.  the old standards into the new performance-based format. Correctional industries managers were instantly comfortable with the concepts and terminology of performance-based standards. These resonated with the quality improvement activities that were an accepted practice in the correctional industries field. Many practitioners already were collecting data for the same outcome measures that eventually became part of the performance standards for correctional industries. In moving from the old format to the new performance-based template, the committee was challenged in different ways, which resulted in identifying further changes that were needed, and incorporating them into the second edition.

Table 1 describes the scope of changes between the first and second editions. There are many new elements in the second edition, including the 16 performance-based standards and all the outcome measures, protocols and process indicators. The second edition also contains fewer comments. This is the result of a deliberate effort by CIA in response to past confusion about the actual status of commentaries. ACA told the working group that comments are not audited during the accreditation accreditation,
n a process of formal recognition of a school or institution attesting to the required ability and performance in an area of education, training, or practice.
 process. Consequently, the group attempted to incorporate comments only when it was necessary to provide clarification.

Nineteen of the 74 first edition standards (now called expected practices) have no counterpart counterpart n. in the law of contracts, a written paper which is one of several documents which constitute a contract, such as a written offer and a written acceptance.  in the second edition; however, most of the topics addressed by the practices are found in the second edition (See Table 2).

Jails Join the Process

During the second phase of the revision process, members of the Jail Industries Association (JIA JIA Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis
JIA Japan Institute of Architects
JIA Japanese Imperial Army
JIA Japan Gas Appliances Inspection Association
JIA Jewish Internet Association
JIA PSA Airlines (Us Airways Express, ICAO Code) 
) became active participants on the CIA Standards Committee. The jail practitioners brought a new perspective and helped make the standards readily applicable to local correctional industries operations. As a result, ACA accredited accredited

recognition by an appropriate authority that the performance of a particular institution has satisfied a prestated set of criteria.

accredited herds
cattle herds which have achieved a low level of reactors to, e.g.
 the first jail industries program -- the Peumansend Creek Regional Jail in Virginia Virginia, state, United States
Virginia, state of the south-central United States. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean (E), North Carolina and Tennessee (S), Kentucky and West Virginia (W), and Maryland and the District of Columbia (N and NE).
, which served as a field-test site and achieved 100 percent compliance.

Stand-Alone (jargon) stand-alone - Capable of operating without other programs, libraries, computers, hardware, networks, etc. Exactly what is absent is presumed to be obvious from context.

"We only run Windows on stand-alone PCs because it's too dangerous to run it on networked ones."

Many of the difficulties the committee encountered could be attributed to questions about the scope of the correctional industries standards. Unlike most ACA standards manuals, the industries standards address only one operational area within the broader institutional context. Fortunately, the new Performance-Based Standards for Correctional Health Care in Adult Correctional Institutions Noun 1. correctional institution - a penal institution maintained by the government
detention camp, detention home, detention house, house of detention - an institution where juvenile offenders can be held temporarily (usually under the supervision of a juvenile
 was being developed at the same time and the committee was able to take some cues from that process. Since then, the committee has referred to the correctional industries standards to establish the scope of the standards for therapeutic communities.

When a standards manual is to stand alone, separate from institutional accreditation, it is difficult to draw the line between program operations and fundamental institutional issues. Fire safety is one example because a correctional industries program could not be considered safe if it were operated in an institution without acceptable safety practices. Knowing which areas to identify and how far to go in each area was a special challenge.

Another difficult dimension of the work emerged in the final months, when ACA staff said they hoped to have the entire set of correctional industries standards replace the more limited standards that are contained in current jail and adult correctional institution manuals. While this news was exciting because it meant the committee's work would reach a broader audience, it also meant carefully reviewing the work one more time.

Worth the Effort

Now that the revised correctional industries standards have been adopted, the committee can reflect on the process and the outcomes. Although the process was more demanding than was imagined, the committee is confident that the final product offers an important new tool for corrections.

The expanded interest in accreditation that has been realized during the past year is a welcome byproduct by·prod·uct or by-prod·uct  
1. Something produced in the making of something else.

2. A secondary result; a side effect.

Noun 1.
. In 1998, three jurisdictions obtained accreditation of their industries programs -- Hawaii, New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
 and Ohio. Today, that number has doubled to six to include Colorado Colorado, state, United States
Colorado (kŏlərăd`ə, –răd`ō, –rä`dō), state, W central United States, one of the Rocky Mt. states.
, Louisiana Louisiana (ləwē'zēăn`ə, lē'–), state in the S central United States. It is bounded by Mississippi, with the Mississippi R.  and Virginia's Peumansend Creek Regional Jail. Nevada Nevada (nəvăd`ə, –vä–), far western state of the United States. It is bordered by Utah (E), Arizona (SE), California (SW, W), and Oregon and Idaho (N).  is seeking accreditation and it is hoped the numbers will increase each year.
Table 1

Changes Between the First and Second Editions

Performance-Based     Correctional Industries
Standards Element     Standards, First Edition

Performance Standard  None

Outcome Measure       None

Expected Practice     74 expected practices
                      (formerly called

Comment               67 of the 74 (91 percent)
                      expected practices had

Protocol              None

Process Indicator     None

Performance-Based     Performance-
Standards Element     Based Standards

Performance Standard  All 16 performance
                      standards are new

Outcome Measure       All the outcome measures
                      are new

Expected Practice     77 expected practices
                      19 first edition expected
                      37 new expected

Comment               32 of the 77 expected
                      practices have a
                      comment (41 percent)

Protocol              Each one of the 77
                      expected practices has at
                      least one protocol

Process Indicator     Each one of the 77
                      expected practices has
                      at least one process
Table 2

Deleted and New Expected Practices

The deleted expected
practices from
the first
edition are:

1.1.3                   Statutory authorization to obtain
                        and spend needed capital
1.1.6                   Mechanism to compensate inmate
                        employees for injuries sustained at
1.1.15                  Authorization for industries board
                        or commission, provides for
1.1.16                  Schedule of meetings for board or
1.3.2                   At least weekly safety inspections
1.3.9                   Routine inspection by qualified
                        fire safety officer
1.3.10                  Fire prevention regulations and
1.3.14                  Security regulations applicable to
                        private industries that operate on
1.3.15                  Weekly sanitation inspections by
                        staff; annual by outside agency
1.3.16                  Access to sanitary facilities for
                        staff and inmates
1.4.4                   Job vacancies available to any
                        inmate who meets criteria
1.5.2                   Food products grown or produced are
                        inspected and approved
1.5.3                   Distribution system for
                        agricultural units ensuring prompt
1.5.4                   Productivity standards for
                        individual work stations
1.5.5                   Written procedure for scheduling
                        and control of work orders
1.5.7                   Current written equipment inventory
1.6.2                   Formalized process for receiving
                        orders, transmitting information
1.6.3                   Timely processing of all customer
1.6.5                   Use of promotional materials and
                        methods in marketing

Thirty-seven of
the 77 expected
practices are new
in the second
edition and clearly
present many
new topics and issues.
The new expected
practices include:

1A-7                    Proper storage, handling and
                        disposal of toxic and caustic
1A-8                    Orientation to safety and operating
                        instructions for equipment
2A-1                    Compliance with all security
                        regulations applicable to the
2B-1                    Contraband policies
2C-1                    Correctional industries information
                        and operating systems
2C-2                    Compliance with the institution's
                        requirements for data and systems
4A-10                   Value added through the use of
                        inmate labor
5A-1                    Compliance with disabilities
5A-2                    Harassment policy
5A-3                    Equal employment opportunities
5B-2                    Voluntary participation
5B-3,4                  Disciplinary procedures
5B-5                    Grievance procedures
6A-5                    Performance of cost accounting
6A-9                    Applicable laws governing the sale
                        and transportation of prison-made
6A-12                   Product support, product return
                        policies and warranties
6B-4                    Identification of activities that
                        contribute to the community
6C-2                    Drug-free workplace
6C-3                    Workplace rules, ethics
6C-4                    Safe and diverse workplace
6C-5                    Staff development and training
6C-6                    Formal orientation appropriate to
6D-1                    Grievance process for employees
6D-2                    Prohibition of harassment
6D-3                    Equal employment opportunities for
6D-4                    Conditions of employment for staff
6D-5                    Progressive disciplinary practices
6E-3                    Asset management program
6E-5                    Monthly financial reports
6E-6                    Method for developing product and
                        service prices
6E-8                    Inventory management practices
6F-1                    Strategic plan
6F-2                    Performance standards for
                        industries bench-marking
6F-3                    Quality improvement program
6G-1                    Relationships between correctional
                        industries and the private sector
6G-2                    Compliance with federal
                        requirements of the Prison
                        Industries Enhancement
                        Certification Program

Leonard Black Leonard Black was born in Anne Arundel County, Maryland, into slavery under a carpenter by the name of Bradford. After living in slavery for twenty years he escaped and lived on to write a novel in 1847 called “”.  is chief of the Bureau of State Use Industries for the New Jersey Department of Corrections The New Jersey Department of Corrections (NJDOC) is responsible for operations and management of prison facilities in the U.S. state of New Jersey. The department operates 14 major institutions — eight adult male correctional facilities, three youth facilities, one facility . Rod Miller is president of CRS CRS Course
CRS Certified Residential Specialist (real estate certification)
CRS Central Reservation System
CRS Can't Remember Stuff (polite form)
CRS Cost Reduction Strategy
CRS Consumer Relations Specialist
 Inc. in Gettysburg Gettysburg (gĕt`ēzbûrg'), borough (1990 pop. 7,025), seat of Adams co., S Pa.; inc. 1806. There is agriculture and the production of furniture and metal goods. Gettysburg was settled c.1780 and is named for Gen. , Pa.
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Author:Black, Leonard; Miller, Rod
Publication:Corrections Today
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jul 1, 2002
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