Naval technology from Dixie.
The evening watch officer strode the deck of the USS USS
1. United States Senate
2. United States ship
USS abbr (= United States Ship) → Namensteil von Schiffen der Kriegsmarine New Ironsides, the Union navy's pride, peering into the surrounding blackness for Confederate threats. His ship led the blockading fleet, guarding the harbor at Charleston, where the conflict known as the U.S. Civil War The U.S. Civil War, also called the War between the States, was waged from April 1861 until April 1865. The war was precipitated by the secession of eleven Southern states during 1860 and 1861 and their formation of the Confederate States of America under President Jefferson Davis. began. The alert young navyman spied a dark object, low in the water, emerging from the darkness and approaching quickly. The form of a man took shape, seemingly gliding on the water's surface; a shotgun blast then ruptured the silence. Almost immediately, a wrenching concussion followed, and the entire ship reeled as if in agony.
That moonless October night in 1864 the Union navy faced another example of what Northerners had come to call "diabolical Rebel ingenuity." Reputed to be the world's most powerful warship warship, any ship built or armed for naval combat. The forerunners of the modern warship were the men-of-war of the 18th and early 19th cent., such as the ship of the line, frigate, corvette, sloop of war (see sloop), brig, and cutter. , the New Ironsides would not see action again for almost a year. The ironclad ironclad, mid-19th-century wooden warship protected from gunfire by iron armor. The success of the ironclad when first employed by the French in the Crimean War sparked a naval armor and armaments race between France and Great Britain. frigate frigate (frĭg`ĭt), originally a long, narrow nautical vessel used on the Mediterranean, propelled by either oars or sail or both. Later, during the 18th and early 19th cent. had fallen victim to a new class of vessel introduced by Confederate naval engineers, the semi-submersible torpedo boat CSS David. Designed to ram enemy ships below the water line with explosive charges, then called "torpedoes," the David contributed to dashing Union hopes of invading Charleston by sea, and lifted the flagging morale of the struggling Confederate nation.
As engineer on the David, James Hamilton Tomb displayed extraordinary bravery in the hazardous attack on the goliath New Ironsides. An impressed Confederate president Jefferson Davis granted him increased authority to experiment with novel challenges to the Yankee stranglehold. The fall of the Confederate States, however, left Tomb and other scientific personnel of the innovative Confederate Naval Torpedo Bureau with bleak futures.
Yet he would soon put his skills to the test and again risk his life as a leader in another war, the second bloodiest of this hemisphere.
As the North American North American
named after North America.
North American blastomycosis
see North American blastomycosis.
North American cattle tick
see boophilusannulatus. conflict wound down in 1865, a similarly devastating dev·as·tate
tr.v. dev·as·tat·ed, dev·as·tat·ing, dev·as·tates
1. To lay waste; destroy.
2. To overwhelm; confound; stun: was devastated by the rude remark. war exploded in the southern continent, though the root causes and objectives radically differed. Secession of the Southern states of the U.S.--the new Confederate Republic--threatened the nation's unity; the remaining Northern states struggled to preserve the Union. In South America, territorial ambitions ignited a tragic five-year war of attrition The War of Attrition (Hebrew: מלחמת ההתשה, Arabic: : The Paraguayan marshal-president Francisco Solano Lopez made a desperate bid for regional power. Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay, in an unholy Triple Alliance, responded to crush his Napoleonic ambitions. Lopez's defenders, however, maintain the Allies only sought to dismember dis·mem·ber
To amputate a limb or a part of a limb.
dis·member·ment n. the smaller, vulnerable Paraguayan nation and seize its lands and resources.
The Allies initially found themselves unprepared to challenge the British-installed Paraguayan war arsenal and well-honed sixty-thousand-man professional army, the continent's largest. Insightful and cunning, Lopez had earlier contracted with a British firm for engineers, mechanics, construction workers, and physicians to construct railroads and otherwise modernize his country's infrastructure. In response, the Allies quickly adopted recent military innovations from foreign shores. In particular, the Triple Alliance looked to the acknowledged technical expertise of the recently defeated Confederate States of America Confederate States of America: see Confederacy.
Confederate States of America
Government of the 11 Southern states that seceded from the Union in 1860–61 until its defeat in the American Civil War in 1865. . This short-lived nation revolutionized the world's navies with its use of the ironclad warship, developed history's first submarine to sink a ship in battle, and proved the defensive value of submarine mines (torpedoes), which sunk or damaged more than forty Union vessels. If the triumphant Union government would squander squan·der
tr.v. squan·dered, squan·der·ing, squan·ders
1. To spend wastefully or extravagantly; dissipate. See Synonyms at waste.
2. capable North American talent, the South American nations would seize the opportunity presented by the disenfranchisement dis·en·fran·chise
tr.v. dis·en·fran·chised, dis·en·fran·chis·ing, dis·en·fran·chis·es
dis of these seasoned inventors and engineers.
Brazil's Dom Pedro II, a gifted emperor of rare wisdom--and an amateur scientist in his own right--moved aggressively to bring about one of the few successful brain drains ever directed against the United States. By a generous immigration policy and effective propaganda advertisements in the U.S. media, the emperor recruited thousands of disaffected Confederates. He exploited the positive image of Brazil, popularized before the war in the 1853 book The Amazon and the Atlantic Slopes of South America by then U.S. commodore Matthew Fontaine Maury Matthew Fontaine Maury (January 14, 1806 – February 1, 1873), USN - American astronomer, astrophysicist, historian, oceanographer, meteorologist, cartographer, author, geologist, educator. . Honored as the father of oceanography oceanography, study of the seas and oceans. The major divisions of oceanography include the geological study of the ocean floor (see plate tectonics) and features; physical oceanography, which is concerned with the physical attributes of the ocean water, such as , Maury would later initiate the Confederate torpedo research program as the South's most brilliant scientist.
Brazil targeted the well-to-do and educated populations of physicians, lawyers, planters, and businessmen of the Confederacy Confederacy, name commonly given to the Confederate States of America (1861–65), the government established by the Southern states of the United States after their secession from the Union. ; some Northerners also emigrated, while others, such as young Thomas Edison, seriously considered joining them. As a number of Confederate torpedo and other naval scientists joined in the struggle against Lopez, the Brazilian war effort could only benefit. Tomb, the intrepid engineer of the CSS David, learned of the Alliance's acute need for technical experts and resolved to offer his torpedo experience. After the Southern surrender, he traveled to New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of and met Argentina's minister to the U.S. (and later president), Domingo Faustino Sarmiento Domingo Faustino Sarmiento Albarracín (February 15 1811 – September 11 1888) was an Argentine statesman, educator, and author. He was president of Argentina from 1868 to 1874.
Sarmiento was born in San Juan, Argentina. , a strong proponent of torpedo defense for his country's Rio de la Plata. Securing a letter of introduction to Argentine president Bartolome Mitre, Tomb left for South America. Finding in Buenos Aires that the Argentineans "had no navy to mention," Tomb consulted with Brazilian admiral Joaquim Marques Marques may refer to:
Tomb quickly came to admire Dom Pedro, concluding in his unpublished memoirs: "I doubt if there were at that time another king or emperor his equal, as his whole thoughts were for his people." Evidently the Brazilian sovereign grew fond of Tomb as well, even tolerating his resident expert's occasional display of naivete na·ive·té or na·ïve·té
1. The state or quality of being inexperienced or unsophisticated, especially in being artless, credulous, or uncritical.
2. An artless, credulous, or uncritical statement or act. . At their initial introduction, for example, a somewhat befuddled Tomb mistook the emperor for a "fine looking" admiral, firmly shaking his hand, rather than kneeling to kiss it. Soon after the war, when traveling with the emperor to Lisbon on the RMS Duro, Tomb again revealed his inexperience with protocol. Arising late one morning, he took the first available bath filled with freshly drawn water and "was having a good time in the tub, when there was a knock on the door and someone said the Emperor was ready to take his bath." Tomb "got out on short notice," blaming himself for the error, writing "had I taken pains to look around the room [I] would have seen it was private."
Soon after the Confederate's arrival in Brazil, Foreign Minister Jose Antonio Saraiva requested Tomb "suggest something to remove the torpedoes in the Paraguay River" placed by the Paraguayan marshal-president. Ironically, a select few North Americans initiated President Lopez's early torpedo program, headed by Thomas H. Bell, once of the U.S. Navy. Bell superintended twenty marooned British technicians as arsenal commander at Asuncion, where he proved of great benefit to Paraguay before his death of typhoid fever typhoid fever acute, generalized infection caused by Salmonella typhi. The main sources of infection are contaminated water or milk and, especially in urban communities, food handlers who are carriers. in February 1866. Insulated wire in short supply, advanced electrically triggered torpedoes, such as those perfected by Commodore Maury, could not be produced by the Paraguayans; they relied on simpler mechanically triggered models. Although Tomb wrote that Bell's floating torpedoes "never did any damage to us," they were effective in stalling an already overly cautious Brazilian fleet.
Tomb identified three basic kinds of Paraguayan torpedoes. Floating mines, which contained several hundred pounds of gunpowder in a box at the bottom of a canoe, were "exploded by a gun through the front of the box with a line leading to another canoe upriver." Anchored torpedoes, positioned a few feet below the surface, contained multiple boxes, one inside the other, their powder igniting when a ship's impact broke a sulfuric acid-filled glass tube, which flashed upon contact with the detonator detonator (dĕ`tənā'tər), type of explosive that reacts with great rapidity and is used to set off other, more inert explosives. Fulminate of mercury mixed with potassium chlorate is a commonly used detonator. , fulminate of mercury fulminate of mercury
A gray crystalline powder, HgC2N2O2, that when dry explodes under percussion or heat and is used in detonators and as a high explosive.
Noun 1. . Submarine torpedoes, "lying on the bottom of the river," usually had an attached rope running up to the woods where a guard's tug could set off the charge as a ship passed by.
The Confederate lived up to his reputation in devising effective countermeasures against Paraguayan torpedoes. Brazilian naval authorities confessed "no experience with torpedoes" and persuaded Tomb to serve with the navy during military operations. The navy valued Tomb's service: He wrote, "I was impressed by the good will and confidence shown in me." Assigned to the ironclad Tamandare, Tomb converted the warship into a minesweeper minesweeper
Naval vessel used to clear submarine mines from an expanse of water. In naval warfare, they are used to clear mines from sea-lanes to protect merchant shipping as well as to clear paths for warships to engage in battle or amphibious warfare. at Paso de la Patria PATRIA. The country; the men of the neighborhood competent to serve on a jury; a jury. This word is nearly synonymous with pais. (.q.v.) , near the confluence of the Parana and Paraguay rivers. Tomb's attached-mine defensive "machine" comprised an extended net surrounding the vessel. Perfectly confident in his defense against the floating torpedoes sent nightly by the enemy, Tomb slept soundly below deck--"none of the other officers would do so."
Later transferred to the Apa, Tomb searched for a torpedo-free channel leading to enemy batteries on the Paraguay River at Curuzu, a few miles south of Curupayti, part of the fortress Humaita's defenses protecting Asuncion. Proceeding upriver with "a sharp grapnel and cutter," Tomb led a crew of a dozen Brazilians to find an open passage. Encountering on their return the Brazilian ironclad Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro, city, Brazil
Rio de Janeiro (rē`ō də zhänā`rō, Port. rē` thĭ zhənĕē`r , they reported the open passage and likely existence of three torpedoes between some pilings and a two-gun Paraguayan battery. Based on the report, Admiral Tamandare ordered three ironclads forward through Tomb's passage--the Bahia and Brasil, with the Rio de Janeiro in the rear. The Rio's captain, Americo Brasilio Silvado engaged the tenacious Paraguayan battery and worked outside the channel to approach nearer the position, apparently forgetting the warning. Tomb later reported: "The ship drifted broadside down the stream and the stern came over one of the torpedoes. There was an instantaneous explosion and a great column of water went up." The ship was lost with most of the crew, including Captain Silvado. The destruction of the warship Rio de Janeiro proved to be the most notable victory of Paraguayan torpedoes against the Allies.
Just after the tragedy of the Rio, Tomb conducted extensive torpedo reconnaissance to pave the way for the Brazilian fleet in its combined army and naval advance on the strongly fortified fortified (fôrt´fīd),
adj containing additives more potent than the principal ingredient. Paraguayan batteries at Curupayti. Three weeks before the attack, Tomb discovered a torpedo containing five hundred pounds of powder, designed with three boxes, one inside the other. "Although the construction was poor," he had no doubt a ship passing over it would have been lost. Exploring the shore further until "with my glasses [I] could take in all the bluff" across the river, Tomb noted only one large eight-inch gun at Curupayti's embankment. He observed what historians would later confirm: Had Admiral Tamandare advanced then, the position could easily have been taken. However, as his adversaries dallied in coordinating their assault, Lopez "mounted some thirty guns" on the bluff: These later greeted the Allies during their bombardment of September 22, 1866. Admiral Tamandare boasted: "in two hours I shall blow their earthworks earthworks: see land art. to pieces." Instead, blistering Paraguayan grape and canister shot prevailed, decimating advancing Argentine and Brazilian troops. In Paraguay's finest victory of the war, Allied casualties numbered nine thousand--including the only son of future Argentine president Domingo Sarmiento.
While on the Apa, Tomb received a letter from a Southern comrade, Commodore Thomas Jefferson Page. Like Commodore Maury, his onetime commander at the U.S. Naval Observatory, Page knew the continent well. He gained South American experience while commanding a two-year, 3,600-mile expedition of the USS Water Witch Three ships in the United States Navy have been named USS Water Witch.
As a Confederate, Page learned of the end of the North American war while he was in Cuba, en route from Spain where he had just provisioned the oceangoing o·cean·go·ing
Made or used for ocean voyages.
Adj. 1. oceangoing - used on the high seas; "seafaring vessels"
marine - relating to or characteristic of or occurring on or in the sea ram CSS (1) See Cascading Style Sheets.
(2) (Content Scrambling System) The copy protection system applied to DVDs, which uses a 40-bit key to encrypt the movie. Stonewall stone·wall
v. stone·walled, stone·wall·ing, stone·walls
a. . Too late to challenge the Union navy, he surrendered the Confederacy's new "invincible armored monster" to Spanish authorities at Havana. He lent his expertise to the Allied war effort and later settled in Argentina, where President Mitre earnestly welcomed him.
Tomb and Page arranged a visit to Corrientes, Argentina, and returned together to the Apa for a couple of weeks with Page as Admiral Tamandare's special guest. Tomb considered the admiral "as hospitable as he was brave" and appreciated his sensitive gesture of allowing two Confederates so far from home--men adapting to a new language, culture, and clime--to gain solace in mutual company and reflection.
Two years before Lopez would finally be killed in battle, Asuncion fell to the Allies. Tomb described the victorious Brazilians as "exceedingly humane," noting they brought to the capital several hundred destitute Guarani gua·ra·ni
n. pl. guarani or gua·ra·nis
See Table at currency.
[Spanish guaraní, Guarani; see Guarani.]
Noun 1. natives "and issued rations to them." He befriended one refugee, a fourteen-year-old girl named Margarita. Giving her five dollars to start a market stall, he proved a frequent customer of her linens and calico. Tomb respected her decision to reject an offer of adoption by a woman from Buenos Aires, because, as Margarita explained to him: "The Argentineans were enemies of Paraguay." No doubt reminded of the sacrifices borne by loyal Southern women, Tomb wrote: "I think women are the best patriots in all countries."
A disaster for the Paraguayan people, the War of the Triple Alliance The War of the Triple Alliance, also known as the Paraguayan War, was fought from 1864 to 1870, and was by some measures the bloodiest war in the history of the Americas. It was fought between Paraguay and the allied countries of Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay. was eclipsed in scope only by the U.S. War of Secession and its battles such as Gettysburg. Over half the Paraguayan population died--hardly more than one in ten adult men survived--and schools and newspapers shut down for a generation.
After the war, the North American expatriates took divergent paths. Tomb briefly joined other Confederates in advising Chile in its defense against Spain's Pacific incursion; after recovering from yellow fever yellow fever, acute infectious disease endemic in tropical Africa and many areas of South America. Epidemics have extended into subtropical and temperate regions during warm seasons. and cholera, he bought an Argentine quinta with John Page, the commodore's son. Three decades later, as proprietor of the Benton Hotel in St. Louis, Missouri, Tomb offered his technical services to the U.S. Navy in the war against Spain. Thomas Jefferson Page settled in Argentina, and later retired to Italy, where he died. His son John became an Argentine naval commodore and his grandson Franklin Nelson Page rose to the Argentine admiralty. Matthew Fontaine Maury, who popularized Brazil in North America and initiated Confederate torpedo research, served as Imperial Commissioner for Confederate Colonization in Emperor Joseph Maximilian's Mexico, before assuming a physics professorship at Virginia Military Institute Virginia Military Institute (VMI), at Lexington; state supported; chartered and opened 1839 as the first state military college in the United States. Although one of the leading U.S. .
In their experiences in both wars, the former Confederates would see the victors inflict long military occupations on the vanquished nations--the Confederacy and Paraguay. The Union army subjugated sub·ju·gate
tr.v. sub·ju·gat·ed, sub·ju·gat·ing, sub·ju·gates
1. To bring under control; conquer. See Synonyms at defeat.
2. To make subservient; enslave. the South for a dozen years. Similarly, Paraguay would not know self-government for six years. Interestingly, U.S. president Rutherford B. Hayes ended both occupations. In 1877 he withdrew federal troops from the South in a brokered deal with Southern Democrats that would secure the presidency after a controversial election. The following year, Hayes then played broker himself over the disputed Pilcomayo Chaco lands; as international arbiter, he awarded these to Paraguay. It is a curious twist of fate that the final chapters of these two devastating wars involving Confederates would end with the penstroke of a U.S. president, himself a onetime Union army general.
YANKEES AND BALLOON RECONNAISSANCE
At the same time that former Confederate James Tomb was helping the Brazilian navy tackle its torpedo problem in the War of the Triple Alliance, two Yankee brothers, James and Ezra Allen, were initiating the Brazilian army into the science and art of ballooning. Their exploits marked the beginnings of military aviation in South America, even though their balloons were not used for offensive purposes, but only for reconnaissance. The information they and the Brazilian army observers aboard obtained was of paramount importance for the Brazilian commander, the Marquis of Caxias, who was then preparing to launch a major offensive.
The marquis, later the Duke of Caxias, General Luis Alves de Lima e Silva (1803-80) was insistent on having an aeronautical aer·o·nau·tic also aer·o·nau·ti·cal
Of or relating to aeronautics.
aero·nau branch in his forces. Caxias became commander-in-chief of the Brazilian forces on October 10, 1866, and before leaving Rio de Janeiro for the war in Paraguay, requested balloons from the War Ministry. A price was agreed upon, and in December he was followed by a French balloonist, Louis Desire Doyen, who, unfortunately, had neglected to varnish his balloon properly before he arrived at the Allied camp at Tuyuti; it was wrongly folded and stored and became useless.
But the Brazilian commander did not give up, asking for a replacement that, same month. Early in 1867 Brazilian authorities in the United States began to search for balloons and balloonists. The Brazilian consul in New York, Henrique Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, contacted Thaddeus S. C. Lowe Thaddeus Sobieski Constantine Lowe (August 20, 1831 - January 16, 1913), also known as Professor T. S. C. Lowe, was an American Civil War aeronaut, scientist and inventor. Lowe lived a life that was full of claims to fame. , who was head of the Balloon Corps for the Union army during the Civil War. Lowe suggested the Allen brothers, of Providence, Rhode Island
“Providence” redirects here. For other uses, see Providence (disambiguation).
Providence is the capital and the most populous city of the U.S. . James Allen had been a captain and balloonist in the Union army. Although the balloon corps of the American army was dissolved after the war, he kept ballooning privately.
On March 22, 1867, the brothers left New York for Rio de Janeiro. So anxious were the Brazilians for their arrival that when the brothers' ship was quarantined in Uruguay because a case of cholera was aboard, another ship was procured to bring them to Tuyuti, where they arrived on May 31.
The operation of the balloons was fraught with difficulties, and they were used only briefly. The brothers had problems trying to get the necessary supplies, iron dust and sulfuric acid sulfuric acid, chemical compound, H2SO4, colorless, odorless, extremely corrosive, oily liquid. It is sometimes called oil of vitriol. Concentrated Sulfuric Acid
, to manufacture hydrogen for their two balloons. But within the month the first flight of the tethered Attached to a data or power source by wire or fiber. Contrast with untethered. balloons was made, on June 24. However, problems with supplies persisted. According to correspondence in the Brazilian National Archives, Caxias complained to the army authorities in Rio that he was not receiving adequate supplies for the proper operation of the balloons. "The worst is to be in such a situation, when the balloons could be conceivably of more use for the frequent reconnaissances, which are indispensable, of the terrain through which I am going to march." The marquis was particularly worried because the terrain could conceal enemy forces that could threaten the rearguard rearguard
1. the troops who protect the rear of a military formation
2. rearguard action an effort to prevent or postpone something that is unavoidable
Noun 1. of the marching army.
About twenty balloon flights were made, twelve of them before a dangerous but ultimately successful offensive, an outflanking maneuver about Tuyu-Cue. Whenever the balloon was aloft, watching the enemy from an altitude of around one thousand feet, the Paraguayans would open fire, however unsuccessfully, with their artillery. One effective countermeasure was to light up fires so the smoke could mask their trenches. An army major, Francisco Cesar da Silva Amaral, was the first Brazilian soldier to fly; he participated in ten balloon flights.
The last mission was on September 25, 1867. The Allens were then sent home. Even though the data they helped collect was highly valued by the army, supply difficulties ultimately conspired to abort (1) To exit a function or application without saving any data that has been changed.
(2) To stop a transmission.
(programming) abort - To terminate a program or process abnormally and usually suddenly, with or without diagnostic information. their activities. The brothers were never able to use their bigger balloon, with a forty-foot diameter. And the smaller one, with about a twenty-eight-foot diameter, never operated with an adequate supply of hydrogen.
However, the Americans' involvement with aeronautics in Brazil did not end there. American help was instrumental in the formation of the Brazilian Air Force The Brazilian Air Force (Portuguese: Força Aérea Brasileira, FAB) is the aerial warfare branch of the Brazilian armed forces and one of the three national uniformed services. (Forca Aerea Brasileira--FAB) during World War II. In fact, the first combat mission of the FAB, in 1942, was in a B-25 Mitchell bomber with an American-Brazilian crew. But that is another story, and another war.
Darryl E. Brock works in European agrochemical agrochemical
Any chemical used in agriculture, including chemical fertilizers, herbicides, and insecticides. Most are mixtures of two or more chemicals; active ingredients provide the desired effects, and inert ingredients stabilize or preserve the active ingredients or aid governmental regulatory affairs for Monsanto Company in St. Louis, Missouri. He describes himself as a Confederate-Puerto Rican scientist.
Ricardo Bonalume Nero is a freelance journalist living in Sao Paulo, Brazil, who specializes in science and military history.