Printer Friendly
The Free Library
22,728,960 articles and books

Myanmar dengue outbreak associated with displacement of serotypes 2, 3, and 4 by dengue 1.

In 2001, Myanmar (Burma) had its largest outbreak of dengue--15,361 reported cases of dengue dengue
 or breakbone fever or dandy fever

Infectious, disabling mosquito-borne fever. Other symptoms include extreme joint pain and stiffness, intense pain behind the eyes, a return of fever after brief pause, and a characteristic rash.
 hemorrhagic Hemorrhagic
A condition resulting in massive, difficult-to-control bleeding.

Mentioned in: Hantavirus Infections


pertaining to or characterized by hemorrhage.
 fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS), including 192 deaths. That year, 95% of dengue viruses isolated from patients were serotype serotype /se·ro·type/ (ser´o-tip) the type of a microorganism determined by its constituent antigens; a taxonomic subdivision based thereon.

See serovar.

 1 viruses belonging to two lineages that had diverged from an earlier, now extinct, lineage sometime before 1998. The ratio of DHF DHF dihydrofolate or dihydrofolic acid.  to DSS (1) (Digital Signature Standard) A National Security Administration standard for authenticating an electronic message. See RSA and digital signature.

(2) (Digital Satellite S
 cases in 2001 was not significantly different from that in 2000, when 1,816 cases of DHF/DSS were reported and dengue 1 also was the most frequently isolated serotype. However, the 2001 ratio was significantly higher than that in 1998 (also an outbreak year) and in 1999, when all four serotypes were detected and serotypes 1, 2, and 3 were recovered in similar numbers. The large number of clinical cases in 2001 may have been due, in part, to a preponderance of infections with dengue 1 viruses.


Dengue is a disease caused by four serotypes of a flavivirus of the same name (1). Infection with these viruses may be inapparent inapparent

not clearly seen.

inapparent infection
infection without clinical signs.
, or it may result in disease varying in severity from a mild influenza-like illness to hemorrhagic fever hemorrhagic fever (hĕm'ərăj`ĭk), any of a group of viral diseases characterized by sudden onset, muscle and joint pain, fever, bleeding, and shock from loss of blood.  and hypovolemic shock hypovolemic shock
Shock caused by a reduction in the volume of blood, as from hemorrhage.

Hypovolemic shock
Shock caused by a lack of circulating blood.
, which may be fatal if untreated (1). Dengue is an important source of illness and death in tropical nations, particularly in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, region of Asia (1990 est. pop. 442,500,000), c.1,740,000 sq mi (4,506,600 sq km), bounded roughly by the Indian subcontinent on the west, China on the north, and the Pacific Ocean on the east.  and Central and South America South America, fourth largest continent (1991 est. pop. 299,150,000), c.6,880,000 sq mi (17,819,000 sq km), the southern of the two continents of the Western Hemisphere.  (2). In 1998, a pandemic pandemic /pan·dem·ic/ (pan-dem´ik)
1. a widespread epidemic of a disease.

2. widely epidemic.

Epidemic over a wide geographic area.

 of dengue resulted in 1.2 million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in 56 countries (3). In many countries in Asia where this disease is endemic, outbreaks occur in cycles of 3 to 5 years due, perhaps, to enhanced infection with one serotype caused by cross-reactive antibody produced in response to an earlier infection with a second serotype (4), rather than to climatic effects (5). Furthermore, the incidence of disease and its severity vary between primary and secondary infections and between infections with different dengue virus serotypes (6-8). All four dengue virus serotypes circulate in countries in Southeast Asia from Myanmar to Indonesia (9-13), and no outbreaks caused by single virus serotypes, as have been seen in dengue non-endemic areas such as Cuba or Australia (14,15), have recently been reported. Phylogenetic phy·lo·ge·net·ic
1. Of or relating to phylogeny or phylogenetics.

2. Relating to or based on evolutionary development or history.
 studies have shown regular extinction of strains of dengue viruses in single locations and emergence of new strains (16,17), and it has been suggested that the appearance of more fit or more pathogenic viruses may occur as a result of immunologic selection during periods of intense transmission during outbreaks (18). While weak selective pressure on the envelope (E) protein gene of some dengue viruses is evident (19), the most extensive changes in virus genotypes appear to be due to recombination recombination, process of "shuffling" of genes by which new combinations can be generated. In recombination through sexual reproduction, the offspring's complete set of genes differs from that of either parent, being rather a combination of genes from both parents.  or to possible genetic bottlenecks (16,17,20). Given these observations, and the finite pool of hosts in most locations (humans and selected species of Aedes mosquitoes), perhaps it is surprising that greater competition between the four serologically related serotypes of dengue virus has not been observed, e.g., the complete exclusion of two or three serotypes from an ecologic niche.

Patients and Methods

Serology Serology

The division of biological science concerned with antigen-antibody reactions in serum. It properly encompasses any of these reactions, but is often used in a limited sense to denote laboratory diagnostic tests, especially for syphilis.

Acute- and, when possible, convalescent-phase serum samples were obtained from patients admitted to the Yangon Children's Hospital with a clinical diagnosis of DHF (1). A patient with a confirmed case of dengue fever dengue fever (dĕng`gē, –gā), acute infectious disease caused by four closely related viruses and transmitted by the bite of the Aedes mosquito; it is also known as breakbone fever and bone-crusher disease.  was one who met any of the following criteria: 1) paired sera showed a fourfold or greater rise in hemagglutination hemagglutination /he·mag·glu·ti·na·tion/ (he?mah-gloo-ti-na´shun) agglutination of erythrocytes.

 inhibiting (HI) antibody titer antibody titer The amount of a specific antibody present in the serum, usually as a result of an acquired infection; titers for IgM usually rise abruptly at the time of infection–acute phase and fall slowly; during the 'convalescent' phase, IgG ↑ and is  against dengue virus (21); 2) a convalescent-phase serum sample produced an immunoglobulin (Ig) G reaction (titer titer /ti·ter/ (ti´ter) the quantity of a substance required to react with or to correspond to a given amount of another substance.  equivalent to an anti-dengue virus HI titer of >2,560), an IgM reaction in a commercial "rapid" dengue test (22), or both; or 3) dengue virus was recovered by culturing 140 [micro]L of acute-phase serum on 25-[cm.sup.2] monolayers of C6-36 A. albopictus cells for 7 days. The serotype of the virus was determined by performing indirect immunofluorescence (23) on cells from the cultures of C6-36 cells used for virus isolation with flavivirus-, dengue-, or serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies (23,24).

Phylogenetic Analyses

RNA RNA: see nucleic acid.
 in full ribonucleic acid

One of the two main types of nucleic acid (the other being DNA), which functions in cellular protein synthesis in all living cells and replaces DNA as the carrier of genetic
 was extracted from virus isolates with a commercial kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) according to the manufacturer's instructions, transcribed to cDNA, and amplified by polymerase chain reaction polymerase chain reaction (pŏl`ĭmərās') (PCR), laboratory process in which a particular DNA segment from a mixture of DNA chains is rapidly replicated, producing a large, readily analyzed sample of a piece of DNA; the process is  as described previously (24). The cDNA was purified and then sequenced on an automated sequencer See MIDI sequencer.

(music) sequencer - Any system for recording and/or playback of music via a programmable memory which stores music not as audio data, but as some representation of notes.
 (Applied Biosystems, Inc., Foster City, CA) (24). Nucleotide sequences were edited, compared, and analyzed with software (EclustalW, Ednapars, Ednadist, Ekitsch) from the Australian Genome Information Service (available from: Additional nucleotide sequences used in the phylogenetic analyses are listed as country, year of isolation, dengue virus serotype, and GenBank accession number, i.e., (Sin[gapore]90D1, M87512; Abid[jan]99D1, AF298807; Mal[aysia]72D1-12, AF231721; Thai64D1, AF180817; Thai58D1, D10513; Phil[ippines]D1, D00503; Nauru74 D1, U88535; Mex[ico]83D1, D00504; Jam[aica]77D1, D00501; Japan43D1M, AB074760; Haw haw, common name for several plants, e.g., the hawthorn and the black haw (see honeysuckle). [aii]44D1, X76219; Lao96D1, AB003090; China 80D1, AF350498; Camb[odia]98D1, AF309641).


Dengue is endemic in Myanmar. Outbreaks have occurred in 3- to 5-year cycles of increasing magnitude since the first recorded outbreak in the country in 1970 (Table 1). The outbreak in 2001 (15,361 cases of DHF/dengue shock syndrome [DSS]) was the largest on record.

In 1998 and 1999, all four dengue virus serotypes (DENV-1-4) were recovered from patients in the Yangon Children's Hospital; DENV-1, -2, and -3 were recovered in approximately similar ratios each year (Table 2). In 2000 and 2001, no DENV-4 was recovered, and DENV-1 was recovered more frequently than any other serotype. In 2001,95% of isolates were DENV-1. No significant difference (p [greater than or equal to] 0.05, chi-square test chi-square test: see statistics. ) was found in the rate of isolation of dengue viruses from seronegative seronegative /se·ro·neg·a·tive/ (-neg´ah-tiv) showing negative results on serological examination; showing a lack of antibody.

 serum samples for each of these years.

Accompanying the change in the relative proportions of dengue virus serotypes recovered from patients in the Yangon Children's Hospital was a significant change in the relative proportion of clinically diagnosed DHF and DSS cases (1998: 3,194 DHF, 1,402 DSS; 1999: 1,741 DHF 601, DSS; 2000: 896 DHF, 224 DSS; 2001: 4,511 DHF, 1,105 DSS), i.e., DSS occurred in a smaller proportion of patients in 2000 and 2001 than in 1999 or 1998 (p [less than or equal to] 0.01, chi-square test). Hemorrhagic signs and symptoms developed in most of the dengue fever patients in 2001; such patients were distinguished from DHF patients only on the basis that their platelet levels were >100,000/[mm.sup.3].

Of the patients with a laboratory-confirmed dengue infection and sufficient clinical and laboratory detail to confirm the grade of infection (990 patients), almost half (455) had a primary infection. However, DSS was more prevalent in patients with secondary infections (112/535) than in those with a primary infection (43/455). The median age of patients with primary infections (5 years) was not significantly different (p [less than or equal to] 0.05, Wilcoxon rank sum) from those with a secondary infection (6 years). Thirty-nine of the primary infections occurred in children <1 year of age; shock developed in 7 of these children. Of the remainder, 17 had DE 12 had DHF grade l, and 3 had DHF grade II). Virus (dengue 1) was recovered from the acute-phase serum of three of these seven DSS patients. Two patients <1 year of age had a secondary infection; dengue fever developed in both.

Phylogenetic analyses of the nucleotide sequences of the E protein gene of the only pre-1998 DENV-1 available from Myanmar along with 3 of the 9 isolates from 1998, both 1999 isolates, 5 of the 6 isolates from 2000, and 8 of the 115 isolates from 2001 (including an isolate recovered from a single female A. aegypti mosquito [My01D1m1931 collected in the home of a dengue patient [My01D141500]) suggested that two new strains of DENV-1 had appeared some time before 1998, i.e., all three clades of Myanmar DENV-1 viruses have 1998 viruses in them (Figure 1). The clade clade Cladus, subtype Genetics A branch of biological taxa or species that share features inherited from a common ancestor; a single phylogenetic group or line. See Inheritance, Species.  containing the 1996 isolate (My96D123819) may be extinct (no examples have been identified since 1998). There was no apparent segregation of the viruses in the two most recent clades of Myanmar viruses according to the township (suburb) where the patient lived or to the date of onset of symptoms, i.e., viruses from both clades appeared to be co-circulating.


There were 210 nucleotide differences between the sequences of the E protein genes of the My96D123819 and My98D132514 viruses and those of the remaining Myanmar viruses. Forty-six of these resulted in amino acid amino acid (əmē`nō), any one of a class of simple organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and in certain cases sulfur. These compounds are the building blocks of proteins.  changes. Amino acid changes at E37 (N-D n-D N Dimensional (where n is a number)
), E155 (T-S T-S Temperature-Salinity ), E161 (I-T I-T Incendiary - Tracer Round ), E329 (A-T A-T Ataxia Telangiectasia (form of muscular weakness) ), E369 (T-E), E442 (A-T), E468 (I-N) and E492 (T-V) distinguished these two viruses from all other Myanmar DENV-1.

The nucleotide sequences of the E genes of the viruses recovered from a patient and a female A. aegypti mosquito from the same house varied at three sites. Two of the changes were silent, and the third resulted in a nonconservative amino acid change at E261 from R (in the patient) to H (in the mosquito). Virus from one other patient (My00D136957) had R at this position, but virus from all other patients had the same amino acid as the mosquito at this site.


The dengue outbreak in Myanamar in 2001 occurred at a time not unanticipated from the usual 3- to 4-year cycles of outbreaks in that country (Table 1). Nevertheless, we are unaware of any previous examples of dengue outbreaks, in countries in which all four dengue virus serotypes are circulating, in which a single serotype has risen to the prominence that DENV-1 appears to have reached in Myanmar in 2001.

The number of dengue cases in Yangon from 1998 to 2001 was not obviously correlated with the temperature or rainfall (Figure 2) other than the fact that the average temperature in April of the 2 epidemic years (1988, 38.5[degrees]C; 2001, 39.1[degrees]C) was almost 2[degrees]C higher than the highest average in the nonepidemic years. These observations are in broad agreement with those made in Bangkok over much larger periods (4,5) that weather was not a major factor in determining when dengue outbreaks occurred. However, associations between meterologic conditions and dengue outbreaks could be missed if comparisons are made between aggregated monthly totals (rainfall) or monthly averages (temperature) rather than with daily values.


Why or how the change in the composition of dengue virus populations circulating in Yangon occurred is not clear. If the DENV-1 populations diversified in the 1994-1998 interepidemic period, the changes could have been due to a genetic bottleneck, such as has been proposed to explain the disappearance of ancestral strains and the appearance of new strains of DENV-2 and -3 in Thailand (16,17). Strong immunologic pressures on dengue virus populations during rapid transmission in outbreaks could give rise to serologic-escape mutant populations of virus (18). In the 1998 dengue outbreak in Yangon, in which DENV-1-4 were recovered from patients, all DENV-1 analyzed in this study were recovered in August and September, just after the season had peaked (June 835 DHF/DSS cases; July 845 DHF/DSS cases; August 829 DHF/DSS cases; September, 516 DHF/DSS cases). Six of the eight amino acid changes (see above) that distinguished the two post-1998 DENV-1 lineages from the earlier one occurred in the portion of the E protein above the lipid membrane of the virion virion

Entire virus particle, consisting of an outer protein shell (called a capsid) and an inner core of nucleic acid (either RNA or DNA). The core gives the virus infectivity, and the capsid provides specificity (i.e., determines which organisms the virus can infect).
 (E468 and E492 are in the putative transmembrane transmembrane /trans·mem·brane/ (trans-mem´bran) extending across a membrane, usually referring to a protein subunit that is exposed on both sides of a cell membrane.

 anchor region of the E protein [25]). The amino acids at E 155 of the pre-1998 lineage of DENV-1 and all 1998 strains of DENV-2-4 were the same (T) and differed from that at this position in the post-1998 DENV-1 lineages (S). At E37 and 442, the pre-1998 lineage DENV-1 isolates shared the same amino acid as 1998 lineages of DENV-2 and -3 and of DENV-2, respectively, and these differed from the amino acids in the corresponding positions of the post-1998 DENV-1 lineages (Table 3). These changes might be taken as evidence of selective pressure imposed on DENV-1 by cross-reactive antibodies produced against the co-circulating DENV-2, -3, or -4. Despite these observations, others have been unable to find any evidence of selection acting on the E protein of DENV-1 in nature (19). Furthermore, gaps in the regional virologic record make it difficult to determine whether the post-1998 strains of DENV-1 in Myanmar were introduced or whether they evolved locally.

One further difference between the observations of the dengue outbreaks in Yangon from 1984 to 1988 (7) and in 2001 was the proportion of dengue patients who had primary infections. From 1984 to 1988, 15% of patients admitted to the Yangon Children's Hospital had a primary infection (7). In 2001, 455 (46%) of 990 virologically or serologically confirmed dengue patients had a primary infection. This increase in the proportion of patients with primary infections may have contributed to the decrease in the proportion of DSS cases (6,7). Other researchers (8) have observed that primary infections with DENV-1 and -3 result in clinical disease more frequently than primary infections with DENV-2 or -4. The data from Myanmar in 2001 are compatible with these observations if the rate of isolation of each dengue virus serotype from patients in Myanmar in 2001 reflected the infection rate with each type in the community at large. The observation of a lower incidence of DSS among patients in 2001, when most infections may have been due to DENV-1, than from 1984 to 1988 (7) or in 1998 and 1999 agrees with previous observations that DSS occurs most commonly after infections with DENV-2 in hosts who have had a prior infection with another dengue serotype (6,7). This report provides further evidence of the ability of dengue viruses to undergo rapid and unpredictable changes in genotype (16,17) and of the association of such changes with major changes in disease incidence and severity.
Table 1. Annual dengue hemorrhagic fever cases, Myanmar

Y      Cases

1970    1,654
1971      691
1972    1,013
1973      349
1974    2,477
1975    6,750
1976    3,153
1977    5,364
1978    2,029
1979    4,685
1980    2,026
1981    1,524
1982    1,706
1983    2,756
1984    2,273
1985    2,666
1986    2,114
1987    7,331
1988    1,178
1989    1,196
1990    6,318
1991    6,770
1992    1,685
1993    1,979
1994   11,647
1995    2,218
1996    1,854
1997    4,006
1998   12,918
1999    5,753
2000    1,816
2001   15,361

Table 2 Dengue virus (DENV) serotypes recovered from
patients in Yangon Children's Hospital, 1998-2001

                                 1998    1999    2000        2001

Clinical cases                  4,596   2,342   1,100       5,616
Paired sera                       709     739     501        1870
Continned cases                   496     373     274       1,481
Sera with HI titer [less than      54      30      42         236
  or equal to] 80 for virus
DENV-1 isolates                     9       2       6         115
DENV-2 isolates                     5       5       1           1
DENV-3 isolates                     9       3       1           3
DENV-4 isolates                     1       1       0           0
Mixed virus isolates                0       0       0   2 (dengue 1+2)

(a) HI, hemagluttination inhibition

Table 3. Comparison of amino acid changes in dengue 1 virus
(DENV-1) E proteins with the sequence of the same region of
co-circulating strains of DENV 2-4 (a)

Y           Position            Amino acid sequence

                       DENV-1    DENV 2    DENV-3    DENV-4
1998          E37      MAKNKPT   MAKNKPT   MAKNKPT   MAQGKPT
Post-1998              MAKDKPT
1998          E155     GNETTEH   GNDTGKH   GNDTQGH   GNDTSNH
Post-1998              GNESTEH
1998          E369     IEATPPF   IEAEPPF   IEAEPPF   IELEPPF
Post-1998              IEAEPPF
1998          E442     IFGAAYG   VFGAIYG   DFGSVGG   VFGSVYT
Post-1998              IFGTAYG

(a) Amino acids in bold occur at the positions in the E protein
indicated, e.g., E37, E155.


We acknowledge the assistance provided by Kyaw Moe, Willoughby Tun TUN, measure. A vessel of wine or oil, containing four hogsheads.  Lin, UKyaw Zaw, Aye Min, Win Maw Tun, and staff of the Virology virology, study of viruses and their role in disease. Many viruses, such as animal RNA viruses and viruses that infect bacteria, or bacteriophages, have become useful laboratory tools in genetic studies and in work on the cellular metabolic control of gene expression  Research Division and the Medical Entomology Research Division, Department of Medical Research, Yangon, Myanmar.

This study was supported by grants from the Wellcome Trust, the World Health Organization, and the Lee Foundation.


(1.) Dengue haemorrhagic fever. Diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control. 2nd edition. Geneva Geneva, canton and city, Switzerland
Geneva (jənē`və), Fr. Genève, canton (1990 pop. 373,019), 109 sq mi (282 sq km), SW Switzerland, surrounding the southwest tip of the Lake of Geneva.
: World Health Organization; 1997.

(2.) Gubler DJ, Meltzer M. Impact of dengue/dengue haemorrhagic fever on the developing world. Adv Virus Res 1999;53:35-70.

(3.) Dengue prevention and control. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 2002;77:41-8.

(4.) Ferguson N, Anderson R, Gupta S. The effect of antibody-dependent enhancement on the transmission dynamics and persistence of multiple-strain pathogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1999;96:791-4.

(5.) Hay SI, Myers MF, Burke DS, Vaughn DW, Endy T, Ananda Ananda

(flourished 6th century BC, India) First cousin and disciple of the Buddha. A monk who served as the Buddha's personal attendant, he became known as the “beloved disciple.” It was Ananda who persuaded the Buddha to allow women to become nuns.
 N, et al. Etiology of interepidemic periods of mosquito-borne disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2000;97:9335-9.

(6.) Halstead SB. Observations related to the pathogenesis of dengue haemorrhagic fever. VI. Hypothesis and discussion. Yale J Biol Med 1970;42:350-62.

(7.) Thein S, Aung MM, Shwe TN, Aye M, Zaw A, Aye K, et al. Risk factors in dengue shock syndrome. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1997;56:566-72.

(8.) Vaughn DW, Green S, Kalayanarooj S, Innis BL, Nimmannitya S, Suntayakorn S, et al. Dengue viremia viremia /vi·re·mia/ (vi-re´me-ah) the presence of viruses in the blood.

The presence of viruses in the bloodstream.
 titer, antibody response pattern, and virus serotype correlate with disease severity. J Infect Dis 2000;181:2-9.

(9.) Nisalak A, Endy T, Nimmannitya S, Kalayanarooj S, Thisayakorn U, Scott RM, et al. Serotype-specific dengue virus circulation and dengue disease in Bangkok, Thailand from 1973 to 1999. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2003;68:191-202.

(10.) Communicable Disease communicable disease
A disease that is transmitted through direct contact with an infected individual or indirectly through a vector. Also called contagious disease.
 Surveillance in Singapore. Singapore: Quarantine and Epidemiology Department, Ministry of the Environment; 2000.

(11.) Analysis of communicable disease data in Vietnam 1991-1995. Hanoi, Vietnam: Ministry of Health; 2000.

(12.) World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Arbovirus arbovirus

Any of a large group of viruses that develop in arthropods (chiefly mosquitoes and ticks). The name derives from “arthropod-borne virus.” The spheroidal virus particle is encased in a fatty membrane and contains RNA; it causes no apparent harm to the
 Reference and Research (Dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever). Annual reports. Kuala Lumpur: Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Malaya The University of Malaya (or Universiti Malaya in Malay; commonly abbreviated as UM) is the oldest university in Malaysia, and is situated on a 750 acre (3.0 km²) campus in southwest Kuala Lumpur, the capital city. ; 1990-2001.

(13.) Graham RR, Juffrie M, Tan R, Hayes CG, Laksono I, Ma'roef C, et al. A prospective seroepidemiological study on dengue in children in four to nine years of age in Yogyakarta, Indonesia I. Studies in 1995-1996. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1999;61:412-9.

(14.) Kouri GP, Guzman MG, Bravo JR, Triana C. Dengue haemorrhagic Adj. 1. haemorrhagic - of or relating to a hemorrhage
 fever/dengue shock syndrome: lessons from the Cuban epidemic, 1981. Bull World Health Organ 1989;67:375-80.

(15.) Hanna JN, Ritchie SA, Phillips DA, Serafin IL, Hills SL, van den Hurk A, et al. An epidemic of dengue 3 in far north Queensland Far North Queensland, or FNQ, is the northernmost part of the Australian state of Queensland. The region, which contains a large section of the Tropical North Queensland area, stretches from the city of Cairns north to the Torres Strait. , 1997-1999. Med J Aust 2001;174:178-82.

(16.) Wittke V, Robb TE, Thu HM, Nisalak A, Nimmannitya S, Kalayanrooj S, et al. Extinction and rapid emergence of strains of dengue 3 virus during an inter-epidemic period. Virology 2002;301:148-56.

(17.) Sittisombut N, Sistayanarain A, Cardosa MJ, Salminen M, Damrongdachakul S, Kalayanarooj S, et al. Possible occurrence of a genetic bottleneck in dengue serotype 2 viruses between the 1980 and 1987 epidemic seasons in Bangkok, Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1997;57:100-8.

(18.) Guzman MG, Kouri G, Halstead SB. Do escape mutants explain rapid increases in dengue case fatality rates case fatality rate
The proportion of individuals contracting a disease who die of that disease.
 within epidemics? Lancet 2000;355:1902-3.

(19.) Twiddy SS, Woelk CH, Holmes EH. Phylogenetic evidence for adaptive evolution of dengue viruses in nature. J Gen Virol 2002;83:1679-89.

(20.) Worobey M, Rambaut A, Holmes EH. Widespread intra-serotypic recombination in natural populations of dengue virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1999;96:7352-7.

(21.) Clarke DH, Casals J. Techniques for haemagglutination Noun 1. haemagglutination - agglutination of red blood cells

agglutination - a clumping of bacteria or red cells when held together by antibodies (agglutinins)
 and haemagglutination inhibition with arthropod-borne viruses. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1958;7:561-73.

(22.) Cuzzubbo AJ, Endy TP, Nisalak A, Kalayanarooj S, Vaughn DW, Ogata SA, et al. Use of recombinant envelope proteins for serological serological

pertaining to or emanating from serology.

serological test
one involving examination of blood serum usually for antibody.
 diagnosis of Dengue virus infection in an immunochromatographic assay. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2001;8:1150-5.

(23.) Henchal EA, Gentry MK, McCown JM, Brandt WE. Dengue virus specific and flavivirus group determinants identified with monoclonal antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1982;31:830-6.

(24.) Beasley DW, Aaskov JG. Epitopes on the dengue 1 virus envelope protein recognised by neutralising IgM antibodies. Virology 2001;279:447-58.

(25.) Lorenz IC, Allison SL, Heinz FX, Helenius A. Folding and dimerisation of tick-borne ancephalitis virus envelope proteins prM and E in the endoplasmic endoplasmic

pertaining to or arising from endoplasm.

endoplasmic ribosomes
small, cytoplasmic granules consisting of approximately 60% RNA and 40% protein.
 reticulum reticulum /re·tic·u·lum/ (re-tik´u-lum) pl. retic´ula   [L.]
1. a small network, especially a protoplasmic network in cells.

2. reticular tissue.
. J Virol 2002;76:5480-91.

Dr. Thu is a research scientist at the Department of Medical Research, Yangon, and a doctoral student in the School of Life Sciences at the Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia. Her principal interests are in the genetics of dengue viruses as they relate to disease transmission and pathogenesis.

Address for correspondence: John Aaskov, School of Life Sciences, QUT QUT Queensland University of Technology (Australia; now Queensland Institute of Technology)
QUT Position of Incident Is Marked (radiotelegraphy) 
, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Australia 4001; fax: 617-3864-1534; email:

Hlaing Myat Thu, * ([dagger]) Kym Lowry, * Thein Thein Myint, ([double dagger]) Than Nu Shwe, ([double dagger]) Aye Maung Han, ([double dagger]) Kyu Kyu Khin, ([section]) Kyaw Zin Thant, ([dagger]) Soe Thein, ([dagger]) and John Aaskov *

* Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia; ([dagger]) Department of Medical Research, Yangon, Myanmar; ([double dagger]) Yangon Children's Hospital, Yangon, Myanmar; and ([section]) Mawlamyaing General Hospital, Mawlamyaing, Myanmar
COPYRIGHT 2004 U.S. National Center for Infectious Diseases
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2004, Gale Group. All rights reserved. Gale Group is a Thomson Corporation Company.

 Reader Opinion




Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:Research
Author:Aaskov, John
Publication:Emerging Infectious Diseases
Date:Apr 1, 2004
Previous Article:SARS transmission, risk factors, and prevention in Hong Kong.
Next Article:Predicting geographic variation in cutaneous leishmaniasis, Colombia.

Related Articles
First outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever, Bangladesh. (Dispatches).
Dengue hemorrhagic fever in infants: research opportunities ignored. (Perspective).
Serologic evidence of dengue infection before onset of epidemic, Bangladesh.
Dengue fever outbreak in a recreation club, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Increase in imported dengue, Germany, 2001-2002.
Pulmonary hemorrhage syndrome associated with an autochthonous case of dengue hemorrhagic fever.
Dengue fever, Hawaii, 2001-2002.
Dengue risk among visitors to Hawaii during an outbreak.
Dengue antibody prevalence in German travelers.
Retinal hemorrhages in 4 patients with dengue fever.

Terms of use | Copyright © 2014 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters