Multicultural training, theoretical orientation, empathy, and multicultural case conceptualization ability in counselors.This study explored the contributions of previous multicultural mul·ti·cul·tur·al
1. Of, relating to, or including several cultures.
2. Of or relating to a social or educational theory that encourages interest in many cultures within a society rather than in only a mainstream culture. counseling training, counselor theoretical orientation, and cognitive and affective affective /af·fec·tive/ (ah-fek´tiv) pertaining to affect.
1. Concerned with or arousing feelings or emotions; emotional.
2. empathy empathy
Ability to imagine oneself in another's place and understand the other's feelings, desires, ideas, and actions. The empathic actor or singer is one who genuinely feels the part he or she is performing. attitudes in predicting counselors' ability to conceptualize con·cep·tu·al·ize
v. con·cep·tu·al·ized, con·cep·tu·al·iz·ing, con·cep·tu·al·iz·es
To form a concept or concepts of, and especially to interpret in a conceptual way: clients' mental health issues from a multicultural perspective. Results revealed that counselors who (a) reported higher levels of formal multicultural training, (b) had an eclectic/integrative theoretical orientation to counseling, and (c) endorsed higher affective empathy attitudes were rated as being better able to conceptualize a culturally diverse client's mental health issues. Future research directions are discussed.
Attention to issues of multicultural counseling competence has been a primary focus in the field of counseling over the past decade (e.g., Pedersen, 1991; Ponterotto, 1998; Ridley ridley: see sea turtle. , Mendoza, & Kanitz, 1994; Sue, Ivey, & Pedersen, 1996). Multicultural counseling competence is commonly referred to as counselors' attitudes/beliefs, knowledge, and skills in working with culturally diverse (e.g., racial, ethnic, gender, social class, sexual orientation sexual orientation
The direction of one's sexual interest toward members of the same, opposite, or both sexes, especially a direction seen to be dictated by physiologic rather than sociologic forces. , etc.) individuals (Sue, Arredondo, & McDavis, 1992; Sue et al., 1998). In recent years, self-reported multicultural counseling competence has been examined in relation to a host of variables, especially demographic, educational, and training variables (e.g., Ottavi, Pope-Davis, & Dings, 1994; Pope-Davis, Reynolds, Dings, & Nielson, 1995; Pope-Davis, Reynolds, Dings, & Ottavi, 1994; Sodowsky, Kuo-Jackson, Richardson, & Corey, 1998).
In particular, the relationship between formal multicultural training and self-perceived multicultural counseling competence has been an area of interest in several previous investigations (e.g., Constantine, Juby, & Liang, 2001; Ottavi et al., 1994; Pope-Davis et al., 1995; Pope-Davis et al., 1994; Sodowsky, Taffe, Gutkin, & Wise, 1994). In nearly all of these studies, prior multicultural training was significantly correlated cor·re·late
v. cor·re·lat·ed, cor·re·lat·ing, cor·re·lates
1. To put or bring into causal, complementary, parallel, or reciprocal relation.
2. with higher levels of self-reported multicultural counseling competence. Moreover, some researchers (e.g., D'Andrea, Daniels, & Heck heck
Used as a mild oath.
Used as an intensive: had a heck of a lot of money; was crowded as heck.
[Alteration of hell. , 1991; Neville et al., 1996) have found that coursework coursework
work done by a student and assessed as part of an educational course
Noun 1. coursework - work assigned to and done by a student during a course of study; usually it is evaluated as part of the student's in multicultural counseling contributed to changes in counselors' self-reported competence in working with culturally diverse clients. Taking multicultural coursework has also been linked to increases in counselors' White racial consciousness (e.g., Parker, Moore, & Neimeyer, 1998), White racial identity attitudes (e.g., Neville et al., 1996), and interracial in·ter·ra·cial
Relating to, involving, or representing different races: interracial fellowship; an interracial neighborhood. comfort (e.g., Parker et al., 1998). Despite the growing literature in the area of multicultural counseling competence, little information is available regarding the role of previous multicultural training in assessing counselors' demonstrated ability to work with culturally diverse clients.
One aspect of counselors' multicultural competence may be their ability to conceptualize clients' concerns by differentiating and integrating multicultural knowledge pertaining per·tain
intr.v. per·tained, per·tain·ing, per·tains
1. To have reference; relate: evidence that pertains to the accident.
2. to clients' problems (Ladany, Inman, Constantine, & Hofheinz, 1997). Conceptualizing clients from a multicultural perspective means that counselors are (a) aware of and can integrate the impact of various cultural factors on clients' presenting issues and (b) able to articulate an appropriate treatment plan for working with clients based on this knowledge (Constantine & Ladany, 2000). Client conceptualizations become more complex as counselors make associations between and among hypothesized etiologies of presenting issues and, subsequently, integrate these data into their treatment plans. Hence, counselors' multicultural case conceptualization con·cep·tu·al·ize
v. con·cep·tu·al·ized, con·cep·tu·al·iz·ing, con·cep·tu·al·iz·es
To form a concept or concepts of, and especially to interpret in a conceptual way: ability (i.e., the inclusion of cultural data within conceptualizations of clients' presenting concerns) may represent an appropriate manifestation man·i·fes·ta·tion
An indication of the existence, reality, or presence of something, especially an illness.
(man´ifestā´sh of their actual multicultural counseling competence.
There is a need for research examining factors that may contribute to counselors' ability to conceptualize clients from a multicultural perspective. Specifically, exploring the association between previous multicultural counseling training and multicultural case conceptualization ability may provide important information about the impact of such training in preparing counselors to serve culturally diverse clients. Thus, this study, in part, examined the extent to which prior multicultural training was elated e·lat·ed
Exultantly proud and joyful.
e·lat to counselors' multicultural case conceptualization ability.
Another mechanism that may influence counselors' conceptualizations of clients' concerns is their theoretical orientation. In particular, counselors' theoretical orientation may impact the ways in which they make sense of mental health issues affecting culturally diverse individuals. A broad array of counseling theoretical orientations has been presented in the literature over the course of the 20th Century, including psychodynamic Psychodynamic
A therapy technique that assumes improper or unwanted behavior is caused by unconscious, internal conflicts and focuses on gaining insight into these motivations.
Mentioned in: Group Therapy, Suicide , humanistic hu·man·ist
1. A believer in the principles of humanism.
2. One who is concerned with the interests and welfare of humans.
a. A classical scholar.
b. A student of the liberal arts. , and cognitive-behavioral theories. Many of these orientations, however, have been criticized for failing to consider the unique cultural issues associated with diverse groups of clients (Nystul, 1999). In response to some of these criticisms, some counselors have attempted to integrate or blend various types of counseling theories and approaches into their work with clients (Norcross & Newman, 1992). Similarly, eclectic e·clec·tic
1. Selecting or employing individual elements from a variety of sources, systems, or styles: an eclectic taste in music; an eclectic approach to managing the economy.
2. counseling approaches have been increasingly popular in that eclectic counselors generally utilize a primary theoretical orientation, but may borrow techniques from other theoretical orientations based on their proven efficacy (Lazarus & Beutler, 1993). However, little empirical information exists that examines the degree to which certain types of theoretical orientations may be related to counselors' ability to consider multicultural issues in conceptualizing their clients' mental health concerns. Thus, this investigation also explored the extent to which counselors' theoretical orientation was predictive of their multicultural case conceptualization ability.
Of additional interest in this study was the degree to which specific attitudinal variables may predict counselors' ability to conceptualize clients from a multicultural perspective. In particular, it is possible that counselors who possess certain types of empathy attitudes may be able to understand salient cultural issues of diverse clients and, subsequently, be able to apply this understanding to their work with clients. Empathy has been noted as counselors' ability to communicate a sense of caring and understanding regarding clients' experiences (Egan, 1994; Nystul, 1999). In the counseling and psychological literature, empathy has been broadly conceptualized into two categories: cognitive empathy and affective empathy (Davis, 1983). Cognitive empathy refers to one's ability to intellectually assume the perspective of another individual, whereas affective empathy refers to responding to another person's emotions with the same emotion (Day & Chambers, 1991).
The degree to which counselors can appropriately empathize em·pa·thize
To feel empathy in relation to another person. with the concerns of culturally diverse clients may ultimately determine their ability to respond to these clients in a culturally sensitive manner. Ridley and Lingle (1996) conceptualized cultural empathy as counselors' ability to understand the experiences of diverse clients based on counselors' interpretations of cultural data. With regard to culturally diverse clients, counselors' ability to effectively comprehend and respond to these individuals' racial and ethnic group memberships may be critical in alleviating their presenting concerns (Fischer, Jome, & Atkinson, 1998). In this vein, counselors who possess cultural empathy may demonstrate multicultural competence in the context of counseling relationships. Hence, the present study also examined the degree to which certain types of empathy attitudes (i.e., affective and cognitive empathy) were related to counselors' ability to conceptualize clients from a multicultural perspective,
In sum, this investigation examined the role of previous multicultural counseling training, counselor theoretical orientation, and cognitive and affective empathy in predicting counselors' multicultural case conceptualization ability. One main research hypothesis guided this study. Specifically, it was hypothesized that prior multicultural training, theoretical orientation, and cognitive and affective empathy attitudes would account for significant amounts of the variance in counselors' multicultural case conceptualization ability.
Participants and Procedure
Potential respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. were randomly selected from a mailing list An automated e-mail system on the Internet, which is maintained by subject matter. There are thousands of such lists that reach millions of individuals and businesses. New users generally subscribe by sending an e-mail with the word "subscribe" in it and subsequently receive all new of members of the American Counseling Association The American Counseling Association (ACA) is a non-profit, professional organization that is dedicated to the counseling profession. ACA is the world's second largest association exclusively representing professional counselors. . Of the 200 survey packets mailed, 132 were completed and returned (66% response rate). However, because two of the respondents did not have professional counseling experience, they were excluded from participation by the researcher. No follow-up or reminder letters were sent to potential participants.
Because of missing data or rounding, some percentages do not equal 100. The 83 (63.8%) women and 45 (34.6%) men who responded to the study ranged in age from 23 to 77 years (M = 42.79 years, SD = 13.53), and their racial and ethnic composition was as follows: 100 (76.9%) White Americans The term white American (often used interchangeably with "Caucasian American" and within the United States simply "white") is an umbrella term that refers to people of European, Middle Eastern, and North African descent residing in the United States. , 11 (8.5%) African Americans African American Multiculture A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. See Race. , 8 (6.2%) Asian Americans This page is a list of Asian Americans. Politics
1. Of, for, or consisting of members of two races.
2. Having parents of two different races.
bi·ra individuals, and 1 (.8%) American Indian American Indian
or Native American or Amerindian or indigenous American
Any member of the various aboriginal peoples of the Western Hemisphere, with the exception of the Eskimos (Inuit) and the Aleuts. . With regard to their highest educational degree, the participants were comprised of 14 (10.8%) doctoral-level counselors, 90 (69.2%) master's-level counselors, and 26 (20.0%) bachelor's-level counselors. They reported a mean of 12.49 years of counseling experience (SD = 10.35; range = 1 to 40 years). By theoretical orientation, 55 (41.7%) of the participants were categorized cat·e·go·rize
tr.v. cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing, cat·e·go·riz·es
To put into a category or categories; classify.
cat as humanistic, 28 (21.5%) as eclectic/integrative, 26 (20.0%) as psychodynamic, and 21 (16.2%) as cognitive-behavioral.
Participants were asked to complete a survey packet consisting of (a) a brief demographic questionnaire, (b) the Perspective-Taking and Empathic em·path·ic
Of, relating to, or characterized by empathy.
Adj. 1. empathic - showing empathy or ready comprehension of others' states; "a sensitive and empathetic school counselor"
empathetic Concern subscales of the Interpersonal in·ter·per·son·al
1. Of or relating to the interactions between individuals: interpersonal skills.
2. Reactivity re·ac·tiv·i·ty
1. The property of reacting.
2. The process of reacting.
n the degree to which a being responds to a stimulus. Index (Davis, 1980), and (c) the multicultural case conceptualization ability exercises. The scales and demographic questionnaire were placed after the case conceptualization exercises so as not to influence participants' responses to the case vignette Vignette
A symbol or pictorial representation of the corporation on a stock certificate. Usually a complicated and artistic design, it is meant to make the counterfeiting of stock certificates as difficult as possible. .
For the multicultural case conceptualization exercises, respondents were asked to imagine that they were the counselor for a client whom they were about to meet. Participants were provided with an intake scenario in which the client--who was described as a 32-year-old, gay, Native American male stockbroker--was seeking counseling services at a local mental health clinic. The vignette indicated the client's (a) intense involvement in the traditional rituals of his ethnic group and social advocacy for gay men's rights This article or section has multiple issues:
* It may contain original research or unverifiable claims.
* It needs additional references or sources for verification.
* It may not present a worldwide view of the subject. ; (b) current stressors regarding his work situation (e.g., making compromising work decisions that placed his company in financial jeopardy jeopardy, in law, condition of a person charged with a crime and thus in danger of punishment. At common law a defendant could be exposed to jeopardy for the same offense only once; exposing a person twice is known as
double jeopardy. ); (c) romantic relationship concerns (e.g., experiencing pressure from his partner to live together as a couple); (d) anxiety about `coming out' to his parents who wish to have grandchildren GRANDCHILDREN, domestic relations. The children of one's children. Sometimes these may claim bequests given in a will to children, though in general they can make no such claim. 6 Co. 16. to "carry on the family name" (the client is an only child); and (e) recreational drug use Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational purposes rather than for work, medical or spiritual purposes, although the distinction is not always clear. as a result of the aforementioned a·fore·men·tioned
The one or ones mentioned previously.
Adj. 1. issues. Thus, there were several potential cultural and psychological issues that could be pertinent to the formulation formulation /for·mu·la·tion/ (for?mu-la´shun) the act or product of formulating.
American Law Institute Formulation of a treatment plan. After reading the vignette, participants were instructed to (a) write a conceptualization of at least three sentences describing what they believed to be the etiology etiology /eti·ol·o·gy/ (e?te-ol´ah-je)
1. the science dealing with causes of disease.
2. the cause of a disease. of the client's psychological difficulties, and (b) write a conceptualization of at least three sentences delineating what they believed to be effective treatment strategies or foci for addressing the client's mental health difficulties.
Demographic questionnaire. Participants were asked to indicate their race or ethnicity ethnicity Vox populi Racial status–ie, African American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic , sex, age, highest degree earned, primary theoretical orientation to counseling, and total number of months of professional counseling experience. They were also asked to report the number of formal academic courses they had taken previously related to multicultural or cross-cultural counseling issues. Respondents who indicated more than one primary theoretical approach to counseling were coded as eclectic/integrative.
Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI Iri (ē`rē`), former city, North Jeolla (Cholla) prov., SW South Korea. An agricultural center and transportation hub, it was absorbed into Iksan. ). The IRI (Davis, 1980) is a 28-item, 5-point (0 = does not describe me well, 4 = describes me very well) self-report measure of empathy. It is comprised of four subscales that assess several aspects of empathy. The Perspective-Taking subscale assesses individuals' dispositional tendency to consider others' points of view; the Fantasy subscale measures respondents' propensity to transpose trans·pose
To transfer one tissue, organ, or part to the place of another. themselves into the feelings and behaviors of fictional characters This is a list of fictional characters. It has been expanded into the following lists:
Several investigations have provided evidence of construct validity construct validity,
n the degree to which an experimentally-determined definition matches the theoretical definition. for the IRI's subscales (e.g., Bernstein & Davis, 1982; Carey, Fox, & Spraggins, 1988; Davis, 1983). The IRI subscales have been reported to have satisfactory internal reliabilities (range = .71 to .77) and test-retest reliabilities test-retest reliability Psychology A measure of the ability of a psychologic testing instrument to yield the same result for a single Pt at 2 different test periods, which are closely spaced so that any variation detected reflects reliability of the instrument (range = .62 to .80) (Davis, 1980). To assess cognitive and effective empathy, respectively, only the Perspective-Taking and Empathic Concern subscales were used in the present study. For the present sample, a Cronbach's alpha Cronbach's (alpha) has an important use as a measure of the reliability of a psychometric instrument. It was first named as alpha by Cronbach (1951), as he had intended to continue with further instruments. of .63 was computed for the Perspective-Taking subscale and a Cronbach's alpha of .72 was calculated for the Empathic Concern subscale.
Multicultural case conceptualization ability. To assess multicultural case conceptualization ability, a coding system Noun 1. coding system - a system of signals used to represent letters or numbers in transmitting messages
code - a coding system used for transmitting messages requiring brevity or secrecy was developed by which raters indicated the extent to which participants had integrated salient cultural (i.e., racial/ethnic, gender, and sexual orientation) issues into two conceptualizations of a client's presenting concerns. The coding system designed to measure multicultural case conceptualization ability was based on similar coding systems for assessing integrative complexity Integrative complexity is a research psychology measure designed to quantify the complexity of written texts based on dimensions of integration and differentiation. (e.g., Tetlock & Suedfeld, 1988) and has been used in previous studies (e.g., Constantine & Ladany, 2000; Ladany et al., 1997). The first conceptualization was based on participants' beliefs about the factors contributing to the etiology of the client's difficulties, and the second one was based on their beliefs about what would be an effective treatment focus or plan for addressing the client's problems. Thus, multicultural case conceptualization ability was operationalized as the extent to which the participants identified and integrated cultural factors into conceptualizations of the etiology and treatment of a client's presenting concerns.
In the current investigation, multicultural case conceptualization ability was measured by examining two interrelated in·ter·re·late
tr. & intr.v. in·ter·re·lat·ed, in·ter·re·lat·ing, in·ter·re·lates
To place in or come into mutual relationship.
in cognitive processes Cognitive processes
Thought processes (i.e., reasoning, perception, judgment, memory).
Mentioned in: Psychosocial Disorders that yielded two separate conceptualization scores. The first process, differentiation, is defined as a counselor's ability to offer alternative interpretations of a client's presenting problems and the nature of the treatment that could be provided. The greater the number of options presented in relation to a client's problems, the greater the degree of differentiation. The second process, integration, is characterized char·ac·ter·ize
tr.v. character·ized, character·iz·ing, character·iz·es
1. To describe the qualities or peculiarities of: characterized the warden as ruthless.
2. by a counselor's ability to develop associations between and among differentiated interpretations. In numerous prior studies, integrative complexity coding systems have been validated val·i·date
tr.v. val·i·dat·ed, val·i·dat·ing, val·i·dates
1. To declare or make legally valid.
2. To mark with an indication of official sanction.
3. (e.g., Streufert & Streufert, 1978; Tetlock, 1986; Tetlock, Hannum, & Micheletti, 1984) and are reported to have high interrater agreement (e.g., .87; Tetlock & Kim, 1987). More recently, Ladany et al. (1997) reported interrater agreement coefficients of .86 and .87 for the etiology and treatment multicultural case conceptualizations, respectively. In addition, Constantine and Ladany (2000) reported interrater agreement ratings of .93 and .82 for the etiology and treatment multicultural case conceptualizations, respectively.
The raters, two master's-degreed counselors who were trained for 12 hours in the coding of multicultural case conceptualization ability, were not aware of the research hypothesis and coded all of the open-ended etiology and treatment responses for multicultural case conceptualization ability. Multicultural conceptualization scores for each case conceptualization exercise ranged from 0 to 6 as follows:
* 0 = no differentiation, no integration, i.e., no indication of cultural issues in conceptualizing the client's problems
* 1 = low differentiation, no integration, i.e., one reference to cultural issues in conceptualizing the client's problems
* 2 = low differentiation, low integration, i.e., two references to cultural issues in the conceptualization of the client's problems, with one connection made between the two differentiated concepts
* 3 = moderate differentiation, low integration, i.e., three references to cultural issues in the conceptualization of the client's problems, with one connection made between the three differentiated concepts
* 4 = moderate differentiation, moderate integration, i.e., four references to cultural issues in the conceptualization of the client's problems, with two connections made between the differentiated concepts
* 5 = high differentiation, moderate integration, i.e., five references to cultural issues in the conceptualization of the client's problems, with three connections made between the differentiated concepts
* 6 = high differentiation, high integration, i.e., six or more references to cultural issues in conceptualizing the client's problems, with three or more connections made between differentiated concepts
In the present study, Cohen's k coefficients for the etiology and treatment ratings were .88 and .85, respectively.
Table 1 presents the means, standard deviations In statistics, the average amount a number varies from the average number in a series of numbers.
(statistics) standard deviation - (SD) A measure of the range of values in a set of numbers. , and intercorrelations of the study's variables. A series of multivariate The use of multiple variables in a forecasting model. analyses of variance was conducted (p = .05) to determine whether participants differed significantly by race or ethnicity, sex, and highest educational degree regarding the etiology and treatment conceptualization indices. No significant interaction or main effect differences were found, so none of these demographic variables was included in the main analyses.
Two hierarchical multiple regression Multiple regression
The estimated relationship between a dependent variable and more than one explanatory variable. analyses were conducted using the etiology and treatment multicultural case conceptualization indices as the criterion variables. The number of formal multicultural counseling courses taken was entered into the first step of each equation. In the second step, theoretical orientation was entered, for which the four groups (i.e., eclectic/integrative, humanistic, psychodynamic, and cognitive-behavioral) were entered simultaneously with three dummy codes In computer programming, dummy code is inserted in a program skeleton to simulate processing and avoid compilation error messages. It may involve empty function declarations, or functions that return a correct result only for a simple test case where the expected response of the . The eclectic/integrative theoretical orientation was always coded as zero, serving as the constant. The Perspective-Taking and Empathic Concern sub-scales of the IRI were entered together into the third step, serving as measures of cognitive and affective empathy attitudes, respectively.
Table 2 provides a summary of the regression analyses for variables predicting the etiology and treatment multicultural case conceptualization ratings. In the first equation, with etiology conceptualization scores serving as the criterion variable, greater multicultural counseling training was associated with higher etiology case conceptualization scores, F(1, 128) = 12.90, p < .001, [R.sup.2] = .09 (adjusted [R.sup.2] .08). After controlling for the variance accounted for by prior multicultural training, theoretical orientation made additional significant contributions to etiology multicultural case conceptualization ratings, [R.sup.2] change = .17, F(4, 125) change = 9.46, p < .001, [R.sup.2] = .26 (adjusted [R.sup.2] = .24). Specifically, counselors with an eclectic/integrative orientation were rated as having significantly higher etiology case conceptualization skills than did counselors with a psycho-dynamic or cognitive-behavioral theoretical orientation. After accounting for the previous variables, cognitive and affective empathy attitudes in consort added significant variance to the etiology ratings, [R.sup.2] change = .11, F(6, 123) change = 11.24, p < .001, [R.sup.2] = .37 (adjusted [R.sup.2] = .34), with only affective empathy attitudes making a unique positive contribution. The entire regression model, consisting of previous multicultural counseling training, theoretical orientation, and cognitive and affective empathy attitudes, accounted for 37% of the variance in etiology multicultural case conceptualization scores.
The treatment multicultural case conceptualization ratings served as the criterion variable in the second hierarchical multiple regression analysis. In the first step, prior multicultural counseling training was significantly positively predictive of treatment case conceptualization ratings, F(1,128) = 4.26, p < .05, [R.sup.2] = .03 (adjusted [R.sup.2] = .02). After controlling for previous multicultural counseling training, theoretical orientation added significant variance to treatment multicultural case conceptualization ratings, [R.sup.2] change = .08, F(4, 125) change = 3.58,p < .05, [R.sup.2] = .11 (adjusted [R.sup.2] = .08). In particular, counselors with an eclectic/integrative theoretical orientation were rated as having significantly higher treatment multicultural case conceptualization abilities than did counselors with a psychodynamic theoretical orientation. After accounting for the prior variables, cognitive and affective empathy attitudes, both together and individually, contributed significant positive variance to the treatment ratings, [R.sup.2] change = .18, F(6, 123) change = 15.80, p < .001, [R.sup.2] = .29 (adjusted [R.sup.2] = .26). The full regression model, consisting of previous multicultural counseling training, theoretical orientation, and cognitive and affective empathy attitudes, contributed to 29% of the variance in treatment multicultural case conceptualization ratings.
This study investigated the contributions of prior multicultural counseling training, counselor theoretical orientation, and cognitive and affective empathy in predicting aspects of multicultural case conceptualization ability in professional counselors. Findings indicated that the number of previous multicultural courses taken was significantly positively related to counselors' ability to conceptualize etiology and treatment issues related to a multicultural client. These results lend support to prior investigations that noted the impact of multicultural counseling training in increasing counselors' self-perceived multicultural competence. For example, D'Andrea et al. (1991) found that counselor trainees' self-perceived multicultural awareness, knowledge, and skills increased significantly following their participation in various types of multicultural counseling training activities. Moreover, Neville et al. (1996) reported that the completion of a multicultural counseling course increased trainees' self-perceived multicultural competence, and these increases were found to remain stable at a 1-year follow-up point. Steward, Morales, Bartell, Miller, and Weeks (1998), however, warned that students' completion of multicultural counseling coursework might not necessarily indicate an automatic embracing of multiculturalism multiculturalism or cultural pluralism, a term describing the coexistence of many cultures in a locality, without any one culture dominating the region. . Nonetheless, the present study's findings suggest that prior academic training in multicultural issues may help counselors to better conceptualize the presenting issues of multicultural clients, and these conceptualizations may parallel, or perhaps contribute to, their ability to work effectively with diverse client populations.
After controlling for the variance accounted for by previous multicultural training, results revealed that counselors with an eclectic/integrative theoretical orientation were rated as having significantly higher etiology multicultural case conceptualization skills than were counselors with a psychodynamic or cognitive-behavioral orientation. Furthermore, counselors with an eclectic/integrative theoretical orientation were found to have greater treatment case conceptualization skills than were counselors with a psychodynamic theoretical orientation. A potential implication of these findings is that counselors' flexibility in utilizing perspectives and techniques from various counseling theories may be beneficial to them in working with culturally diverse clients. The findings may also suggest that although there may be benefits to using a primary theory of counseling (e.g., consistency in treatment conceptualizations and approaches), it is unlikely that any one counseling theory could effectively capture the mental health experiences and issues of all clients (Constantine, 2001; Nystul, 1999).
After accounting for the variance in previous multicultural training and counselor theoretical orientation, cognitive and affective empathy attitudes together made significant contributions to both etiology and treatment multicultural case conceptualization ratings. In particular, affective empathy attitudes contributed significant positive variance to both etiology and treatment ratings of multicultural case conceptualization ability, while cognitive empathy attitudes contributed unique positive variance only to the treatment ratings. Constantine (2000) reported that affective empathy attitudes were positively correlated with self-perceived multicultural counseling competence. The current study's results suggest that counselors who view themselves as equipped to respond affectively af·fec·tive
1. Influenced by or resulting from the emotions.
2. Concerned with or arousing feelings or emotions; emotional. to others may be more aware of cultural issues in the context of conceptualizing clients' mental health concerns. Moreover, counselors who are capable of considering others' perspectives or points of view (i.e., have cognitive empathy) may be similarly proficient pro·fi·cient
Having or marked by an advanced degree of competence, as in an art, vocation, profession, or branch of learning.
An expert; an adept. in conceptualizing treatment issues related to working with culturally diverse clients. In general, counselors' ability to communicate empathy and concern to clients has been identified as a primary precursor precursor /pre·cur·sor/ (pre´kur-ser) something that precedes. In biological processes, a substance from which another, usually more active or mature, substance is formed. In clinical medicine, a sign or symptom that heralds another. to positive client changes (Strupp & Hadley, 1979). Thus, counselors' ability to respond to culturally diverse clients in ways that consider their cultural identities and experiences (i.e., cultural empathy) may contribute to their satisfaction with treatment. A potential implication of these findings for counselor training programs is that academic and applied programs may wish to consider the role of empathy in the development of students' multicultural counseling competence. Specifically, training programs may wish to consider indirectly facilitating students' multicultural counseling competence by identifying strategies to develop or augment aug·ment
v. aug·ment·ed, aug·ment·ing, aug·ments
1. To make (something already developed or well under way) greater, as in size, extent, or quantity: their levels of empathy with culturally diverse clients.
The results of this investigation should be considered in the context of several potential limitations. First, caution should be used in generalizing the study's findings because the respondents who returned completed survey packets may have had a particular interest in the study's topic and may differ from individuals who did not respond. A second limitation may be that the study's analog design does not translate directly to clinical practice. In particular, conceptualizing potential etiology and treatment issues in relation to an actual client (instead of a case vignette) may have prompted respondents to have different, and perhaps better and more elaborate, multicultural case conceptualizations. Third, the assessment of multicultural case conceptualization ability was based solely on one vignette at one point in time. It is possible that having participants respond to multiple case conceptualization exercises across various occasions would have resulted in different determinations of their ability to conceptualize clients from a multicultural perspective. A fourth possible limitation is that the relatively small numbers of counselors in some racial and ethnic groups and in some educational degree categories may have decreased the power of some analyses to detect statistical significance. Thus, future studies should examine similar variables in a more racially, ethnically, and educationally diverse sample of counselors. A fifth potential limitation is that although participants reported adhering ADHERING. Cleaving to, or joining; as, adhering to the enemies of the United States.
2. The constitution of the United States, art. 3, s 3, defines treason against the United States, to consist only in levying war against them or in adhering to their enemies, to a primary theoretical orientation to counseling, their preference for a particular orientation may not be synonymous with synonymous with
adjective equivalent to, the same as, identical to, similar to, identified with, equal to, tantamount to, interchangeable with, one and the same as their actual work with clients. Sixth, because the empathy measures used in the study were self-report in nature, the participants may not have endorsed their true attitudes or behaviors. Seventh, because only two of the four IRI subscales were included in the questionnaire packet, it is possible that the use of only these subscales affected their validity and reliability. In a related issue, the study's findings may be hampered by the moderate internal consistency In statistics and research, internal consistency is a measure based on the correlations between different items on the same test (or the same subscale on a larger test). It measures whether several items that propose to measure the same general construct produce similar scores. coefficients of the IRI subscales.
The study's results highlight the importance of having multicultural counseling training in academic programs. Hence, future investigations should explore the efficacy of specific multicultural training activities on the development of counselors' multicultural competence. There is also a need for research that specifically examines how theoretical orientation may affect the ways in which counselors work with a range of diverse cultural groups. Moreover, research is needed that identifies other constructs that may be correlates of multicultural counseling competence (e.g., perceived counselor expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness trustworthiness Ethics A principle in which a person both deserves the trust of others and does not violate that trust ). In addition, because counselors' ability to conceptualize clients from a multicultural perspective may be limited to the general level at which they are able to integrate client information, future investigators may wish to explore the extent to which multicultural case conceptualization ability is similar to, or distinct from, general case conceptualization ability (Ladany et al., 1997).
Table 1. Means, Standard Deviations, and Intercorrelations of the Study's Variables Variables M SD 1. Previous Multicultural Courses Taken 1.37 .95 Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI; Davis, 1980) 2. IRI Perspective-Taking Subscale 18.68 3.57 3. IRI Empathic Concern Subscale 22.31 3.26 Multicultural Case Conceptualization Ability 4. Etiology 3.02 1.40 5. Treatment 2.12 1.32 Variables 1 2 1. Previous Multicultural Courses Taken -- .23 ** Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI; Davis, 1980) 2. IRI Perspective-Taking Subscale -- 3. IRI Empathic Concern Subscale Multicultural Case Conceptualization Ability 4. Etiology 5. Treatment Variables 3 4 1. Previous Multicultural Courses Taken .14 .30 *** Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI; Davis, 1980) 2. IRI Perspective-Taking Subscale .25 ** .27 ** 3. IRI Empathic Concern Subscale -- .47 *** Multicultural Case Conceptualization Ability 4. Etiology -- 5. Treatment Variables 5 1. Previous Multicultural Courses Taken .18 * Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI; Davis, 1980) 2. IRI Perspective-Taking Subscale .34 *** 3. IRI Empathic Concern Subscale .46 *** Multicultural Case Conceptualization Ability 4. Etiology .53 *** 5. Treatment -- Note. Higher scores indicate a greater amount of the given variable. * p < .05. ** p < .01. *** p < .001. Table 2. Summary of the Hierarchical Multiple Regression Analyses for Variables Predicting MCCA Etiology and Treatment Scores Variables Etiology B SE B [beta] t STEP 1 Previous Multicultural Courses Taken .45 .12 .30 3.59 *** STEP 2 Theoretical Orientation Humanistic -.03 .28 -.01 -.10 Psychodynamic -1.27 .33 -.36 -3.79 *** Cognitive-Behavioral -1.18 .36 -.31 -3.33 ** STEP 3 IRI-Perspective-Taking Subscale .03 .03 .08 1.09 IRI-Empathic Concern Subscale .14 .03 .33 4.35 *** Variables Treatment B SE B [beta] t STEP 1 Previous Multicultural Courses Taken .25 .12 .18 2.06 * STEP 2 Theoretical Orientation Humanistic .17 .30 .06 .56 Psychodynamic -.78 .35 -.24 2.25 * Cognitive-Behavioral -.41 .37 -.11 -1.10 STEP 3 IRI-Perspective-Taking Subscale .08 .03 .21 2.56 * IRI-Empathic Concern Subscale .15 .03 .36 4.46 *** Note. MCCA = Multicultural Case Conceptualization Ability; IRI = Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis, 1980). * p < .05. ** p < .01. *** p < .001.
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Madonna G. Constantine is Constantine I, king of Greece
Constantine I, 1868–1923, king of the Hellenes, eldest son of George I, whom he succeeded in 1913. Married to Sophia, sister of the German emperor William II, he opposed the pro-Allied policy of the Greek premier, an associate professor in the Department of Counseling and Clinical Psychology at Teachers College, Columbia University Teachers College, Columbia University (sometimes referred to simply as Teachers College; also referred to as Teachers College of Columbia University or the Columbia University Graduate School of Education , NY. Email firstname.lastname@example.org. The author thanks Tina Arorash and Khym Isaac for their assistance with this project.