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Model of corporate entrepreneurship: intrapreneurship and exopreneurship.


This article extends the model of corporate entrepreneurship designed by Covin COVIN, fraud. A secret contrivance between two or more persons to defraud and prejudice another of his rights. Co. Litt 357, b; Com. Dig. Covin, A; 1 Vin. Abr. 473. Vide Collusion; Fraud.  and Slevin (1991) into intrapreneurship and exopreneurship. Intrapreneurship is closely related to corporate entrepreneurship which is the creation of new products within the large organization using existing employees. On the other hand exopreneurship is the generation of innovation outside the boundary of the organization using external agents known as exopreneurs. The modes to intrapreneurship have been in the dispersed dis·perse  
v. dis·persed, dis·pers·ing, dis·pers·es
a. To drive off or scatter in different directions: The police dispersed the crowd.

 and focused forms (Birkinshaw, 1996). The exopreneurship process can be attained through franchising, external venture capital, subcontracting and strategic alliance (Siti Maimon & Chang, 1995). This article reviews the different conditions that trigger intrapreneurship and exopreneurship and established propositions to identify the dissimilarity of both processes that build up corporate entrepreneurship in large organizations.


There is a number of leading research journals and published articles that present the exploratory work on corporate entrepreneurship. The research has developed a number of models of corporate entrepreneurship that focused on internally generated innovations within the organizations also known as intrapreneurship. The models are domain models of corporate entrepreneurship (Guth & Ginsberg, 1990), a conceptual model of firm behavior (Covin & Slevin, 1991), an organizational model for internally developed ventures (Brazeal, 1993) and an interactive model of corporate entrepreneuring (Hornsby, Naffziger, Kuratko & Montagno, 1993). These models are centered on innovations that are generated within the organizations to revitalize re·vi·tal·ize  
tr.v. re·vi·tal·ized, re·vi·tal·iz·ing, re·vi·tal·iz·es
To impart new life or vigor to: plans to revitalize inner-city neighborhoods; tried to revitalize a flagging economy.
 largely established and bureaucratized organizations into strategically entrepreneurial performers.

Siti-Maimon (1993) coined "exopreneurship" as part of the process of corporate entrepreneurship to revitalize large organization by acquiring ideas or innovation from external sources. The term, exopreneurship, is viewed as acquiring innovations that are outside the organization into the firm. The external innovation can be acquired through franchising, strategic alliance, external capital venture, and subcontracting (Siti-Maimon & Chang, 1995). This paper proposes to differentiate the domain of corporate entrepreneurship into intrapreneurship and exopreneurship. The proposed model (figure 1) intends to identify the differences in the antecedent ANTECEDENT. Something that goes before. In the construction of laws, agreements, and the like, reference is always to be made to the last antecedent; ad proximun antecedens fiat relatio.  factors that trigger intrapreneurship and exopreneurship.

This paper starts with an explanation of the development of sourcing innovation internally (intrapreneurship) then moves to the divergence divergence

In mathematics, a differential operator applied to a three-dimensional vector-valued function. The result is a function that describes a rate of change. The divergence of a vector v is given by
 in sourcing innovations externally (exopreneurship). Based on the model of corporate entrepreneurship designed by Covin and Slevin (1990) with the several propositions made, the later section of the article discusses the differences in the antecedents that trigger intrapreneurship and exopreneurship


Corporate entrepreneurship universally known as intrapreneurship employs internally generated innovations from employees. Corporate venture groups such as 3M and DuPont were sources of innovations chronicled with business renewal in the early 1960s despite Pinchot (1985) who made intrapreneurship popular in the mid 1980s. Scientific research by Burgelman (1983a, 1983b, 1984) revealed how corporate entrepreneurship should be synergized into the overall corporate strategy of any organizations that desire to diversify their innovations. He showed how traditional research and development should be transformed into new business through internal corporate venturing that grew in stages from the conceptual, pre-venture, entrepreneurial and organizational. Kanter and Richardson (1991) identified four approaches to the process of corporate entrepreneurship that include pure venture capital, the new venture development incubator incubator, apparatus for the maintenance of controlled conditions in which eggs can be hatched artificially. Incubator houses with double walls of mud, a fireroom, and several compartments each holding about 6,000 hens' eggs were developed in ancient times; the , the idea creation centre and employee project model. They discovered that the internal employee program yielded a higher frequency of innovations

Kanter (1984) discovered that large organizations involved in internal venturing began to sponsor or became equity partners to innovative employees in the formations of new venture creations. These became the new venture companies. Burgelman (1985) suggested that new venture divisions exploit employees' expertise to achieve corporate growth through acquisition. This became another popular strategy for corporate growth but this approach considered entrepreneurship to be controversial. The study of corporate entrepreneurship as internally sourced innovations became popular among strategic management researchers throughout the 1980s and early 1990s (Hubbard, 1986; Kanter, Ingols, Morgan & Seggerman, 1987; Wood, 1988; Morris, Davis & Ewing; 1988; Sathe, 1988; Jennings & Lumpkin, 1989; Morris & Trotter, 1990; Fulop, 1991; Carlisle & Gravelle, 1992; Hornsby et. al 1993). Morris, Davis and Allen (1994), Ginsberg and Hay (1994) and Bryon (1994) studies also supported the same idea.

Byron (1994) found that product innovation depends on the type of internal ventures. His research revealed that the innovative ideas conceived from research and development departments have the fewest successful ventures, even though they represented the greatest degree of technical diversification. Byron's work inferred that those sources of ideas for innovation affect the success of new ventures. Studies by Farrel and Doutriaux (1994) showed that corporate growth did not have to depend on internal development. However, external strategy such as collaboration strategies based on franchising, external venture capital, subcontracting and strategic alliance can diversify product innovation. Their findings found that external agreements had a positive impact on sales and technology competency.


Aldrich and Auster (1986) recommended strategies for large and aged organizations such as subcontracting and franchising to smaller companies as corporate entrepreneurs to make them young and viable. Starr and MacMillan (1990) examined social contracting as an approach to resource acquisition. External strategies adopted by organizations to gain competitive advantage, exploited the weaknesses of the other organizations. Therefore, corporate entrepreneurship should envelop en·vel·op  
tr.v. en·vel·oped, en·vel·op·ing, en·vel·ops
1. To enclose or encase completely with or as if with a covering: "Accompanying the darkness, a stillness envelops the city" 
 both intrapreneurship and exopreneurship which is externally sourced ideas as proposed by Siti-. Maimon and Chang (1995).

Internally sourced innovations may take a long time to develop and involves higher risk of failure as invented by Lengnick-Hall (1991). She suggested that other modes toward the process of corporate entrepreneurship such as joint venture and acquisition involves externally sourced relationship. This pushes the idea of internally sourced idea of corporate entrepreneurship to vie for an external relationship. Perhaps factors such as the speed of innovations to meet market demands and the leverage of failure has caused corporate strategists to look into other designs for the process of corporate entrepreneurship.

Recent research has recommended the use of externally sourced innovations of products or services (Jones & Butler, 1992). Cowan (1993) indicated that the mode of corporate entrepreneuring would depend on the result of market research. This implies that not all intrapreneurship programs would provide the diversity for organizations on which to build their competitive edge. Schumann, Prestwood, Tong tong 1  
tr.v. tonged, tong·ing, tongs
To seize, hold, or manipulate with tongs.

[Back-formation from tongs.
 and Vanston (1994) emphatically em·phat·ic  
1. Expressed or performed with emphasis: responded with an emphatic "no."

2. Forceful and definite in expression or action.

 stressed that the creation of innovative organizations must include the elemental elemental

emanating from or pertaining to elements.

elemental diet
see elemental diet.
 infrastructure containing both internally and externally sourced innovations. However, they did not specifically define this idea as corporate entrepreneurship.

Rice, Wilkinson and Wickham (1994) tried to link the performance of the incubator program (a form of exopreneurship to new product development) with companies that sponsored the research. The survival rate is higher than start up programs with the success rate for breakout at about nine years. This suggests that exopreneurship can speed up diversity in large established organizations into the market and provide a higher success rate. The study by Daniels and Hofer (1994) revealed that the success rate of university-based new venture development has an 80 per cent success rate of survival.

Exopreneurship as strategic alliance plays a very important linkage to the Asian market. Western multinationals are finding it difficult to move into Asian markets because the host country makes more demands. The demands include types of technology transfer, local content and are getting less accommodating in selling natural resources at cheap prices. Consequently, many opportunities were closed to Western companies. Therefore, large multinationals must be smart to use business relationships to achieve superior growth when dealing with strategic alliances.

In short, compared with intrapreneurship, exopreneurship creates diversity in large companies in a speedier route to corporate entrepreneurship. For instance, DuPont found that intrapreneurship may take up to 15 years to commercialize certain products. Schumann et al (1994) have suggested some form of exopreneurship such as the use of contract research and development; universities; consultants or government supported centers. The external venture center focuses on the product or business that includes acquisition and establishment of joint ventures. They (Schumann et al., 1994) specified licensing as a form of subcontracting because it shortens the time to market and maintains technical dynamism of an industry. Gee (1994) coined the term, corporate entrepreneurial activities, which are both internally and externally sourced as corporate business renewal which includes strategic alliances. However, Siti-Maimon and Chang (1995) have proposed the creation of new ventures in large organizations through franchising, subcontracting, strategic alliances and venture capital. Table 1 gives a summary of the differences in the intrapreneurship and exopreneurship.


This section outlines a conceptual model of corporate entrepreneurship as a result of exopreneurship or intrapreneurship or both phenomena. The model intends to depict de·pict  
tr.v. de·pict·ed, de·pict·ing, de·picts
1. To represent in a picture or sculpture.

2. To represent in words; describe. See Synonyms at represent.
 the differences in the antecedents for exopreneurship and intrapreneurship at the organizational level. The proposed models delineate the antecedents and the types of venture creation of a corporate entrepreneurial posture and firm performance. The proposed model is based on the model conceived by Covin and Slevin (1991) which consists of the original component. However certain components are altered for the purpose of this paper.


Figure 1 depicts the proposed model of corporate entrepreneurship based on organizational behavior depending on the use of internally sourced (intrapreneurship) or externally sourced (exopreneurship) innovations. The model shows the antecedents to intrapreneurship and its consequential con·se·quen·tial  
1. Following as an effect, result, or conclusion; consequent.

2. Having important consequences; significant:
 intrapreneurial posture and the antecedents to exopreneurial posture. The three main variables comprising external variables, strategic variables and internal variables in the model and their interrelationship in·ter·re·late  
tr. & intr.v. in·ter·re·lat·ed, in·ter·re·lat·ing, in·ter·re·lates
To place in or come into mutual relationship.

 are discussed below.


The entrepreneurial posture reflected by Covin and Slevin (1991) are risk taking, product innovation and proactiveness with similar descriptions upheld by Miller and Friesen (1982); Jennings and Lumpkin (1989) and Guth and Ginsberg (1990). Yeoh and Jeong (1995) argued that innovativeness involves seeking creative or unusual solutions to problems and needs. This includes product innovation, development of new markets, and new processes and technologies for performing organizational functions. Risk taking refers to the willingness of management to commit significant resources to opportunities in the face of uncertainty. Proactivenes is defined as the firm's propensity to know the what their competitive rivals are doing.

However, Kao (1991) and Churchill and Muzyka (1994) believed entrepreneurial organizations are opportunity seeking with a built-in imperative to continually renew their businesses. In the opinion of the author, it is the opportunity seeking that pushes an organization to be risk-taking, innovative and proactive. Yeoh and Jeong (1995) argued that the opportunistic opportunistic /op·por·tu·nis·tic/ (op?er-tldbomacn-is´tik)
1. denoting a microorganism which does not ordinarily cause disease but becomes pathogenic under certain circumstances.

 capability of entrepreneurial organizations which is an element of proactiveness drives a firm to take advantage of the hostile environment See: operational environment. . This opportunistic outlook of entrepreneurial organizations drives them to seek innovation outside the corporations. In short, the corporate entrepreneurial posture stems from the opportunity seeking capability which is manifested in two forms which involves intrapreneurial and exopreneurial behaviors.


Intrapreneurial activities which are focused include internal corporate venturing also known as new venture division and formal research and development group. The dispersed intrapreneurial activities include an idea creation centre and an employee project model (Kanter & Richardson, 1991). Exopreneurship typifies the use of outside entrepreneurs for new venture creation such as franchisees, subcontractors, strategic alliance partners and external corporate venturing.


Numerous research explored the antecedents that trigger intrapreneurship. However, this list does not differentiate the different conditions that cause intrapreneurship or exopreneurship. This section attempts to distinguish the differences in the antecedents that trigger intrapreneurship and exopreneurship. The proposed model is to dispute the differences in the antecedents of both seemingly entrepreneurial behaviors based on the Covin and Slevin model (1991). The antecedents are categorized cat·e·go·rize  
tr.v. cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing, cat·e·go·riz·es
To put into a category or categories; classify.

 into three areas known as external environment, strategic, and internal variables.

The external variables include the external environment, the industry's life cycle and government intervention. The strategic variables include mission strategy, the firm's business practices and its competitive tactics. The antecedents that comprise the internal variables are organizational size; age; competency, structure, and management philosophies. Having argued the differences in antecedents between exopreneurship and intrapreneurship, a set of propositions are postulated pos·tu·late  
tr.v. pos·tu·lat·ed, pos·tu·lat·ing, pos·tu·lates
1. To make claim for; demand.

2. To assume or assert the truth, reality, or necessity of, especially as a basis of an argument.

 for the creation of a model for both entrepreneurial behaviors. The antecedents to exopreneurship and intrapreneurship are shown in Table 1.


The dimensions of external variables incorporate external environment, the industry's life cycle and the type of government intervention. These dimensions include environmental technology sophistication so·phis·ti·cate  
v. so·phis·ti·cat·ed, so·phis·ti·cat·ing, so·phis·ti·cates
1. To cause to become less natural, especially to make less naive and more worldly.

, the state of the industry life cycle and the type of government intervention.

External Environment

Cowan (1983) stressed that corporations must understand the external environment through market research to find the "nugget Nugget

A 15 year Gold FHLMC (Freddie Mac) bond; similar to a Dwarf.
" in the environment. Understanding the environment will result in entrepreneurial ideas. Indeed, environmental characteristics elicit e·lic·it  
tr.v. e·lic·it·ed, e·lic·it·ing, e·lic·its
a. To bring or draw out (something latent); educe.

b. To arrive at (a truth, for example) by logic.

 entrepreneurial behaviour on the part of organizations. High tech industries are composed of disproportionate dis·pro·por·tion·ate  
Out of proportion, as in size, shape, or amount.

 numbers of entrepreneurial firms (Maidique & Hayes, 1984). Firms operating in uncertain environment show higher levels of innovation (Karagoszoglu & Brown, 1988; Walters & Samiee, 1990). A dynamic environment challenges organizations to take risks, be innovative and exhibit proactive behaviors (Johnston & Czinkota, 1985; Reid, 1987; Miller, Droge & Toulouse, 1988).

Hostile and Benign Environment and Industry Life cycle

The dynamism of the environment includes escalating cost of technology, globalization globalization

Process by which the experience of everyday life, marked by the diffusion of commodities and ideas, is becoming standardized around the world. Factors that have contributed to globalization include increasingly sophisticated communications and transportation
, information revolution, product life contraction, greenism which have shifted the organization into an entrepreneurial paradigm of seizing opportunities from the enveloped en·vel·op  
tr.v. en·vel·oped, en·vel·op·ing, en·vel·ops
1. To enclose or encase completely with or as if with a covering: "Accompanying the darkness, a stillness envelops the city" 
 surrounding. The level of hostility, heterogeneity het·er·o·ge·ne·i·ty
The quality or state of being heterogeneous.


the state of being heterogeneous.
 and dynamism (Miller & Friesen, 1982, 1983; Miller, 1983), turbulence turbulence, state of violent or agitated behavior in a fluid. Turbulent behavior is characteristic of systems of large numbers of particles, and its unpredictability and randomness has long thwarted attempts to fully understand it, even with such powerful tools as  (Davis, Morris & Allen, 1991) or volatility (McKee, Varadarajan & Pride, 1989) influence the external environment. The scale on the external environment ranges from hostile to benign (Covin & Slevin, 1989; Covin, 1990). Precarious industry setting, intense and fierce competition, harsh and overwhelming business climate and the relative lack of exploitable opportunities represent hostile environments. Benign environments provide a safe setting for business operations Business operations are those activities involved in the running of a business for the purpose of producing value for the stakeholders. Compare business processes. The outcome of business operations is the harvesting of value from assets  due to the richness in investments and marketing opportunities.

Several studies indicate that the relationship between entrepreneurial posture and firm performance is moderated by environmental conditions. Firms operating in a hostile environment are entrepreneurially inclined and promote a higher level of firm performance (Covin & Slevin, 1989, 1994; Dean et. al, 1993; Jansen & VanWee, 1994; Stopford & Fuller, 1994; Zahra, 1991, 1993; Zahra & Covin, 1995). Empirical studies Empirical studies in social sciences are when the research ends are based on evidence and not just theory. This is done to comply with the scientific method that asserts the objective discovery of knowledge based on verifiable facts of evidence.  by Dean et. al (1993) and Zahra and Covin (1995) revealed that firms operating in a hostile environment yielded higher performance levels. However, there is no empirical evidence as to the level of hostility to internal or external mechanisms of corporate entrepreneurship.

Baden- Fuller and Volberda (1997) discovered that strategic renewals depend on the technology of the organizations. They suggested that firms operating in a benign competitive environment adopt to technology variations through internal corporate venturing. This mechanism supports the firm in diffusing dif·fuse  
v. dif·fused, dif·fus·ing, dif·fus·es
1. To pour out and cause to spread freely.

2. To spread about or scatter; disseminate.

 knowledge and technology throughout the firm which reorders the organizations' core competencies, thus increasing the survival rate (Fast, 1979; Block, 1982; Block & MacMillan, 1993). Organizations faced with a resource rich environment undertake core competence Core competence

Primary area of expertise. Narrowly defined fields or tasks at which a company or business excels. Primary areas of specialty.
 renewal projects at lower risks by organizing change in specialized parts of the firm such as new business developments. This implies that intrapreneurship prevails in organizations operating in benign environments. Fuller-Baden and Volberda (1997) viewed that both corporate venturing and specialized innovations are slow to promote strategic renewal and are at the expense of speed. For instance, the intrapreneurship project in DuPont took up to 15 years to commercialize certain products. 3M searches for innovative approaches to reduce the time frame of commercializing products in its intrapreneurship projects (Strategic Direction, 1996). This suggests that internally generated innovations are sluggish to react in environments with high levels of hostility where speed is required as a competitive edge over a firms' rivals. Therefore, intrapreneurship is not an appropriate mechanism to corporate entrepreneurship under this hostile environment.

Firms functioning within high levels of competition and emerging industries faced with instability and uncertainty require speed as a weapon to surpass their rivals. Firms operating in intense competition, market saturation In economics, "market saturation" is a term used to describe a situation in which a product has become diffused (distributed) within a market; the actual level of saturation can depend on consumer purchasing power; as well as competition, prices, and technology.  and new emerging industries tend to use franchising, strategic alliance, external corporate venturing and subcontracting to enhance their competitive position. Studies on franchising (Anonymous, 1982, 1984, 1995; Sanghavi, 1991; Sadi, 1994; Kedia, Ackerman & Bush, 1994) used this strategic means to enhance competitive position. Similarly subcontracting (Florida & Kenny, 1990; Goe, 1991; Scott, 1991) becomes a popular strategy under hostile conditions to improve efficiency and the quality of the product in the shorter time spent as a tool to a competitive edge. Strategic alliance in the form of equity and non equity partnerships (Vyas, Shelburn & Roger, 1995; Glaister & Buckley, 1996) and external corporate venturing (Roberts, 1991; Hurry, Miller & Bowman, 1992; Thayer, 1993; Gersick, 1994; McNally, 1995; Rotman, 1996) are popular means of product or service innovation for firms of converging technology in new emerging industries. Under these conditions, exopreneurship becomes a prevalent mechanism to corporate entrepreneurship to outwit out·wit  
tr.v. out·wit·ted, out·wit·ting, out·wits
1. To surpass in cleverness or cunning; outsmart.

2. Archaic To surpass in intelligence.
 the competitive rivals in terms of speed to deliver products or services to the target market.

From the preceding arguments, it can be concluded that the organizations operating in benign environments with rich resources with ample opportunities of investments have the propensity to use intrapreneurship because speed does not play a crucial role in the competitive advantage. On the other hand, organizations performing in hostile environments require speed to compete with their rivals; thus, they choose a faster route to innovation by acquiring it externally. Organizations with knowledge about their competition (Chaharbaghi & Nugent, 1996) and the level of hostility can create and exploit opportunities either through intrapreneurship or exopreneurship. The author speculates the following propositions:
Proposition 1: Intrapreneurship is prevalent in benign environments
while exopreneurship is prevalent in hostile environments.

Proposition 2: Intrapreneurship is prevalent in growth and mature
industries while exopreneurship is prevalent in the early stage of an

Government Policy

Studies revealed that governmental, fiscal and regulatory environments have an impact on entrepreneurial activity (Kilby, 1971; Kent, 1984). The regulatory environment depends on the macroeconomic mac·ro·ec·o·nom·ics  
n. (used with a sing. verb)
The study of the overall aspects and workings of a national economy, such as income, output, and the interrelationship among diverse economic sectors.
 objective of government which has indirectly favoured exopreneurial activities. In developed countries, there is a growing application of government regulation to all facets of business activities which increase the demand for service functions such as accounting, legal services legal services n. the work performed by a lawyer for a client.  and insurance (Stanback, 1979; Daniels, 1985; Orchel & Wegner, 1987). These requirements caused organizations to externalize externalize

see exteriorize.
 these functions. The developing countries and former Soviet block insist foreign investment must contain a local market partner (Beamish, 1988; Ghazali, 1994). For instance, the Malaysian government induced the business environment into an exopreneurial one. The various new form of foreign investment include joint ventures (equity strategic alliance), technology, know-how and management agreements and licensing and patent agreement (non-equity strategic alliance), franchising and subcontracting. The regulatory policy in Malaysia forces multinationals to exopreneurialize (externalize). In doing so, the locals have opportunities to gain access to modern technology and export markets. The author speculates that government policy plays a vital role in exopreneurial activities.
Proposition 3: Exopreneurship is prevalent in government policy that
encourages agency theory while intrapreneurship is prevalent in
corporate innovation policy.


The strategic variables in the Covin-Slevin model include mission strategy and the firm's business practices and competitive tactics.

Mission Strategy

The development of mission strategy has evolved with the progress of strategic management. The Covin-Slevin model is based upon the strategies of build, hold, harvest and divest To deprive or take away.

Divest is usually used in reference to the relinquishment of authority, power, property, or title. If, for example, an individual is disinherited, he or she is divested of the right to inherit money.
. Scholarly research such as Gupta and Govindarajan (1982), Burgelman (1985); Hubbard (1986); Morris and Trotter (1990), Zahra (1991, 1993); Dean (1993) has affirmed af·firm  
v. af·firmed, af·firm·ing, af·firms
1. To declare positively or firmly; maintain to be true.

2. To support or uphold the validity of; confirm.

 the Covin-Slevin model in that entrepreneurial postures are manifested in the build and hold strategies for growth; however, they did not specify which kind of entrepreneurial posture.

To delineate the types of mission strategy as antecedents to exopreneurial and intrapreneurial activities, four strategies are classified. Integration strategies allow firms to gain control over distributors, suppliers and competitors. Intensive strategies require intensive efforts to improve a firm's competitive position with existing new products and diversification strategies to diversify a portfolio of products. Finally, defensive strategies include joint venture, retrenchments, divestiture The breakup of AT&T. By federal court order, AT&T divested itself on January 1, 1984 of its 23 operating companies, which became known as the Regional Bell Operating Companies (RBOCs).  or liquidation The collection of assets belonging to a debtor to be applied to the discharge of his or her outstanding debts.

A type of proceeding pursuant to federal Bankruptcy

Integration strategies include forward integration, backward integration Backward Integration

A form of vertical integration that involves the purchase of suppliers in order to reduce dependency.

A good example would be if a bakery business bought a wheat farm in order to reduce the risk associated with the dependency on flour.
 and horizontal integration Horizontal Integration

When a company expands its business into different products that are similar to current lines.

For example, a hot dog vendor expanding into selling hamburgers. Compare this to vertical integration.
See also: Vertical Integration
. Forward integration involves gaining ownership or increased control over distributors or retailers. An effective means of implementing forward integration for growth is franchising (Caves & Murphy, 1976; Brickley & Dark, 1987; Martin, 1988; Carney car·ney  
n. Informal
Variant of carny.
 & Gedajlovic, 1991; Hoffman & Preble, 1991; Sanghavi, 1991; Huszagh, Huszagh & McIntyre, 1992) because businesses can expand rapidly as costs and opportunities are spread among many external participants.

Backward integration is a strategy for seeking ownership or increased control of a firm's suppliers. Horizontal integration is seeking to gain control over the firm's competitors. Vertical integration consisting of forward, backward, and horizontal integration is reducing the competition. The cooperation with suppliers, customers and competitors in the form of subcontracting, outsourcing and strategic alliances is gaining popularity in order to improve the competitive position of the organization (Carney & Gedajlovic, 1991; Goe, 1991; Scott, 1991; Fearne, 1994; Harrison, 1994; Mattysesens & Van den Bulte, 1994; Brown & Butler, 1995; Varamaki, 1996; Stearns, 1996).

Defensive strategies in the form of joint ventures are part of the strategic alliance in terms of equity sharing. Studies on mission strategy connected to joint ventures have been numerous (Harrigan & Newman, 1990; Butler & Sohod, 1995; Das & Bing, 1996; Glaister & Buckley, 1996; Stearns, 1996). The nature of this strategy requires external partnerships to achieve the corporate objectives of growth.

Integration strategies and defensive strategies in the form of joint ventures have the propensity to use external agencies to achieve its mission strategy. The preceding dialectic dialectic (dīəlĕk`tĭk) [Gr.,= art of conversation], in philosophy, term originally applied to the method of philosophizing by means of question and answer employed by certain ancient philosophers, notably Socrates.  suggests that the higher propensity of a firm's mission strategy to integration and joint venture, the more exopreneurial the firm's strategic posture is to facilitate the achievement of growth goals. This expectation is supported by Carney and Gejadlovic's studies (1991) in franchising; Goe (1991) and Scott's (1991) in subcontracting; Fearne's (1994) in strategic alliance and Brown and Butler's (1995) in competitive strategic alliance.

Intrapreneurial behavior is expected in firms that use strategies related to the internal strength of organizations. Intensive and diversification strategies require a high input of resources to improve the firm's existing competitive position. Market penetration Noun 1. market penetration - the extent to which a product is recognized and bought by customers in a particular market
penetration - the act of entering into or through something; "the penetration of upper management by women"
 demands higher levels of marketing activities to increase market share especially in intrapreneurially-behaved organizations (Nielsen, Peters & Hisrich, 1985; Dougherty, 1990, 1992, 1995; Foxall & Minkes, 1996).

The existence of internal corporate venturing and new venture division within large corporations aim to diversify the existing product portfolios (Burgelman, 1983a, 1983b; Gee, 1994; Holt holt  
n. Archaic
A wood or grove; a copse.

[Middle English, from Old English.]


the lair of an otter [from
, 1995). According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

 Gee (1994) most related diversifications cost less and are more efficient because necessary resources are available within the corporation and are easily understood by top management (Mandell, 1971; Fast, 1978; Sykes, 1986). For instance, according to Holt (1995) horizontal diversification does not disrupt other operations by setting up a divisionalized structure. In short, the intrapreneurial and exopreneurial activities may be contingent upon Adj. 1. contingent upon - determined by conditions or circumstances that follow; "arms sales contingent on the approval of congress"
contingent on, dependant on, dependant upon, dependent on, dependent upon, depending on, contingent
 the mission strategy exercised by organizations. The following proposition postulates how corporate entrepreneurial activities may respond to the types of mission strategy variables.
Proposition 4: Intrapreneurship is prevalent in organizations
exercising an intensive diversification strategy while exopreneurship
is prevalent in organizations exercising integration and defensive

Business Practices and Competitive Tactics

The primary element of business strategy is always to make the organization entrepreneurially and competitively effective in the market place (Thompson & Strickland, 1987). The business strategy is the managerial action plan for directing and running a particular business unit. It is defined in terms of a collection of business practices and competitive tactics. These decisions include reduction of risk, reduction of transaction cost and increasing the speed of sales to market. These expected strategies keep the organizations abreast with innovations.

Profiles of business practices and competitive tactics associated with entrepreneurial posture have been cited in Miller and Camp (1985), MacMillan and Day (1987) and Robinson and Pearce (1988). Organizations that are market (Nielsen, Peters & Hisrich, 1985; Jennings & Lumpkin, 1989; Cram (1) (Chalcogenide RAM) See phase change memory.

(2) (Card Random Access Memory) An early magnetic card mass storage device from NCR that was made available on its 315 computer systems in 1962.
, 1996) and technologically (Zahra, 1993; Zahra & Ellor, 1993; Zahra, Nash & Bickford, 1995; Zahra, 1996) driven have shown an entrepreneurial posture by producing high quality products. These studies confirmed Covin and Slevin's (1991) propositions.

Competitive strategy such as risk reduction, increase in the speed of sales and reduced transaction costs are domains leading to exopreneurial activities in franchising, subcontracting, strategic alliance and external corporate venture capital.

The most common antecedent factor which leads organizations to externalization The ability to easily connect to and transfer information between business partners. Increasingly, information systems are designed to make their data available to outside partners and customers. This type of collaboration is expected to be a vital part of IT in the 21st century. See EDI.  is cost minimization. Organizations often franchise their businesses to reduce the cost of capital. Studies by Martin (1988) Carney and Gedajlovic (1991),Thompson (1994) Birkland (1995), Michael (1996), Elango and Fried (1997) confirm this. Birkland (1995) found that organizations capitalize on Cap´i`tal`ize on`   

v. t. 1. To turn (an opportunity) to one's advantage; to take advantage of (a situation); to profit from; as, to capitalize on an opponent's mistakes s>.
 the ideology of entrepreneurship (agency) while Michael (1996) stressed that franchising is a form of minimization in conditions of low levels of human capital and business.

Generally, subcontracting lowers production costs and increases producers' profit (Kamien & Li, 1990; Rao & Young, 1994; Shenas & Derakshan, 1994; Downey, 1995; New & Payne, 1995). Large established organizations move into externalization to focus on reduction of production costs and to increase their core competencies to get closer to their customer (Belotti, 1995). Subcontracting becomes a popular strategy to reduce administrative burden and escape from the restriction of industrial disputes (Friedman, 1977). Sharing costs with partners is the prime motivator of strategic alliances in the form of joint ventures (Bijlani, 1994; Glaister & Buckley, 1994; Cauley, 1995). On the other hand, the external corporate venturing by large organizations does not depend on this factor.

Another latent Hidden; concealed; that which does not appear upon the face of an item.

For example, a latent defect in the title to a parcel of real property is one that is not discoverable by an inspection of the title made with ordinary care.
 factor that drives large organizations to obtain outside innovation is risk reduction. Capital and business risks are transferred to the exopreneurs and, therefore, the large organization and the exopreneurs share lower risks. Numerous studies (Shelton, 1967; Walsh, 1983; Castrogiovanni, Justis & Julian, 1993) on franchising revealed higher rate of success than independent business start ups. Franchising provides large corporation the nimbleness to react because of its stability and low failure rate. It has the ability to achieve an individual's desire to become an entrepreneur (Mathewson & Winter, 1985; Brickley & Dark, 1987). Thus, franchising reduces risk (Combs & Castrogiovanni, 1994) as the capital cost is spread among the franchisor and franchisees. For instance, the Quizno Franchise encouraged its general manager to invest in its franchise after working four to six years tapping the entrepreneurial spirit of middle managers (Ruggles, 1995).

Similarly subcontracting is a popular form of exopreneurial activity of transferring risk to exopreneurs. Studies of the Japanese industrial systems (Sako, 1991; Smitka, 1992; Easton & Aroujo, 1994) provide examples of secondary investments in technological capabilities of Japanese subcontractors. The kereitsu system lowers the risk of business integrated systems. Rao and Young's (1994) research affirmed that risk transference and high quality products are part of the driving force to subcontract sub·con·tract  
A contract that assigns some of the obligations of a prior contract to another party.

intr. & tr.v. sub·con·tract·ed, sub·con·tract·ing, sub·con·tracts
 physical distribution in a risk reduction exercise. Campbell (1995) noted that large organizations reduce risk by subcontracting their specialized projects or risky maintenance projects not within the capability of the organization. At the same time, liability can be avoided through subcontracts (Downey, 1995; Baker, 1995).

Strategic alliance in the form of equity or non-equity collaboration aims to reduce risk and to leverage uncertainties and reduction of escalated costs (Carnavale, 1996). A study by Glaister and Buckley (1996) showed that strategic alliance is an attractive mechanism for hedging risk because neither partner bears the full risk or the cost of the alliance (Mariti & Smiley See emoticon.

smiley - emoticon
, 1983; Porter & Fuller, 1986; Contractor & Lorange, 1988). Risk reduction includes spreading the risk of a large project over more than one firm; enabling product diversification reducing market risk; enabling quicker sales to market and lower investment costs Those program costs required beyond the development phase to introduce into operational use a new capability; to procure initial, additional, or replacement equipment for operational forces; or to provide for major modifications of an existing capability. .

The common antecedent that leads organizations to exopreneurial activity is to expedite ex·pe·dite  
tr.v. ex·pe·dit·ed, ex·pe·dit·ing, ex·pe·dites
1. To speed up the progress of; accelerate.

 the sales to market. Franchising is one of the fastest mechanisms for global expansion (Hoffman & Preble, 1991) characterized by intense competition and rapidly changing customer taste. Subcontracting is a popular alternative to hasten has·ten  
v. has·tened, has·ten·ing, has·tens

To move or act swiftly.
1. To cause to hurry.

 products or services to market (Blois, 1994; Baker, 1995; New & Payne, 1995). Similarly strategic alliances decrease time to market and access to international markets at a greater pace of time (Takac & Singh, 1992; Cauley, 1995; Glaister & Buckley, 1996; Carnavale, 1996) while external corporate ventures speed up the sales through the expertise of technology of the exopreneur (Shrader & Simon, 1997).

In short, the types of competitive business tactics have a contingent influence over the type of corporate entrepreneurial activities. Propositions 5 and 6 are speculated as follows:
Proposition 5: Organizations which pursue externalization
(exopreneurship) reduce risk through transfer of risk to partners,
an increase in speed of sales, and work on economies of scale.

Proposition 6: Organizations which pursue internalization
(intrapreneurship) reduce risk by diversification of related products/
customers, an increase in the speed of technology/product into market
through teamwork, and reduce costs by increasing productivity through
internal creativity.


Following the Covin-Slevin (1991) entrepreneurial model, only three out of four internal variables are included as antecedents to entrepreneurial behavior. They are top management values and philosophies, organizational resources and competencies, and organizational structure. Corporate culture is excluded because it is seen as similar to top management values.

Organizational Resources and Competence

Organizational resources and competencies variables are defined in the broadest sense which include resources, capabilities and culture (Collis, 1991; Leonard-Barton, 1992). The organizational resources refer to the specific knowledge and the specialized assets (Lippman & Rumelt, 1982; Wernerfelt, 1984; Barney, 1991; Grant, 1991; Tvorik & McGivern, 1996). Resources range from patents, brand names to knowledge of particular processes. Capabilities relate to the ability of making use of resources (Bartlett & Ghoshal, 1990; Amit & Schoemaker, 1993; Whitney, 1996). Dougherty (1995) argued that culture is the cognitive decision which connects resources and capabilities.

Entrepreneurially inclined organizations are resource-consuming in nature (Romanelli, 1987). Intrapreneurial activities such as internal corporate venturing and specialized innovation to a certain extent depend on the resource capacity of organizations (Covin & Slevin, 1991; Baden-Fuller & Volberda, 1997). A majority of organizations involved in intrapreneurial activities are large and established which reflect their high level of resources and competencies. Though organizations with abundant resources and competencies engaged in entrepreneurial activities, this does not prevent lower resources and competent firms from being innovative. The latter externalizes via restructuring to improve its resources and competencies thus strengthening its competitive position.

In delineating the antecedents of the exopreneurial and intrapreneurial behavior of the firm, the operational definitions included in the organizational resources and competencies are organizational size, organizational age, technology driven, market driven and the level of corporate governance Corporate Governance

The relationship between all the stakeholders in a company. This includes the shareholders, directors, and management of a company, as defined by the corporate charter, bylaws, formal policy, and rule of law.

Organizational Size

Organizational size is a liability to innovation (Aldrich & Auster, 1986; Jones & Butler, 1992). Growing in size in terms of employees, expansion of buildings and equity would cause organizations to be less flexible to respond to opportunities (Abernathy, Clark, & Kantrow, 1983; Ettlie, 1983; Dougherty, 1990). This scenario was seen in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area.  during the early 1980s where there were huge numbers of innovative employees who left large organizations to start their ventures (Hisrich & Peters, 1995). The operational definitions of organizational size are numbers of employee, sales turnover, and equity.

Evidently research (Romanelli, 1987; Laforge & Miller, 1987; Zahra, 1993) revealed that entrepreneurial strategies are influenced by company size. Therefore, an organizational aptness for corporate entrepreneurial posture is to some extent limited by its resource base. Bloodgood, Sapienza and Almeida (1995) found that organizations with more employees tend to innovate in·no·vate  
v. in·no·vat·ed, in·no·vat·ing, in·no·vates
To begin or introduce (something new) for or as if for the first time.

To begin or introduce something new.
 through internationalization The support for monetary values, time and date for countries around the world. It also embraces the use of native characters and symbols in the different alphabets. See localization, i18n, Unicode and IDN.

internationalization - internationalisation
 than smaller firms. Harrison (1994) and Gertz (1997) viewed that no company is too big to grow as a correlation between company size and its growth is weak. This implies that organizations which are rich in size are abundant in resources, thus have the propensity to use intrapreneurship to produce new creations.

Conversely con·verse 1  
intr.v. con·versed, con·vers·ing, con·vers·es
1. To engage in a spoken exchange of thoughts, ideas, or feelings; talk. See Synonyms at speak.

, smaller organizations which are low in resources tend to externalize for appropriate alliances in search of opportunities. This is one of the driving forces to exopreneurship. Empirical studies revealed firms franchise their businesses as a result of resource scarcity Scarcity

The basic economic problem which arises from people having unlimited wants while there are and always will be limited resources. Because of scarcity, various economic decisions must be made to allocate resources efficiently.
 (Oxenfelt & Kelly, 1968,1969; Hunt, 1973; Carney & Gedajlovic, 1991). The notion of resource constraints is evidenced by studies completed by Thompson (1992) whereby company ownership is less likely to occur when units require high capital investment. Charging high royalties by franchisors at an early stage of business also shows the low resources (Sen, 1993). Other motives that drive organizations to seek exopreneurs related to resource constraints are transfer of complementary technology and access to specialized knowledge which firms do not possess (Contractor & Lorange, 1988, Coffey & Bailey, 1990). This exopreneuring is due to the organization's lack of financial resources necessary to produce innovations internally at the time they are needed or at the level of efficiency or quality which is required.

The level of research and development and market specialization A career option pursued by some attorneys that entails the acquisition of detailed knowledge of, and proficiency in, a particular area of law.

As the law in the United States becomes increasingly complex and covers a greater number of subjects, more and more attorneys are
 moderated the influence of the entrepreneurial posture (Covin & Slevin, 1991). The extent of these variables also depends on the financial status of organizations. Studies by Shrader and Simon (1997) confirmed that the success of intrapreneurship depends on internal capital resources, proprietary knowledge and marketing knowledge compared to independent ventures which require external capital resources. Undoubtedly, large entrepreneurial organizations exhibited higher levels of R & D and marketing expenditure on internal corporate ventures (Zahra, 1996) because of their posture of innovations, risk taking and proactiveness. However, this does not imply that the low levels of R &D and market specialization are less entrepreneurial. Smaller resource organizations have a lower capacity for research expenditure; therefore, they adopt externalization as an outlook for product development.

Organizational Age

The life cycle of the organization is another yardstick by which to measure corporate entrepreneurial activities. Large sized aging organizations become less innovative at the later stages of their evolution (Chandler, 1962, 1977; Mintzberg & Waters, 1982; Adizes, 1988). Mature businesses show signs of aging (Goold, 1996) with slow growth, more stable technologies, resource self sufficiency and tend not to anticipate changes (Kanter, 1983). Zahra (1993) defined established companies as being a minimum of eight years old. The resource of self sufficiency becomes an added advantage to large corporations to introduce intrapreneurial activities to achieve variations of technologies upon the existing ones. There has been numerous intrapreneurial studies (Burgelman, 1984; Harrel & Murray, 1986; Schaffhouser, 1986; Grove, 1987; Kiley, 1987; Rutigliano, 1987; Kapp, 1988; Pla, 1989; Shatzer & Schwartz, 1991; Denton, 1993; Weaver & Henderson, 1995; Birkinshaw, 1995, 1997) on large, mature and established organizations.

On the other hand, young independent organizations that are resource deficient de·fi·cient
1. Lacking an essential quality or element.

2. Inadequate in amount or degree; insufficient.


a state of being in deficit.
 synergize their internal competencies to complement external sources for growth strategies. This combination leads to exopreneurship among young entrepreneurial organizations with large organizations with scarce technology (Contractor & Lorange, 1988). Empirical research Noun 1. empirical research - an empirical search for knowledge
inquiry, research, enquiry - a search for knowledge; "their pottery deserves more research than it has received"
 (Ettington & Bentel, 1994) found that organizations less than ten years old are involved in strategic alliances. However, mature industries (Davis, 1976; Harrigan, 1983; Killing, 1983; Morone, 1993) are moving into joint venture activities to reduce the opportunities of merger or acquisitions because of fear of losing talented employees as a result of acquisition.

The Availability of the Corporate Entrepreneurs

Brazeal's findings (1993b; 1996) show that organizations may have potential intrapreneurs even if they do not display any overt Public; open; manifest.

The term overt is used in Criminal Law in reference to conduct that moves more directly toward the commission of an offense than do acts of planning and preparation that may ultimately lead to such conduct.

OVERT. Open.
 intentions to start a corporate venture. Large established organizations have the managerial, technical specialization and financial economies of scale to nurture NURTURE. The act of taking care of children and educating them: the right to the nurture of children generally belongs to the father till the child shall arrive at the age of fourteen years, and not longer. Till then, he is guardian by nurture. Co. Litt. 38 b.  the employees' entrepreneurial talents into commercialized products. An example of dispersed intrapreneurship is "Enterprize programme at Ohio Bells (Kanter, 1991). Other methods of acquiring new innovations internally are through research and development (administrative entrepreneurship) and the set up of new venture development units (incubative in·cu·bate  
v. in·cu·bat·ed, in·cu·bat·ing, in·cu·bates
1. To sit on (eggs) to provide heat, so as to promote embryonic development and the hatching of young; brood.

 entrepreneurship). Both methods are known as focused corporate entrepreneurship.

Organizations involved in exopreneurship lack talented or specialized personnel to build their competencies. It is evident that the franchise system capitalizes on the agency theory of using external entrepreneurs as agents for expanding businesses (Combs & Castrogiovanni, 1994). Studies found that strategic alliances (Bijlani, 1994; Ingham & Thompson, 1994; Vyas et. al, 1995), external corporate venture and subcontracting (Goe, 1991) are means to increase skills without having to develop competencies in house. The complementary role synergized through the combination of subcontracting, strategic alliance and external corporate venture between two or more organizations suggest that exopreneurship is a mechanism to seek talented expertise for new innovations.

One point worth noting is that exopreneurs can only be identified by innovative and established intrapreneurs before moving into exopreneurship. The availability of corporate entrepreneurs is also determined by the level of education. White (1995) found that intrapreneurs have higher levels of education compared to independent entrepreneurs. Studies by Burenitz and Barney (1997) found that independent entrepreneurs who could be exopreneurs are bad managers because the latter has a higher level of overconfidence o·ver·con·fi·dent  
Excessively confident; presumptuous.


Having argued in the preceding paragraph the extent to which organizational size, age and human resources The fancy word for "people." The human resources department within an organization, years ago known as the "personnel department," manages the administrative aspects of the employees.  may have contingent influence over the entrepreneurial activities of an organization, the following proposition summarizes the argument presented earlier.
Preposition 7: Exopreneurship is prevalent in organizations which are
young, small and lack human and financial resources while
intrapreneurship is prevalent in large, mature organizations with
sufficient resources.

Organizational Structure

Increase in growth, inadvertently, increases complexity (Butler & Jones, 1992). Complex organizational structure makes the flow of communication difficult which consequently brings death to an organization (Adizes, 1988). Studies found that organizational structure and form have an impact on strategy through its impact on the strategic decision making process on the growth and survival of firms (Frederickson, 1986; Priem, 1994; Rowlinson, 1995; Shane, 1996). It was shown that structure and form have domain over corporate entrepreneurship (Russell & Russell, 1992; Gielser, 1993; Mueller, 1994; Jennings & Seaman SEAMAN. A sailor; a mariner; one whose business is navigation. 2 Boulay Paty, Dr. Com. 232; Code de Commerce art. 262; Laws of Oleron, art. 7; Laws of Wishuy, art. 19. The term seamen, in it most enlarged sense, includes the captain a well as other persons of the crew; in a more confined , 1994; Chesbrough & Teece, 1996). This implies that structure moderates the entrepreneurial postures of firm behavior.

Scholars found that entrepreneurial activities are positively related to firm performance with appropriate organizational structure. Burgelman and Sayles (1986) stressed the importance of fit between an organization's strategic orientations and its organizational structure. The organic structure encourages entrepreneurial activities (Khandwalla, 1977; Miller & Friesen, 1982; Miller, 1983) which was empirically supported by Slevin and Covin (1990). Further empirical evidence show that attributes of organicity outperform Outperform

An analyst recommendation meaning a stock is expected to do slightly better than the market return.

Exact definitions vary by brokerage, but in general this rating is better than neutral and worse than buy or strong buy.
 mechanistic mech·a·nis·tic
1. Mechanically determined.

2. Of or relating to the philosophy of mechanism, especially one that tends to explain phenomena only by reference to physical or biological causes.
 structures in terms of team participation and shared decision making (Nasi, Nasi, Banks & Ensley, 1994).

The attributes of organicity studies focused on the internally generated innovations. There may be deviation in the structure of organizations that practice exopreneurship. Baden-Fuller and Volberda (1997) speculated that organizations that externalize tend to inter-reorder their competencies across multiple industries. This involves restructuring of organizational business. Baden-Fuller and Volberda (1997) suggested that ease of restructuring is positively related to the size of organization whereby the flow of communication tends to be top down (Prahalad & Hamel Ham´el   

v. t. 1. Same as Hamble.
, 1990). Therefore, the author speculates that organizations which externalize may have a simple structure so that the strategic intent of the organization is easily related to the entrepreneurial employees as restructuring poses a higher risk to large and complex organizations.
Proposition 8: Exopreneurship is prevalent in organization with simple
centralized structures while intrapreneurship is prevalent in complex
and decentralized structures.

Proposition 9: Organizations that practice intrapreneurship have a
higher level of organicity compared to organizations that practice

Management Philosophies

Studies have shown that management philosophies moderate competitive strategy choices (Andrew, 1980). The choice of intrapreneurial or exopreneurial behavior depends on the decision of management's beliefs. The choice adopted by top management must fit with the strategic intent (Khandwalla, 1987). Top management values and philosophies that may affect this choice are identified in the following proposition:
Proposition 10: Exopreneurship is positively related to the value top
management places on externalization which brings competitive advantage
to the organization while intrapreneurship is positively related to
internalization values.


This proposed model of corporate entrepreneurship has a number of limitations. First, is there any difference between internally generated innovations and externally generated innovations?. Looking at performance, there seems to be no difference as both strategies aimed to revitalize corporate growth in diversifying the product portfolio. Ultimately both the process of acquiring innovation converges to increase organizational performance. In theory, the origin of innovation is different, which requires a specific ambient Surrounding. For example, ambient temperature and humidity are atmospheric conditions that exist at the moment. See ambient lighting.  environment to conceive conceive /con·ceive/ (kon-sev´)
1. to become pregnant.

2. take in, grasp, or form in the mind.

1. To become pregnant.

 the idea and commercialization of the innovation. Intrapreneurship and exopreneurship processes require different types of contextual influences to trigger them and need different modes to achieve the new venture creation.

Another limitation of this model is that organizations appear to use both processes simultaneously, thus making the differentiation of the two processes more tedious. Theoretically, intrapreneurship precedes exopreneurship to give organization the uniqueness of the competitive advantage which earns monopolistic market while exopreneurship works on comparative advantage with other organizations to achieve organizational performance.

This proposed model assumes that organizations are ready to use either intrapreneurship or exopreneurship to cope with the changes of any kind. This means that organizations have strategic intent to change by being innovative. However, this may be an erroneous erroneous adj. 1) in error, wrong. 2) not according to established law, particularly in a legal decision or court ruling.  assumption as there are firms that are not entrepreneurial yet still perform well. Although corporate entrepreneurship has been applicable to large firms, this model can be applied to small firms, perhaps with some different degree of contextual differences influencing intrapreneurship and exopreneurship.

Finally this model has to be empirically tested. Do the conditions for exopreneurship and intrapreneurship differ from each other? To explore this issue the data needed must cover both time series and cross sections. The data has to be pooled and regressed to recognize the differences in the conditions that trigger intrapreneurship and exopreneurship. The differences tested, hopefully would make a positive contribution to management decisions with regards to corporate entrepreneurship.


Corporate entrepreneurship has been closely linked to intrapreneurship; the creation of innovation within the organization by existing employees. Exopreneurship is a new term that extends the paradigm of corporate entrepreneurship by acquiring innovation invented beyond the boundary of the organization. The modes to achieve the process of exopreneurship are franchising, external corporate venture capital, strategic alliance and subcontracting. It is not the intent of this article to discuss whether these modes achieve the means of corporate entrepreneurship. In conclusion, the process of exopreneurship is part of corporate entrepreneurship which requires different conditions to trigger it than that of intrapreneurship.


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Jane Chang, University of Malaysia--Sabah
Table 1

A Summary of the Difference between Intrapreneurship and Exopreneurship

Area              Intrpareneurship

1. Origin         * synergised internal creativity to create new

                  * internal employees who are willing to run
                  the risk of commercialising new products

2. Activities     Sponsoring organization source innovation
                  product champion, employee program, new
                  venture team, new venture division,
                  research and department

3. Investment     Sponsoring organization gives seed money
                  (budget) to source innovation internally
                  until the new product is commercialize

4. Involvement    Involved only internal employees from idea
                  to commerciliazation of product.

                  Depending on the types of intrapreneurship

5 Control         Monitoring the success of intrapreneurial
                  program depends on the procedure of
                  organization. Easy to control because
                  inside the organization

6. Culture of     easy to implement change because within
Organization      similar organziation

7. Mission        holistic mission for the whole organization.

8. Risk           The risk is dependent on the success of

9. Cost           cost effectiveness in management because
Reduction         communication within on e organization

Area              Exopreneurship

1. Origin         * synergised outside creativity to create new

                  detected by sponsoring companies or
                  independent entrepreneurs or orgaanization
                  search for opportunities from large

2. Activities     Sponsoring organization request or map out
                  the right partner in sourcing new innovation
                  then the commercialization process depend
                  on the type of exopreneurial mechanisim.

3. Investment     The investment is dependent on the types of
                  entrepreneurial mechanism

4. Involvement    Working with outside partners

                  involvement of large organization may be
                  minimal because it becomes a separate
                  function of the large organization.

5 Control         difficult to control because involved at least
                  two different cultured organization of
                  different systems in running organization

6. Culture of     exopreneurship results in changes therefore
Organization      difficult to change the attitude of other
                  "partner". Need to form a new culture in
                  the process of the new venture creation

7. Mission        Need to input part of the "partners" vision
Strategy          into own vision

8. Risk           risk involves lose of goodwill besides
                  financial risk.

9. Cost           cost reduction in terms of sharing and using
Reduction         the comparative advantage of organizations
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Title Annotation:Manuscripts
Author:Chang, Jane
Publication:International Journal of Entrepreneurship
Geographic Code:9MALA
Date:Jan 1, 2000
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